Store fronts of the shop not only are the face of the shop, but it also composes commercial avenues and even a city image. In order to figure out the relationship between impression of the exterior and the exterior components, impressive evaluation was done, and quantitative factors were extracted from the evaluation stimulus. Experiment 1 was using photographs of various store fronts of a single shop and experiment 2 was using the photographs of commercial avenues. The evaluation stimulus was chosen by considering the influential factors listed in the previous researches. 30 stores each for the noon and night experiments were chosen (25 shops were in common, in total 60 evaluation stimuluses). 20 to 22 subjects were asked to evaluate them using semantic differential method of 5 rating scale of 15 adjectives. Experiment 2 evaluated the commercial avenue as a whole and a particular shop in the photograph. Using 4 photographs of 4 different commercial avenues (16 evaluation stimuluses), 20 adjectives (6 for the particular and 14 for the avenue) with the 7 rating scale were asked to evaluate to 20 subjects. In order to clarify the influential factors, formed description questionnaire was used as well. The experimental results shows the following 4 points. First, the framework of the impressions were verified. Using factor analysis, both experiment 1 and 2 resulted in three factors. Both containing the evaluation of a narrowed area of the target, and the evaluation on the balance with the surroundings. Second, other factors than size of the openings were figured out. Many previous researches showed the relationship between easiness of entering the shop with the size of the openings. By the multiple regression analysis, the size of the opening were found useful, yet also the amount of products and information they display at the store front and the number of people seen were other factors found useful for increasing the easiness of entering. They help predict what's inside the shop. Also “wanting to enter” is increased by the evaluation of the interior, and it is related with the color temperature of the lighting used. Third, other impressive items were explained using the quantitative factors. For example, noticeability was found related with the distinguishability. They could be explained with the difference in the color used and the height of the building. The difference in color used does not need to take large area, rather, analysis results show that small amount of distinguishable color use is enough. Lastly, the experiment results show that the ideal condition of commercial avenue maintaining the order and individual shops being original and attractive can happen. Experiment 2 focused on the evaluation on commercial avenue and a particular shop in that avenue. The results show that there were commercial avenues that both “like” evaluation points and “distinguishable” evaluation points of a particular shop being highly rated. They used similar color patterns as a whole, and the particular shop used distinguishable color as a signboard or a small area in the store front. Using color distribution analysis was challenging, and further consideration has to be done. Yet, the experiment results showed its validity. Further consideration on the method of color distribution analysis can be applied to the field of landscape evaluation.
Public spaces such as agora or plazas are commonly made to enhance the activity. Yet, in Japan, it is not widely used, which is probably because Japanese tend to gather in a linear way rather than circular way. This research tries to establish the evaluation methodology of the street pleasantness of commercial district of practical use for regional revitalization and improvement of commercial street environment. Using previous studies on multiple environmental factors and evaluation structures on outdoor environment, the structure of the evaluation was built. Evaluation sheet consists of three layers, named as follows; axis, factors and grade items. Grade items consists of 5 grades with a certain points. Each axis, factors and grade items has weighted coefficient (respectively, Xn, Yni, Znij) that shows the amplitude of the influence to street pleasantness. The weighted coefficient was derived using the results of evaluation experiment and by analyzing the results using multiple regression analysis. The main point of the weighted coefficient is that it shows the rate of influence to the street pleasantness. The evaluation experiment took place at 12 streets selected among near Tokyo station and Ginza area. Streets were selected so that environmental factors and spatial factors that will influence street pleasantness will vary. For example, there were streets with trees planted on the sidewalk and streets without any greenery. The evaluation items were chosen related to each axis, factors and grade items, and were rated using 5 rating scale. The results were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and standard partial regression coefficient was derived. Then it was converted into ratio, which will show the rate of influence. The weighted coefficient was verified using other evaluation experiment result done at two streets in Jiyugaoka. The measured street pleasantness and predicted street pleasantness, which was calculated using weighted coefficient and they were compared. The correlation factors were over 0.8, and showed its fitness. The grade items and five grades were derived from the previous studies. Reference that shows the relation between psychological rating evaluation and physical environmental measurements were searched. By using its results, five grades were linked with physical measurements. In this study, the physical measurements were limited to environmental factors. Spatial factors and its physical measurements, such as width and length of the streets are yet to be considered. The validity of the physical measurement and its grades were tested through the results of the analysis of physical measurements done with the evaluation experiment. Using logistic results, 50% threshold value were derived and compared with the grades from the previous research. About half of the grade items and its grades were shown valid, and the grading can be substituted using physical measurement. This study has its point in creating the evaluation chart by combining the results of previous studies. Its validity was shown by the results of evaluation experiment and physical measurements taken at that time. The second point of the evaluation chart is that the weighted coefficient shows the influential rate to the street pleasantness. By this system, not only the street pleasantness can be graded and predicted, but also will show the points that need to be improved. Further analysis on spatial physical factors will provide designing guidance.
Introduction In recent years the demand has risen for diverse work environment to support various activities of workers, and increasing consideration is being made for office space planning where workers can choose their preferred environment by themselves depending on the diversified work contents. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify not only the relationship of activity to workspace, but also the needs for different environment settings emerged by the various individual characteristics of office workers. Purpose The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of individual workers' attributes on their preference of environment settings for each activity in the office, by grasping the environment seemed by the worker who is the actual office user by each individual attribute, in order to consider the supporting environment for the diversifying activities in the office. Methods Office activities were classified into the following nine types according to the results of the preliminary survey, and eight items indicated were selected as attributes of the office worker. A questionnaire was then undertaken with a total of 222 office workers working in four different offices of a certain manufacturing company, and the data were analyzed using multivariate analysis techniques. Eleven items were prepared as environmental elements to explain the office space, concerning "environmental openness ", "remoteness to other workers" and "desk surface height". Type of activity: routine task, information gathering, convergent thinking, divergent thinking, scheduled meeting, unscheduled meeting, cooperative work, chatting, refreshing Attributes of office workers: age, gender, smoker, personality (extroversion), workstyle, in-house time per day, existence dedicated desk, branch * Extroversion: In this study, an extrovert is defined as "a person who is interested in external objects, such as events and others." An introvert is defined as "a person who is interested in the psychological processes of the subject or the subject itself." Results From the results of this study, the following were indicated as conclusions: 1. The needs for the work environment for each activity were affected by the differences in personal characteristics, such as age, gender, workstyle, smoking preference, and extroversion. 2. The workspace for each activity was classified according to the combination of two points of view, "whether the environment is open or closed" and "whether the remoteness to other workers is near or far." Conclusion It was revealed that the preference of the work environment for each activity was affected by the differences in personal characteristics. On the other hand, the workspace for each activity could be classified according to the combination of two points of view, including "whether the environment is open or closed" and "whether the remoteness to other workers is near or far." This suggests the possibility that the environment setting of a few variations could satisfy the detailed preference of environment settings of the worker comprehensively.
The purpose of this research is proposing a simplification method of calculation for temperature of rooms without air conditioning by using a replacement model of Phase Change Materials (PCM) at inner thermal storage wall and floor. Chapter 1 is about previous studies and the purpose of this research. Numerous researches were discussed about PCM calculation. However, the previous studies divide PCM into small parts and it is not practical for case study in a design process. Therefore, it is useful to simplify of calculating room temperature of a building model that contains PCM in its wall or floor. In Chapter 2, the method of simplification of calculation is suggested. It is for temperature of a simple building model without air conditioning that contains PCM in its inner wall or floor. Regarding replacement of PCM with furniture model of adjoining rooms, replaced PCM temperature and room temperature effect on each other. PCM distribution ratios which indicate ratios of PCM distributed into two replaced PCM of adjoining rooms, distribution ratios of solar radiation inside the rooms which indicate ratios of solar radiation distributed to parts inside the rooms including replaced PCM, thermal resistance between room temperature and furniture are decided depending on given conditions. The values of distribution ratios of solar radiation with replaced PCM are calculated from surface heat transfer coefficient, heat transmission coefficient of the inner wall, heat transmission coefficient between the surface of the inner wall and PCM, and inner solar radiation distribution ratio without PCM. Then, PCM distribution ratios are calculated from distribution ratios of solar radiation with replaced PCM. Moreover, the resistances between room temperature and replaced PCM are decided according to the resistance between surface of the inner wall and room air, the resistance between surface of PCM and room air and others. In term of comparison result, in Chapter 3, the calculation result of 1728 cases of replacement model was verified compared with detailed calculation, and accuracy of simplification was confirmed. As a result, it confirmed that, even in the case that difference of room temperature of detailed calculation and replacement model is the most significant, room temperature of replacement model showed similar tendency with detailed calculation. In other words, the difference of the highest and lowest room temperature for each day between detailed calculation and replacement model is less than 2°C about representative days of the case that difference of room temperature of detailed calculation and replacement model is the most significant. In addition, about the case, the timings of the highest and lowest room temperature of replacement model do not shift so much from that of detailed calculation. However, there are some issues to apply this replacement model to thermal load calculation of a house. The issues are referred in Chapter 4. In the future, replacement model needs to be extended to a model for air-conditioned condition, a house with more than 2 rooms with PCM in outer walls.
Radiant air-conditioning systems and floor-supply displacement heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems have recently attracted considerable attention. However, such systems have not yet seen widespread use because the degree to which they increase thermal comfort is not clear. In this study, the authors measured the planar thermal deviation during summer in four offices: two offices employed a radiant air-conditioning system and a floor-supply displacement HVAC system, and the other two offices employed convective air-conditioning systems. No noticeable difference is observed in the average air speed among the offices. However, for the convective air-conditioning system in offices, the air speed had a wide distribution. In contrast, for the floor-supply displacement HVAC system and the radiant air-conditioning system, the air speed was highly consistent with minimal variation (<0.1 m/s). This minimal variation in the air speed was therefore perceived as being calm compared to the air speed variation for the convective air-conditioning system. Moreover, for the convective air-conditioning system, the local air turbulence tended to be higher than that for the radiant air-conditioning system and the floor-supply displacement HVAC system. For the convective air-conditioning system (multi air-conditioning system), the equivalent temperature repeatedly rose and fell during operational hours. On the other hand, for the floor-supply displacement HVAC system and the radiant air-conditioning system, the air temperature was very stable during operational hours. The authors characterized both the temporal and spatial thermal environmental variations for various air-conditioning systems. In all the cases, the planar standard deviation was concentrated at low values during air-conditioning operation downtimes such as midnight and early morning. In convective air-conditioning system (multi air-conditioning system) and floor-supply displacement HVAC system, the equivalent temperature tended to be high during air-conditioning operation downtimes, especially early morning. During operational hours, according to the characteristics of the convective air-conditioning system (multi air-conditioning system), the equivalent temperature tended to fluctuate wildly and attain high planar standard deviations. On the other hand, in TABS, the equivalent temperature was concentrated at low values during air-conditioning operation downtimes such as midnight and early morning. In addition, the equivalent temperature did not fluctuate because the temperature in TABS is considered to be a typical example of a TABS that uses the thermal capacity of slabs to provide a stable thermal environment.
For enhancing the general level of understanding toward architectural environmental design, it is important not only for ordinal architectural students but also for architectural students in composite regions to imagine environmental elements in their design. As a first step, discovery of environmental elements in living areas was important for the introduction of understanding the relation between architectural design and environment. On the other hand, the number of composite regions in architecture becomes too large to ignore. It is worth enough to develop the educational program for architectural students in this field. In this study, as a means of addressing this issue, educational program, in which simple field measurement on thermal environment and practical exercise on ultraviolet environment was introduce for the discovery of environmental elements in living areas, had been developed and conducted for architectural beginners in composite regions.
Based on the previous studies about architectural educational programs for undergraduate students, the educational program in this study is divided into some stages. In each stage, challenges and work descriptions are set to meet the minimal performance standard for the purpose of understanding and acquiring the image of environmental elements in living areas. In this program, the environmental elements comprises of three topics, outdoor thermal environment, indoor thermal environment, and ultraviolet radiation environment. Simple field measurements and practical exercises are introduced, for the purpose of discovering the image of environment elements in living areas directly by students. Each topic consists of three steps: 1) lecture, 2) simple field measurement / practical exercise, 3) report. Finally, countermeasures of the target site are proposed in a final paper by students to finish up this program. Field measurement is for thermal environment, and practical exercise is for ultraviolet radiation environment.
The program was developed and conducted for 4 months (Sep.-Dec. 2013.) as part of usual didactic course, offered to third grade undergraduate students, most of them were architectural beginners, at composite regions in architecture, Otsuma Women's University, Japan. The following 6 environmental elements are treated and measured by the students; air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind velocity, surface temperature, and ultraviolet radiation environment.
The results confirmed that the program successfully ensured students' measurement on environmental elements in living areas, even if both the students were architectural beginners in composite regions and the contents of the program, field measurement and practical exercise, were too simple in total. The high percentage of correct answer on ultraviolet radiation environment in the before-and-after quiz also showed the possibility of students' interest enhancing the discovery on environmental elements, because all the students were women. Moreover, from the increase in number of the students' description about environmental elements in the reports and the final paper, the educational program enhanced students' discovery on environmental elements. On the other hand, some areas were highlighted for improvement with regards to the content of the lectures and reports in the program, especially on students' misunderstanding and miscalculation on environmental elements. This showed the needs of improvement in the next paper.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate train draft on stairs and escalator from pressure variation, to suggest measures of train draft reduction and to evaluate train draft at the time of measures. Positive pressure is generated at the time of the train head part passage, negative pressure is generated at the time of the train tail part passage. The differential pressure is generated between the home floor and the concourse floor, train draft occurs due to it. Assuming unsteady flow in a uniform thickness of pipe, train draft on stairs and escalator is proportional to the integrated value of the differential pressure and be inversely proportional to the length of pipe line. We measured the pressure variation and the train draft at stairs and escalators of stations under train passage. The train draft was measured where the stairs and escalators of the cross section was squeezed. The pressure variation was measured by the upper and lower ends of the stairs and escalators for calculating the differential pressure. A comparison of the train draft and the integrated value of the differential pressure of each station, it was confirmed that both have a peak match and the waveforms are similar. And it was confirmed the train draft tended to be proportional to the integrated value of the differential pressure and be inversely proportional to the length of pipe line. Therefore we suggested the extension of the pipe line as measures of train draft reduction. We installed a shelter over the escalator of the station and formed the pipe line. As a result, it was confirmed that there is no problem in the practical use even if we don't consider pressure loss, the train draft decreased so that a pipe line became long and we could almost predict the train draft using the expression from the pressure variation. By lengthening the pipe line the train draft is reduced, but the integrated value of the differential pressure is increased. To verify the relationship of the length of pipe line and the train draft, the train draft was confirmed to be proportional to the -0.7 power of the length of pipe line. In addition, it was confirmed that we could almost predict the train draft at the time of the shelter setting from the integrated value of the differential pressure and the shelter length if we measured the pressure variation at the position that would become the end of the shelter in the state without it. This time was obtained measurement data of the test train passing at high speed, but were examined a method to predict the train draft at the time of speed improvement from the measured data of operating train. The train draft is roughly proportional to the transit speed, the train draft at the time of speed improvement was also confirmed that it is predictable.
Urban environmental issues related to heat and aerial pollutants have become increasingly more serious. Atmospheric properties, such as air temperature, wind velocity, and pollutant concentrations, are typically measured at meteorological observation stations. However, due to the low spatial resolution of the station networks, we cannot observe local issues occurring on the scale of people's daily lives. Thus, mobile measurement is an effective method for addressing the insufficient measurement points in urban areas. However, the extent of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement errors are unclear and results of mobile measurements are uncertain. Therefore, this paper discusses the applicability of mobile measurements to high-density urban areas. After investigating the range of GPS errors, we consider the following three aspects: (1) spatial distribution of air temperature at a high spatial resolution of 10 m; (2) the range of uncertainties in mobile measurement results; and (3) the impact of spatial resolution (10 m or 100 m) on the measured spatial distribution of air temperature. In this study, we used bicycles as mobile measurement platforms to investigate the spatial distribution of air temperature. Two measurement sites in Tokyo were selected: Shinjuku, a commercial area (August 25th to 28th, 2015) and Shibuya, a residential area (January 20th to 29th and February 16th to 19th, 2016). We equipped bicycles with platinum resistance thermometers (a high responsivity rate of 2.2 s), a data logger, and a GPS logger to measure air temperature and spatial position during the sequential travel of the bicycles. Measurements in Shinjuku were conducted on cloudy days. To ensure that the measurement conditions were consistent, measurements in Shibuya were conducted from 16:00 to 18:00, when solar radiation, and thus its influence, was very low. From the results, we draw the following conclusions. Firstly, GPS data collected in urban areas tend to include positioning errors of 14 m on average due to the reflective properties of building surfaces according to adapting our developing correction method. Secondly, spatial distribution of air temperature variation was almost ±0.65 °C (min to max). Thirdly, the average of uncertainty of air temperature variation was 0.03 °C. It was much smaller than the range of air temperature variation (min to max). Lastly, we can find a similar distribution of air temperature between a mesh size of 10 m and 100 m. However, a spatial resolution of less than 100 m was necessary in order to observe locations where the air temperature is locally higher than near street intersections. However, we have to consider GPS errors are 14 m on average, which is larger than a mesh size of 10 m. From the above, we obtained a characteristic spatial distribution of air temperature by correcting position data. Suppose that we reduce uncertainty to less than 0.1 °C in the case that the max value of standard deviation of air temperature at each cell is 0.4 °C, 16 samples at each cell must be corrected in one hour. Therefore, we found mobile measurement is an effective method for investigating environmental conditions in high-density urban areas for high spatial resolution.