In previous study, we detected the rare mtDNA haplogroup P in Japanese Shorthorn cattle, suggesting that haplogroup P in Japanese Shorthorn may be derived from northern Japanese native cattle. In this study, we surveyed existence of the haplogroup P in other Japanese native cattle in northern area. We developed PCR-RFLP method for detecting haplogroup P, and analyzed a total of 388 individuals (Japanese Black and Japanese Holstein) in Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate prefectures. As a result, we detected haplogroup P in two Holstein individuals in Hokkaido prefecture (2/105). These were same as previously detected haplotypes P (Japanese Shorthorn, Hanwoo, Chinese Holstein). Considering old historical documents in northern Japan and no report of haplogroup P in any modern European breeds so far, the Hokkaido Holstein would have received genetic influence from native cattle in northern Japan. Our finding suggests that native Japanese cattle in northern area would have different propagation root from northern Eurasian continent.
In Myanmar, native cattle are mainly used for draught. Currently, the available genetic information about them is limited. In this study, complete mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed for genetic diversity and differentiation of four popular local breeds – Shwe Ni, Pyar Sein, Ngwar Pyar Ni and Shan Ngwar Pu – and the crossbred population (Holstein Friesian X Myanmar native cattle) among Myanmar’s cattle. From the complete D-loop sequences, 26 polymorphic sites and 27 haplotypes were obtained. All haplotypes (MYAH01 to 27) belonged to two zebu haplogroups of I1 and I2 by the NJ tree and MJ network. A MYAH10 haplotype was major (68%) and common in all breeds and population. Fifteen haplotypes were novel. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the four local breeds and crossbred population ranged from 0.193 in Shan Ngwar Pu to 0.832 in the crossbred, and from 0.00051 in Shan Ngwar Pu to 0.00334 in crossbred, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the breeds and population was quite low in the D-loop of Myanmar cattle because the genetic variation among populations (1.4%) was not significant in AMOVA. However, Shan Ngwar Pu was significantly different from other breeds, according to the pairwise FST values. These results provided the genetic diversity and relationship in the popular local breeds and crossbred population of the Myanmar cattle.
This study investigated the mechanism of melanin pigmentation in muscle and internal organs of adult Silky fowl and
Rhode Island Red × White Plymouth Rock F1 broiler chickens, and the expression of three genes related to melanin pigment
synthesis was examined. RT-PCR of tyrosinase (TYR) and two enzymes called tyrosinase-related proteins, dihydroxy
indolcarboxylic acid oxidase (tyrosinase related protein 1; TYRP1) and DOPAchrome tautomerase (tyrosinase related protein
2; TYRP2) was performed for colon, cerebrum, middle kidney, heart, and shallow pectoral muscle tissues. Silky fowl expresses
TYR, TYRP1, and TYRP2 in most organs, which suggests that melanin pigment was synthesized in most organs in Silky fowl.
TYR was expressed in the cerebrum and heart even in the broilers without deposition of melanin pigment. TYRP1 and TYRP2
were also expressed in some organs in broilers. Therefore, these genes may play a role other than melanin pigment synthesis in