Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by remyelination failure and axonal dysfunction. Remyelination by oligodendrocytes is critical for improvement of neurological deficits associated with demyelination. Rodent models of demyelination are frequently used to develop and evaluate therapies for MS. However, a suitable mouse model for assessing remyelination-associated recovery of motor functions is currently unavailable. In this review, we describe the development of the mouse model of internal capsule (IC) demyelination by focal injection of lysolecithin into brain and its application in the evaluation of drugs for demyelinating diseases. This mouse model exhibits motor deficits and subsequent functional recovery accompanying IC remyelination. Notably, this model shows enhancement of functional recovery as well as tissue regeneration when treated with clemastine, a drug that promotes remyelination. The IC demyelination mouse model should contribute to the development of novel drugs that promote remyelination and ameliorate neurological deficits in demyelinating diseases.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid, which contains a high concentration of glucose, is involved in peritoneal damage after long-term use. The mechanisms through which glucose induces damage to the mesothelium have not been clearly elucidated. Although, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is associated with several diseases, the involvement of ER stress in peritoneal damage has not yet been demonstrated. Primary-cultured rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs) and rat PD model were used to investigate the influence of glucose on the peritoneum. Cells treated with glucose were examined for cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and activation of the ER stress pathway. Glucose treatment of RPMCs induced cell death at concentrations higher than 3%. Annexin V positive, that is a feature of apoptosis, occurred in dead cells. Treatment with glucose led to the activation of protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α). Glucose also induced the expression and nuclear translocation of homologous protein C/EBP. Cell death was rescued by the integrated stress response inhibitor, ISRIB, which suppresses the integrated stress response pathway, including ER stress. Glucose in PD fluid induces PERK/eIF-2α-mediated ER stress in RPMCs, resulting in apoptosis. This cellular stress may cause peritoneal damage in patients receiving PD.
The effects of mechanical unloading after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on bone and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are unclear. We investigated weight bearing effects on bone and MAT after ACL reconstruction. Rats underwent unilateral knee ACL transection and reconstruction, followed by hindlimb unloading (non-weight bearing), no intervention (low-weight bearing, the hindlimb standing time ratio (STR; operated/contralateral) during treadmill locomotion ranging from 0.55 to 0.91), or sustained morphine administration (moderate-weight bearing, STR ranging from 0.80 to 0.95). Untreated rats were used as controls. At 7 or 14 days after surgery, changes in trabecular bone and MAT in the proximal tibial were assessed histologically. Histological assessments at 7 or 14 days after surgery showed that ACL reconstruction without post-operative intervention did not significantly change trabecular bone and MAT areas. Hindlimb unloading after ACL reconstruction induced MAT accumulation with adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy within 14 days, but did not significantly affect trabecular bone area. Increased weight bearing through morphine administration did not affect trabecular bone and MAT parameters. Our results suggest that early weight bearing after ACL reconstruction is important in reducing MAT accumulation, and that reduction in weight bearing alone is not sufficient to induce bone loss early after ACL reconstruction.
Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) water channel, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1) are membrane proteins on salivary gland acinar cells that function in watery saliva secretion. We examined their expression changes in rat parotid glands under reduced mastication. Rats were either fed regular chow as a control group, fasted for 48 hr or fed a liquid diet for 48 hr or 1 week to reduce mastication. The parotid glands were then resected to analyze the protein and mRNA levels by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). AQP5 protein was significantly decreased in both liquid diet groups and the fasting group but its mRNA levels showed no apparent changes compared with the control group. The protein and mRNA levels of TMEM16A and NKCC1 showed no significant changes between any of the groups other than an increase in NKCC1 mRNA in the 1-week liquid diet group. These results suggest that reduced mastication may increase the AQP5 protein degradation, but not that of other membrane proteins necessary for saliva secretion.
The mouse hypoglossal nerve originates in the occipital motor nuclei at embryonic day (E)10.5 and projects a long distance, reaching the vicinity of the tongue primordia, the lateral lingual swellings, at E11.5. However, the details of how the hypoglossal nerve correctly projects to the primordia are poorly understood. To investigate the molecular basis of hypoglossal nerve elongation, we used a novel transcriptomic approach using the ROKU method. The ROKU algorithm identified 3825 genes specific for lateral lingual swellings at E11.5, of which 34 genes were predicted to be involved in axon guidance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis-assisted enrichment revealed activation of the semaphorin signaling pathway during tongue development, and quantitative PCR showed that the expressions of Sema3d and Nrp1 in this pathway peaked at E11.5. Immunohistochemistry detected NRP1 in the hypoglossal nerve and SEMA3D as tiny granules in the extracellular space beneath the epithelium of the tongue primordia and in lateral and anterior regions of the mandibular arch. Fewer SEMA3D granules were localized around hypoglossal nerve axons and in the space where they elongated. In developing tongue primordia, tissue-specific regulation of SEMA3D might control the route of hypoglossal nerve projection via its repulsive effect on NRP1.