This study aims to clarify both the secular change of population structure in different housing types and residential turnover which is thought as a primary cause of population structure's secular change. To conduct this study, we focused on population indices such as aging rate, average age, age structure and the rate of households living continuously from newly built houses (C.L.H). Through this study, what we have made clear is as follows. Firstly, regarding the secular change of population structure; 1. There is no difference in average age of residents living in newly built houses irrespective of housing types. However, because the speed of aging is different depending on housing types, there is big gap on average age of residents living in 35 year-old houses. The average age of residents in 35 year-old detached houses is 56.49 years old, condominium is 51.3 years old, rental apartment is 46.3 years old. 2. There is also no difference in aging rate of residents living in new houses depending on housing types. However, in 35 year-old houses, you can find big difference. Aging rate of residents living in 35 year-old houses is as follows. A detached house: 45.6%/unit > a condominium: 34.7%/unit > a rental apartment: 18.4%/unit. 3. The average number of household members in newly built houses is significantly different depending on housing types. In addition to this, the secular change of it is different due to housing types. In case of rental apartments, the average number of household members does not vary a lot. However, the decline of the average number of household members was found in detached houses and condominiums. 4. The secular change of age structure in detached houses and condominiums is similar. The young generations' two peaks are shifting to elderly side and child generation's peak is leveling with other cohorts in process of time. However, the speed of shifting of peaks in the case of detached houses is slightly faster than condominiums'. Aging structure of rental apartments' residents is heavily biased to young side at the time of newly built houses. However, it continues to be leveled in all age cohorts in process of time. Through this, it could be said that there is difference in secular change of age structure depending on housing types. Secondly, regarding residential turnover; 1. There are significant difference in the rate of C.L.H depending on housing types. Decreasing of rate of C.L.H in detached houses is 6.2 point/5years, in condominiums is 11.8 point/5years. As a result, the rate of C.L.H in 35 year-old houses is 56.8% in detached houses and 17.6% in condominiums. In the case of rental apartments, the moving in and out of households is proceed dramatically, so in 35 year-old rental apartments, the rate of C.L.H is only 0.8%. 2. The population structure of residents living in newly built houses is quite the same irrespective of housing types. However, in process of time, the difference has been arisen and it can be thought that the reason of difference is the distinction of C.L.H rate depending on housing types. The rate of C.L.H is 56.8% in 35 year-old detached houses, so the population structure of it biased to elderly side. On the other hands, in 35 year-old condominiums, the rate of C.L.H is 17.5%, so the population structure of it is younger than detached houses'. In case of rental apartments, population structure is not effected by C.L.H, because the rate of C.L.H is only about 1%.
Presently, semi-outdoor spaces with eaves are used as lounge spaces for waiting, resting, eating, and drinking with other people. Although previously eaves had been used for their original purposes, such as blocking the rain, they began to be used for new attractive aims with different functions in recent years. Human activity in semi-outdoor spaces with eaves has activated; in addition, the spaces have become new attractions in cities. However, the relationship between the physical environment and psychological effects weren't be considered quantitatively. In this study, the impact on the feeling of being covered in full-scale model of outdoor spaces with eaves was demonstrated quantitatively by conducting real space experiments by changing the height and size of the eaves. Experiments in full-scale model space were simulated using three levels of height and five or seven lengths of eaves. As a result, it was confirmed that the shape of the eaves with different heights and sizes affected the feelings of being covered, and the human sense of space was changed by the height and protruding length of the eaves. Specifically, the results were summarized in the following three points: 1) When the height and length of the protruding eaves are a variable, feelings of being covered can be quantitatively expressed by the ME method. 2) The feelings of being covered were reduced as the height of the eaves increased. The gradient of the decrease was substantially constant when the lengths of the eaves were different. 3) The sense of being covered increased as the protruding length of the eaves increased. As the heights of the eaves are low, the gradient of increase in the feelings of being covered becomes larger. With consideration given to the spatial characteristics of the eaves, it is necessary to conduct effective space design.
Minato Mirai 21 (“MM21”) is a waterfront redevelopment scheme that blends offices, residential and commercial uses in the center of Yokohama. It is regarded as one of the most courageous attempts at waterfront redevelopment in Japan. It started with a proposal in 1964 by Akira Tamura, an eminent Japanese urban planner. This work was commissioned by Ichio Asukata, a liberal socialist mayor of Yokohama city. They envisaged the relocation of an aging but operational shipyard, harbor piers and railway freight yards in order to create a new site which would connect two existing central districts that had been separated by these industrial estates. Besides MM21, Tamura proposed other novel structural plans as “six spine projects” for Yokohama, which was then under population influx pressure from Tokyo. Because of the city government's financial constraints and limited planning power, Tamura initiated a paradigm shift in planning principles towards ceasing reliance on paternalistic support from central government. He strongly advocated a local planning approach with local government initiatives and also the introduction of privatization. Tamura wrote numerous books detailing his peerless experiences as a leader of the new urban planning and coordination bureau of the city for ten years. However, a chronological study of his work based on historical facts has not been attempted previously. This research aims to clarify the detailed process for planning and negotiation of MM21. The roles and positions adopted towards the MM21 scheme of the concerned bodies such as the City, Mitsubishi Group, Japan National Railways (“JNR”), the Yokohama maritime industry, Japan Housing and Development Corporation and national ministries have also been explored. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (“MHI”) owned the old shipyard, and Mitsubishi Estate acquired most of the shipyard land, becoming the major landowner in the area. JNR operated huge freight yards within the planned area. As the area was exclusively a harbor district, the maritime industry of Yokohama wished to protect their interests. Tamura prepared a new industrial estate in a newly reclaimed area to relocate the shipyard which made it possible for MHI to expand its production. Tamura negotiated and reached a deal with MHI, but they could not make a decision on relocation due to the extremely volatile economic situation surrounding the ship industry. At the same time, Tamura persuaded JNR to either move or abandon their freight yards, which caused a strong movement of community opposition to the relocation. Tamura envisaged an appropriate size for redevelopment of the Mitsubishi Estate in terms of private investment by minimizing the volume of reclaimed land. By allowing the company to make decent profits from the redevelopment, the construction of public infrastructure and facilities was planned mostly through private contributions rather than public investment. Tamura was later required by the new mayor to relinquish control over the second stage MM21's execution, but Tamura's successors were able to successfully execute the second stage of MM21. Regarding the privatization aspect of the project, Keiichi Ozawa as the new chief urban planner made a breakthrough by persuading the Mitsubishi group and the maritime industry to introduce a land readjustment scheme in the area and also provide a new maritime development area within it. After Ozawa left his role, Ryoichi Hirose, as the next chief planner, helped concerned bodies to reach agreement on the final implementation plan in 1983. Both Ozawa and Hirose were reliable staff members of Tamura's group. Although the redevelopment area was eventually expanded due to pressure from concerned parties, the continuity of dedicated chief urban planners made the project successful over a longer term.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the factors that produced differences in the number of houses supplied by “self-reconstruction
housing support”, by focusing on the regional housing production system. The first step is to study and organize the number of
regional houses supplied through the self-reconstruction housing support done in the target areas. The second step is to conduct a
comparative analysis of the production system of self-reconstruction housing support in each district. With the results of the
aforementioned analysis the factors that produced a difference in the number of houses supplied by “self-reconstruction housing
support” is clarified.
Restoration undertakings with administrative support can lately be found not only in important preservation districts for groups of historic buildings but also in urban districts, and efforts are being made to maintain and preserve excellent townscapes and improve landscapes. One of the ways to undergo restoration is through receiving subsidies by meeting the requirements mandated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. In particular, undertakings for townscape improvement are based on “MACHIDUKURI agreements” concluded by the residents of a district, and are positioned as resident-driven undertakings. Undertakings for townscape improvement characteristically involve building pocket parks, beautifying roads, and restoring housing, all of which are necessary to create excellent townscapes. However, only a few undertakings for townscape improvement have been integrally completed in combination with restoration of housing and widening of roads. Using setbacks is one of the approaches to widening roads, and the shopping district of Soja city is one of the districts that adopted this approach. There are no parks in the shopping district, and roads wider than six meters account for less than 10% of the total roads in the district. Therefore, setbacks of housing walls were planned and carried out. Instead of using the space created by the setbacks for roads, as stipulated in the Building Standards Act, the space created in the district was used as building lots. Creating a boundary area between a road, a public area, and housing, a private area, makes it possible to widen a road even in shallow premises. In this way, clarifying how a townscape created by a setback was restored and analyzing how it is being utilized can give clues for new planning methods for undertaking townscape improvement. Consequently, it was made clear that most restored buildings failed to achieve the initial objective of “preserving townscape with traditional flavor” because the spaces created by the setbacks were used as parking lots, though they secured the two meters stipulated by the MACHIDUKURI agreement. Because the city's east side has many traditional buildings that are highly valuable from a historical viewpoint, the city is required to give consideration to preserving the townscape and building a continuous townscape. The same issue arises not only for buildings but also for open spaces and parking lots. It is also a problem that some buildings do not meet the color and roofing standards set by the MACHIDUKURI agreement. It was originally planned to build pocket parks and community facilities as spaces for relaxing, but only three pocket parks were eventually built. As a result, the total area of pocket parks accounts for only 0.7% of the whole area of the district. That is, the greatest problem of this undertaking is that the spaces for relaxing inside the district were scarcely improved, although restored buildings offered better living environments. In the future, therefore, it will be crucial to increase residents' awareness of landscapes and townscapes in order to achieve a better living environment in districts with many traditional buildings. At the same time, it will be necessary to discuss measures not only for the restoration of each building but also for the improvement of the landscape of the whole townscape.
The Act on Special Measures Concerning Urban Renaissance to improve the civic functions and living environment came into force in June 2002 in response to changes in socio-economic situation such as rapid computerization, internationalization, the low birthrate and aging in recent years. The heart of Tokyo's 23 special wards, so called the center core area, where various redevelopment projects have been carried out, is specified as a special area in urban renewal based on this act. On the other hand, under the special ward system, unlike other regions, the authority of urban planning systems and of the development policies has been shared by Tokyo Metropolitan Government and 23 special wards offices. Thus the external effects of the special area in urban renewal and other urban planning systems are expected to differ from other regions and are important in Japanese urban planning. This study aims to measure the external effects by the hedonic approach based on the capitalization hypothesis. The study area involves of Chiyoda, Chuo and Minato ward where developments are actively being carried out towards the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic in 2020, as well as Taito ward. The study chose the 2015 land prices as the objective variable, and chose land of attributes, such as acreages, front road widths, floor area ratios, as the explanatory valuables, as well as urban planning systems including the special area in urban renewal and zoning designations, and analyzed the overall external effects. First, in order to evaluate the region-specific circumstances, the study examined each ward. Secondly, the total area of the Chiyoda, Chuo and Minato ward was analyzed. Lastly, the four wards including Taito ward where only one the efficient utilization district were analyzed. In the process of the analysis, in order to obtain high coefficients of determination, the study redefined some explanatory values in natural logarithms, such as land prices, distances from the nearest station and the time from the nearest station to Tokyo Station. As a result of the analysis, no urban planning systems showed any effect in Chiyoda word. The efficient utilization district in Chuo ward only showed a high explanatory power, but other significant exploratory valuables were related to the attributes of land. Valuables concerning urban planning systems did not remain in the process of valuables selection. Subsequently, by analyzing all four wards, some explanatory variable that indicates the urban planning systems such as urgent areas in urban renewal, efficient utilization districts and height limitation districts in Minato ward were adopted as the explanatory valuables. By comparison of the predicted land prices given by the model in the article and the real land prices, spatial validity has been confirmed and visualized in detail using GIS. Using the model, the article estimated the external effects of urgent areas for urban renewal under the assumption that Taito word be specified as designated areas. The article adopted three different cases of the designating entire area of Taito ward, the sub-center of metropolitan area and the surrounding areas. The result confirmed a remarkable rise of land prices compared with the real prices. As conclusion, the study confirmed the external effects from urgent areas of urban renewal specified by the cabinet ordinance and Tokyo Metropolitan Government. This fact shows that the designation of special areas of urban renewal has an effect in provincial urban planning policy for Tokyo Metropolis. In addition, efficient utilization districts specified by Chuo ward and height limitation districts specified by Minato ward are also effective on each planning policy. The study also suggested that the external effect of urgent areas of urban renewal specified by Taito word will be high.
Over 5 years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. In many tsunami-affected municipalities, the reconstruction of infrastructure such as roads, ports, seawalls, or the preparation of tsunami-safe, raised building land is proceeding relatively well, following municipal reconstruction plans. This is due to a lack of communication and community involvement in reconstruction plans. In such situation, it would be effective to set up a community development council, which is a special form of public private partnership between the local government, residents, and landowners. The council would facilitate the communication between all the involved stakeholders and take care of the management of shared facilities such as shops or housing. At the Naiwan area of Kesennuma city, in Miyagi prefecture, the planning of invasive, large-scale coastal protections was proceeding without consensus being formed among the affected citizens of the area. Most of the public discourses materialized around the reconstruction of the infrastructure such as the seawall that would protect the Naiwan area, but debates about the overall recovery program with the reconstruction of buildings and community facilities didn't proceed accordingly. In order to reach a consensus, the members of the municipal reconstruction council enlisted the support of Waseda University, to which also the author belongs. The facilitation of the reconstruction planning process was promoted in the form of a participatory action research. This research was conducted in order to document and analyze the importance of establishment of community development corporations promoted in the form of a participatory action research. Our team supported the council with reaching an agreement for the overall recovery program and to prepare the field for individual reconstruction projects. The team facilitated this process by organizing discussion rounds and by using different physical as well as digital models of the area. In many disaster-affected areas of Tohoku the reconstruction of private residences and shops is still lagging behind and therefore a careful analysis of Naiwan's widely recognized and groundbreaking recovery planning process is of great importance. At first, we will explore and analyze the main issues of the Naiwan area, which had to be resolved through the reconstruction process. At the Naiwan area, a reconstruction planning council was established by the local citizens, in order to raise resistance against and develop alternatives to controversial government plans for the construction of large-scale and invasive coastal protections. However, beyond the issue of the hotly debated seawall, the discussion about the detailed local reconstruction program including the rebuilding of residences and shops as well as the establishment of a Machizukuri enterprise for the implementation of plans, didn't take place in the council. Next, in order to facilitate a wider discussion process and reanimate the stagnant reconstruction planning process, we designed a process to reach an agreement between all the stakeholder by soliciting and discussing creative ideas from the subcommittee in Management Conference, and then explaining and discussing the in wider plenary sessions. At the Management Conference, we supported the consensus formation from the broader development of plan to the development of the respective private project plans by utilizing workshops and various innovative communication and visualization formats by PDCA, plan-do-check-act cycle. Based on these results, we evaluated the result of the above reconstruction planning process, from the establishment of council to the development of recommendations and plans, as well as the establishment of community development corporations as business.
This research is an analysis of the auditorium of Noh theater in the Meiji Era through the study of the Shiba-noh-gakudoh. Current auditoriums for Noh theaters feature area divisions called Shomen and Waki-shomen. This feature does not exist in other modern theaters in Japan, which have been heavily influenced by Europeanism, and the reasons that lead to the auditorium being divided so have great meaning for shedding light on the existence of Japanese architecture's unique modernization. This research analyzed the reasons the area division within the auditorium of Shiba-noh-gakudoh developed through the divisions' relationship to the performance. Firstly, we took four plans of the Shiba-noh-gakudoh and analyzed the date of each plan, establishing a history of renovations to the auditorium. When first built, the Shiba-noh-gakudoh adhered to the traditional layout of the early modern period (Figure 2) and featured a large shirasu between the stage and auditorium. Renovations in 1896 resulted in seats being added to the shirasu, and the auditorium changed into an L-shape which surrounds the stage. (Figure 4) Secondly, we analyzed the stated number of seats within the auditorium as stated in the Shiba-noh-gakudoh's performance regulations. The theater's original capacity is estimated to be 400 people, this was then set to 720 people following the renovations in 1896. However, records showing that the venue hosted up to a maximum of 1300 people, depending on the type of performance, before 1896 have been confirmed showing that temporary seating was placed on the shirasu pre-renovation for performances with large audiences. Lastly, we examined the seating order. Analysis of the seating plan (Figure 3) showed that the seating order was determined by its view of the stage, and the auditorium was segmented using this as the base criteria. The auditorium is made up of an area that responds to the Naka-shomen, while the Shomen and Waki-shomen are of the same rank, and possesses a similar character to the modern area divisions. The reason behind these divisions was the result of the standardization of differing performance regulations based on the social class of the audience, resulting in the venue changing from a social institution for the upper classes to a theater used by all. Thus, although the area divisions were formed as a response to the diversification amongst social class of the theater's patrons, it is notable that the divisions were not a representation of the difference in status, but were based on the view of the stage from that area. This is a distinction that differs from Shoin and Kanjin-noh-theater from the pre-modern period, which were closely linked to the class system, and there we can see the modernization of Noh theater.
The influence of Le Corbusier (1887－1965) upon the architectural works of Kunio Mayekawa (1905－1986) has often been recognized in studies. Moreover, Mayekawa himself mentioned that he had been influenced by “Dom-ino (1914)” as Le Corbusier insisted. Having said that, among the “5 points of modern architecture (Les 5 points d'une architecture nouvelle, 1929)” reflected in principle by Dom-ino, only the roof garden was continued by Mayekawa throughout his design activities. If the roof garden in Mayekawa Kunio's works is the only method borrowed from Le Corbusier before, during, and after the war, we can obtain a new idea regarding the construction theory of Kunio Mayekawa by clarifying how Le Corbusier influenced his use of this element. I have used the drawing material and anthologies of Mayekawa Associates Architects & Engineers as my primary sources concerning the works of Mayekawa. I have considered the roof gardens included in Mayekawa's works from these primary materials, classified them into four periods based on existing studies, and thus understood each outline by period (Chapter 2). Next, I have analyzed the elements of the roof garden, upon which Kunio Mayekawa particularly focused at the influence of Villa Savoye (1932) and Unité d'Habitation de Marseille (1952), based upon the drawings and photographs by Kunio Mayekawa (Chapter 3). In addition, I have analyzed the influence of Le Corbusier upon Mayekawa's roof garden by considering the differences between, and similarity to, Mayekawa's roof garden and his interpretation of that of Le Corbusier (Chapter 4). As a result, I have clarified the following two aspects of Le Corbusier's influence upon Mayekawa's roof garden. 1. Mayekawa continued to focus upon Le Corbusier's roof garden in his works and used those designs in Japan as a solution to the problems faced by society. In fact, Mayekawa's roof gardens have been compared to the works of Le Corbusier, each of which Mayekawa had visited. Mayekawa's roof garden can be explained by its relation to the Villa Savoye (1932) or Unité d'Habitation de Marseille (1952). 2. Kunio Mayekawa's acceptance of Le Corbusier's roof garden showed particularly after World War II. In the first period after the war, Mayekawa referred to the style of the composition's elements established in the roof garden of Villa Savoye directly. In the second period after the war, he applied the organic style of the composition elements arranged in the roof garden of Unité d'Habitation de Marseille by abstracting it and making it geometric. In the third period after the war, by applying the relation between a hanging garden and a roof garden at the Villa Savoye to his own roof garden, he added visual indoor-outdoor continuity, as well as a strolling pathway to a roof garden in public buildings. Therefore, Kunio Mayekawa kept his eye upon Le Corbusier's work (which he experienced himself) in the creation of his roof gardens, regardless of whether he referred to their shape. Moreover, Kunio Mayekawa applied the elements that referenced spatial composition rather than referencing forms as he entered the late stage of his career.
This paper examined the drawings from overseas that were available at the time for the design of the Ueno Museum and the books that were held by the Kobu Fine Art Academy and the Imperial College of Engineering. Antonio Fontanesi, Giovanni Vincenzo Cappelletti, Josiah Conder were involved in the design. Fontanesi and Cappelletti were lecturers at the Kobu Fine Art Academy and Conder was a lecturer at the Imperial College of Engineering. Drawing from overseas is Toshimichi Okubo, who was responsible for setting up the museum, asked the envoy of eight countries to gather information on advanced cases. It is conceivable that the government entrusted design to fontaneji or caberetti in order to refer to the drawing Okubo Toshimichi collected from overseas. The completed Ueno museum used red bricks. The design proposed "Pseudo, Saracenic", an Islamic style motif such as octagonal Islamic style domes, spire arches, Islamic decorative arches was adopted. About the design of the Ueno museum, Fontanesi or Cappelletti once completed the design, was present at the positioning and staking of the building on March 14, 1888. And Condor is thought to have done the design after construction starts. Documents considered to be referred to at each design stage are as follows.
1. It is thought that Fontanesi or Cappelletti was designed based on the reference drawing of Federico Berchet sent by Mr. Masataka Kawase, Ambassador of Italy. The drawings sent by Federico Berchet are considered to be drawings of the Venetian Natural History Museum. In the Venetian Natural History Museum, red bricks are used for the exterior, but since the marble is used in the front, it has a white color. The wall of the facade has a circular arch adopted. The roof is a sloped roof, but the wall looks like a flat roof as it rises above the eaves.
2. Regarding the design of Conder, the drawings of Alfred Waterhouse, sent by Mr. Ueno Kagenori, Ambassador of England, are considered to be drawings of the London Natural History Museum. For Waterhouse, It was confirmed the document that the government sent compensation for the reference to the design. The London Natural History Museum is regarded as a German Romanesque style using terra cotta. It has symmetrical elevation and two octagonal towers are adopted in the center part.. In the drawing of Waterhouse, there are two-color arches and arches that contain arcs, which are common with drawing of Conder.
3. About the books that were held by the Kobu Fine Art Academy and the Imperial College of Engineering, Although it was confirmed that the Kobu Fine Art Academy had many books on catalogs and paintings, it was not possible to confirm books considered to be a reference for the Ueno Museum's design. For books held at the Imperial College of Engineering, in addition to books that are reference book of "Pseudo, Saracenic" suggested by Condor, they also have technical books such as structural calculation, heating, ventilation and cost, and as a reference for design It is thought that it was used.
This paper clarified the idea of 2 story house in modern Japan by using the discourse of 63 housing books published from the late Meiji to early Showa periods. From the previous research it is thought that functional differentiation of floor plan promoted 2nd floor planning. Therefore, this research focused on the change of the "Ima" of the 1st floor at the time. "Ima" conventionally had the function as a private room, but also included various functions such as accompanying functions of sleeping and talking with visitors. Eventually, "Ima" shifted to a public room function western living room, we assumed that the establishment of functions of each other room was promoted and led to two stories planning. We analyzed how changes in the function of the "Ima" and that arrangement method affect the discourse of the arrangement method to 2nd floor of the drawing rooms" and the bedrooms. At the first, we confirmed that “Ima” changed its function as a public room in early Taisho era, and the discourse changed so that it was placed on the south side of the plan. In addition, around the time of the late of Taisho periods, the proposal of the ”Ima” which became a Western-style room appeared. In this way the “Ima” got priority than the drawing rooms. So the discourses of the drawing rooms arranged on 2nd floor were described in middle of Taisho period intensively. From the above, we considered that the idea appeared about the changing arrangement of the drawing rooms to the 2nd floor to secure a space for the “Ima”. On the other hand, the discourses of bedroom's arrangement on 2nd floor did not formed smoothly than the drawing rooms it. It seems that the main factor was due to could not set up wet area on 2nd floor by municipal wastewater undeveloped at that time in Japan; It was difficult to put in bathroom around the bedroom like a western housing sleeping space. However, the discourses of arranging to the bedroom at 2nd floor were also appeared in early Showa period. It seems that the major factor were the idea of the western style's the Ima (sitting on chairs, that means the living room) spread among the architects, on contrarily the idea of traditional sleeping style on tatami were reduced. Also, we confirmed that there were some discourses attempt to cope with towards the problem of municipal wastewater. The discourses regarding the drawing room's arrangement on 2nd floor were caused from only a solution for the plan of the relationship between the Ima. In contrast, the discourses regarding the bedroom's arrangement on 2nd floor were caused from to the primary purpose to establish the sleeping space in the Japanese houses. It were consistent to arrange on 2nd floor. We considered that the discourses related to the bedroom arrangement at early Showa period leading to aspects of the the 2nd floor of the modern housing. In other words, It means that the planning idea of the 2 story houses had already begun to formed from this period. Also, from the housing books at the time, we could find that the attempt of the architects to clearly define the role of the living room changing from the traditional room concept (which allowed the inclusion of various functions).
The objective of this paper is to reconstruct the construction process found in the nave of the Cistercian church of Sénanque in the medieval time. After our precedent papers which treat the chapter house, and also the choir and transept, the present paper also tends to analyze the irregularities and measures found in the nave of this church in order to restitute what happened in the real construction site. The nave of the Sénanque church contains the several well known irregularities such as the positional discrepancy of the pilaster and the transvers arches in the aisles. The authors once approved the fact that previous literatures insist that the nave is constructed in the second phase between ca. 1185 and 1200. This argument which could be admitted as a general vision is re-examined in this paper through the minute and detailed observation and analysis on the optical irregularities and on the measures based on the authors' own measuring the church. The shape of windows, the joints of stones, the profiles of the cornice and also the masonry of the walls and vaults are the repertories which we examined first to deduce the irregularities as the elements possible to explain the construction process. After that we proposed the metrological analysis to give a logical explanation of these irregularities, especially the positional discrepancy between the pilasters and transvers arches in the aisles, using the idea of the secondary unite of measure derived from the principal foot, called “pes manualis” attested in the medieval various documents. We attested three principal foots and the six “pes manualis” derived from these three feet. As conclusion, as to the discrepancy between the pilasters and transvers arches in the aisles could be explained by the different two “pes manualis” used respectively for the width of the pilasters and that of transvers arches. And finally we succeeded to attest that, concerning the construction of the vault in the nave, three different phases. The construction period of the central vessel corresponds to that of the squinch dome on the crossing. Concerning the construction phase of the pillar, we also attested the more detailed process which is divided into two different phases. We also might point out that the big change of the initial project of vault of the central vessel caused the many modification of architectural aspect in the whole church, i.e. the heightened vault of the aisles, re-vaulting of apse and transepts, and reconstruction of the dome on the squinchs, and the employment of pointed arch. In the end, as to one of major contributions of this paper to the study on the medieval construction concerning the Cistercian abbey church of Sénanque, we insist the archeological importance of the reading of the irregularities, and of the metrological analysis.
Having remained in oblivion for three quarters of a century, the reevaluation of Horatio Greenough’s “functionalist” theory during the
mid-20th century had its due start in the 1910’s, when literary men like Van Wyck Brooks and Lewis Mumford became alarmed by
the increasingly broken pace of a materialistic world, and encouraged the revival of the mid-19th century American spirit, when the
harmony of spiritual and material life had been successfully achieved. Through this academic line of inquiry, Greenough’s critical
efforts were thus gradually salvaged during the following two decades. Mumford would then function as a central node, spreading
information that enhanced Greenough’s popularity and significance not only among foreign architects, but also among domestic
scholars from other disciplines.
Since different concessions in China have different climate, culture, society, foreign power and so on, the concession houses also show different characters from concession to concession. Because of these differences, it is important to consider the potential relationships between the internal space and the external environment for the architectural design. Compared to the European buildings or traditional Chinese houses in the same decade, concession houses in China have the space that mixes the character of the western architecture and Chinese architecture in the form. For this reason, concession houses use the boundaries that combine the adaptability to the environment and the form of different countries such as the curved walls or the tower form used as a staircase to create various relationship between internal space and the surroundings. This research focuses on the concession housed in different regions in China, and is aimed to clarify the similarities and differences among them. In the present study, the concept of “interior/exterior” is used to obtain a comprehensive understanding on the differences and commons of spatial composition among concession Chinese houses in different regions by analyzing how to capture the internal and external space, and their boundaries. Flow of research: 1) Research target selection. As a subject of this research, a concession house should have enough data such as the plan of each floor, the elevation, to analyze the character of plan. There are totally 100 concession houses selected as subject of this research from 4 regions in eastern China that used to be the concession. 2) Extract < the form of ambit > of the target buildings, to typify the configuration. 3) Extract < the property of ambit > of the target buildings, to typify the configuration. 4) The configuration format of the “interior/exterior” is derived from the relation between form and property. With the consideration of region, climate, culture, original country of the form and so on, the differences of “interior/exterior” character in different configuration format are analyzed. About the composition of internal/external in concession houses in China, the concession houses with character of buildings in different countries show a balance of internal/external character by the influence of different regions in China, which means they adapt the environment. When the houses with character of buildings in different countries were introduced to different regions in China, the original internal/external character were maintained. On the other hand, when the internal/external character of concession houses cannot adapt the regionally, the new internal/external was derived. Above all, the adaption and developmental process of the internal/external transition of concession houses are clarified.
Building and space basically are the aggregate of the substance of three dimensions. In text description of buildings, architects freely uses line which is concept of one dimension and explain concept and composition of building which is three dimensions. Since the process on which we create meanings of words is based on our own mental activity, one word would have numerous meanings, which leads to polysemy. Equally, architects have described various meanings of words in terms of their linguistic activity. Meanings of line are organized by their own several recognitions to line. For these backgrounds, to consider the polysemy of line is important for evaluating the buildings created by architects. In this research we clarify polysemy of line in text description by architects.
The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract the sentences that contain words associated with the meaning of line used by architects to explain their design of architecture in the architectural magazine, Shinkenchiku during 1950－2010. 2. Extract Type of Line, Adjectival Term, and Verbal Term. Type of Line is the word described as the line or related to it. Adjectival Term is the modifier for Type of Line to express its property and a state . Verbal Term is the modifier for Type of Line to express its action. 3. Analyze and consider the relationships between Type of Line and Adjectival Term, Type of Line and Verbal Term. After that, derive the tendencies of their relationships. 4. Categorize the relationships by creating a matrix in which the horizon axis is the tendency of Type of Line and Adjectival Term, and the vertical axis is of Type of Line and Verbal Term then derive aspects of polysemy of line.
As a result, four tendencies of the relationships between Type of Line and Adjectival Term were found: Line which shows system, Transfiguration of the line by a factor, Impresed line which occurs with the phenomena, Direction which occurs by visual recognition. And three tendencies of the relationships between Type of Line and Verbal Term were found: Manifestation of the line with recognition, Technical skill which completes system, Delivery and reception of the line which exists in the space.
Through the investigation of a matrix, 25 different types of interpretations about polysemy of line were derived. Within these types, four major frameworks were found as below: Line which records the consecutive movement, Line which shows the recognizable present phenomena, Line which sumilates appearable phenomena, Line where concept of time exists with the experience, interpretation, recognition and sensitivity of the human multidimensionally. Architects have regarded these four lines in 4 phases, conception, planning design, completed building and utilization of architecture and have utilized the right line for the right place. At that time, it revealed that architects do not only provide a certain concept by line, but also influence completely other phenomena, influence it by mixing other phenomena and create the egotistical and ideal situation.
Since time and a human being are mixed in the architecture and space that are physically three dimensions, various dimensions coexist, and the architecture and space cannot be called merely three dimensions. Also, the description about the line was able to confirm the expression to make a round trip to the dimension. Therefore, among space, time and human, it revealed that the architects regarded a building flexibly through a line by making a round trip to the various dimensions.
Art museums are taken in this investigation as an effective sample to analyze architectural design in Japan of the last 65 years. First, through the analysis of the configuration in plan of a selection of 102 cases, this study offers two classifications based on 1) exterior boundary, and 2) interior layout. Second, this study discusses connections between these two classifications, and suggest eight patterns, which help to understand the evolution of architectural design of Japanese art museums through time.
In the design of large span buildings, it is important to create the relationship to the surrounding environment. We can find various expressions of large span buildings by architects as a response to this kind of theme. This report aims to illustrate how Japanese architects thought on the relationship between the surroundings and large span buildings, based on a study of such work as it appeared in architectural publications. Firstly, the architect's intentions were extracted from explanatory text by the architect themselves, and each scheme was subjected to a “KJ-method” analysis (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro). The intentions were classified into 3 categories; [Relationship to the wide-area environment], [Relationship to the vicinities], [Relationship between the inside and outside] (Fig. 1, 2). Secondly, the perceptions about the specific characters premised on the scale of the large span buildings were also extracted and assessed from the text. It was divided into 2 classes; <Characteristic of the large space>, <Characteristic of the hugeness> (Fig. 3, 4). Then it was clarified that the intention of [Relationship between the inside and outside] corresponds with <Characteristic of the large space>. Thirdly, the actual composition of the roof and supporting structure was examined, we recognize it as the representation of the relationship between the ground and large span buildings (Fig. 5). At this point, each representation was classified into 2 types; the integrated form connecting to the ground directly was "integrated", and the segmented form connecting to the ground indirectly was "segmented" (Fig. 6). “Integrated” was classified further into 2 types; “roof-wall type” and “wall type’. Then these were perceived that the representation of the building of the separation by the opening and the representation of the incidental volume to the building. And we examined the correspondence between those and the actual composition (Fig. 7-10). Finally, the mediation between each architect's intention and the actual composition were considered (Fig. 11, 12). As a result, the high relations in architect's thinking between architect's intention and the representation of the actual composition were found; [Relationship to the wide-area environment] more related to "integrated", and [Relationship to the vicinities], [Relationship to the wide-area environment] more related to "segmented ". Then we perceived two characteristic thoughts of architects. One is the building is placed as an integral object with the consideration of the relationship to the nature or urban environment, and the other is various representations of the roof with the consideration of the experience in inside and outside space deployed under the roof which is separated from the ground. From the above, the framework of the design theme on the relationship between the surroundings and large span buildings by contemporary Japanese architects was established.
The present study aims to analyze the territorial transformations on Lido of Venice from 1850's to 1870's. Still today, the arrival of June brings happy-go-lucky holiday makers to the Adriatic Sea coast and beaches of Lido of Venice. Spending the summer on long term rented properties along the sea has become a yearly ritual, whose origins can be traced back to the early 20th century. Numerous are the documents depicting the atmosphere of luxury resorts on those early days. Thomas Mann's “Death in Venice” outstands among them and its popularity spread the name of Lido of Venice to a world-wide scale. The Lido of the early 19th century had preserved its old structure, with settlements concentrating along the coastline on the Laguna side and government supervised terrains along the Adriatic Sea shore. In between them, vast agricultural surfaces provided a countryside setting rather different from the bustle of resorts developments ubiquitous nowadays. The opening of the sea baths on 1857 arguably enhanced the great transformation to be experienced during the years that followed. They rapidly became a Venetian touristic attraction and represented a turning point in the modernization of the city. This paper aims to depict Lido's urban development strategies following the establishment of the recreational bath facilities, during the late half of the 19th century. In this text, it is argued that urban development strategies on the Lido switched balance at the middle of the 19th century and turned their attention to the Adriatic Sea shore, an area previously neglected in favour of the Laguna side. The expansion of the tourism industry at an European level helped to consolidate its economy which in its turn, greatly enabled to counterbalance the militarization of the island. Splendid planted avenues and promenades served by public transportation (in the form of carriages, replaced by tramways at a later stage) were the outcome of the beautification process that came along with the opening of the public baths. At the dawn of the 20th century, the establishment of grand hotels along these same great avenues secured the foundation of a new era for the Lido. This swift wouldn't have been possible without the contribution and investment of local individuals and corporate as it is exemplified by the Fisola.
This paper aims to discusses a history of modern buildings along Midosuji Boulevard in relation to its urban background. Midosuji is the symbol street in Osaka, and regarded very important for revitalization of Osaka City. Midosuji is a national road, about 4 km long and about 44m wide. It's passes through the central area of Osaka from JR Osaka station to Nankai Namba station. Midosuji was planned in the first urban planning of Osaka City in 1920's, and specified as the first grade road in the plan. The construction was started in 1926, and completed in 1937. This paper deals with the about 1km long of 4km of Midosuji, which is regarded to represent the image of Midosuji best. In this area, 50 buildings were built between 1920 and 1970, from the construction of the street to the beginning of the control about its townscape preservation by Osaka City. The history can be divided into 3 periods from the viewpoints of architectural characteristics, number and arrangement of the buildings.
1) 1920-1945 In the 1st period, the construction of buildings were limited because of the influence of the war. 12 buildings were built mainly in 2 zones, Yodoyabashi area (north side) and Hommachi area (south side). Yodoyabashi area consists mainly of financial company buildings like bank and insurance companies, designed in the classical style, on the other hand Hommachi area consists of commercial company buildings, designed in popular style like Spanish. Its tendency stems from the history and its characteristic of the land which was developed in the early modern (Toyotomi and Edo) period as Semba town. 2) 1945-1955 In the 2nd period which corresponds to the post-war reconstruction, 10 of 12 buildings were built on the east side of Midosuji, and 9 were bank buildings. Many buildings had granite wall, and emphasized vertical line as the transformation from classicism to modernism. The east side arrangement stems from a difference of lots on the blocks. East side lots were easier to acquire than the west, because the west side lots were too subdivided historically to get in a short period. And banks could build their own buildings preceding other types of company by the then government's finance policies. 3) 1955-1970 In the 3rd period, 26 buildings were built on all blocks along Midosuji in the high economic growth. They were planned in the full size of the then architectural restriction, growing demand for utilization of the city center. Consequently, Midosuji had possessed the townscape with completed wall line and skyline. By the industrialization of building construction, curtain-wall system appeared on the wall of 8 buildings, on the other hand old construction of tile wall was still used for 10 buildings.
This study takes as its subject the east gate of Ikebukuro station. Having verified the prewar organization of the city and plans for the square in front of the station, the study reveals the scope of the transport evacuation spaces, the state of war damage, the formation of postwar markets, street stand organization programs, and the reorganization of markets following war-damage-recovery land readjustment programs, and accordingly the subsequent process of new market construction. Particular attention is paid to the fact that Nezuyama, a grove of mixed trees that had not been developed since before the war, was located adjacent to Ikebukuro station. The war-damage-recovery land readjustment program for the Ikebukuro station east gate progressed most rapidly even within the city; one of the background factors here was the existence of Nezuyama. This study revealed the following four points: 1. The land upon which the Morita-gumi East Gate Market was built was revealed to have been a transport evacuation space from which buildings had been removed during the war. The Morita-gumi constructed the market, despite not having owned the land. This state of affairs was picked up on by the newspapers. This was backgrounded by the evacuation space having become either city-owned or city-managed land after having been either purchased or leased by the Tokyo Metropolitan Area from during the war until around 1947. At the time the Morita-gumi constructed the market, the city had held the rights to the land, and thus the Morita-gumi had obtained the cooperation of the city in building the market. 2. It was revealed that many new landowners appeared as Nezuyama was divided into lots for sale in the process of the war-damage-recovery land readjustment program. There was a rapid increase in landowners possessing land near the station owing to land having been widely divided and sold, not only among the merchants in the markets organized by the war-damage-recovery land readjustment program. 3. It was revealed that the above subdivision of Nezuyama for sale resulted in the construction of multiple new markets. Hikarimachi-dori and two markets created following the street stand organization programs were constructed on the replotted land that used to be Nezuyama. 4. It was revealed that two new markets were constructed following the purchase of land that was left empty as a burned-out field after the war. These markets were Sakaemachi-dori and Mikuni-koji.
The purpose of this paper is laying the foundation of a study for Ujiko-iki area in the city which has been hardly researched. A term 'Ujiko-iki' means a territory where Ujiko, which means a worshiper to a specific Shinto shrine, live around the Shinto shrine. Ujiko-iki area is very important for research of urban history in comprising the most basically part of the city. In 2005 Hirohisa Ito restored Ujiko-iki area in the Edo and described the change of distribution of town of Ujiko. However, the definition of Ujiko-iki area and the process setting boundaries of Ujiko-iki area was not revealed. In this paper Ujiko-iki area in Tokyo in 1872 is restored to grasp the whole image of Ujiko-iki area in the beginning of the Meiji period. In the chapter 2, it is described that Ujiko-iki area had drastically changed by constructing a new shrine system of the Meiji period. Especially two proclamations, ‘Gosha precepts’ and ‘Ujiko shirabe system’ mainly regulate Ujiko-iki area after the Meiji Restoration. With ‘Gosha precepts’ shrines and priests nationwide graded in accordance and all land distributed to each Ujiko-iki area belonging to any Shinto shrine. On the other hand, ‘Ujiko shirabe system’ was enacted as a law to assist the Family Registration Law of 1871, and indicated that the whole nation became Ujiko of any shrines based on ‘Gosha precepts’ As a result, Ujiko-iki area of the Meiji period, which was mostly different from it in the Edo period, was as a territory deeply related to the administration. In the chapter 3, the Ujiko-iki area in Tokyo in the beginning Meiji period 1872 is restored by identifying town names of Ujiko in historical materials on a map of the day. To compare Ujiko-iki area of the Edo period with Ujiko-iki area of the Meiji period, it is found out that there were two significant differences between two ages. Firstly, in the Edo period Ujiko-iki spread in a mosaic pattern along the townsmen district (Not all town of townsmen district became Ujiko). However, in the Meiji period it was reorganized to suitably divide the rest land in the each part. It was reason that territories of samurai, temples and shrines were abolish by Agechi-rei issued in the beginning of the Meiji period. Secondly, in the Edo period many towns were responsible for festival as Ujiko of two or three shrines, mostly towns corresponded to just one shrine in the Meiji period. Therefore, it is revealed how ‘Gosha precepts’ adopted Ujiko-iki area in Tokyo which was largest city in Japan in the beginning of the Meiji period. Most Ujiko-iki area in Tokyo were divided regardless of the family register district. The change of the number of shrines of each shrine ranking in each Daiku indicated that shrines were arbitrarily classified as each shrine ranking according to administrative necessities. Therefore, there were words 'Kizoku', which meant belonging, in the shrine register of 1872. This word indicated the relationships between village shrines and township shrines or unranked shrines, or township shrines and unranked shrines. But, this word 'Kizoku' was not used to prefectural shrines. On the other hand, the organization called 'Kumiai' was established in 1873. This was a pyramided organization laying prefectural shrines on the top in order to improve efficiency in delivering administrative orders. It can be pointed out that the territories of 'Kumiai' were similar to the areas of Daiku. The following is a summary of the above. After the Meiji Restoration, Ujiko-iki area drastically varied its form. Then it was gradually transformed for the shrine administration while leaving the former locality.
Herat is an old city in Western Afghanistan on Silk Road known for its cultural heritages. However, as the urban population increases rapidly, the city is under strong development pressure. This study looks at the extent of physical change as well as changes of residents in the Momandha Quarter in the southwestern part of Herat Old City, where many traditional adobe houses with domed roofs are preserved relatively well until now. Through field survey, it finds that activities of new constructions and repairs using industrialized materials have been accelerated in the last 10 years as new residents are moving into the old neighborhoods attracted by lower property prices. The traditional landscape of the quarter is rapidly changing as a result and conservation means are urgently needed.
The purpose of this study is to identify cultural significance of the vocational education project at 25 schools in Thailand designed by Sakakura architects & engineers in 1965-1970. Each school includes various types of buildings and they have been used nearly 50 years. Some of them need to be changed to meet new needs. Before making changes, significance of architectural components should be identified. However, there is not sufficient research about architectural characteristics to access their significance. The methodology of this study is using the identification processes of cultural significance in the Madrid Document 2014. The results showed that cultural significance of the buildings in this project can be grouped into three categories: 1) attributes and values of cultural significance specifically designed for this project, 2) attributes and values of cultural significance originally created by Sakakura and usually appeared in many of his works and 3) attributes and values of cultural significance influenced by Le Corbusier when Sakakura worked with him. These three categories of cultural significance seem to be components of the authenticity and integrity of this project's buildings. Applying comparative analysis of the Madrid Document 2014 can enable us to entirely understand i) significant cultural elements and its origin, ii) the reasons why such elements should be conserved and iii) how conservation technique should be applied in order to provide appropriate conservation in the future.
A planer graph whose all faces (including the outer faces) are rectangles is called a 2D floor-plan. An algorithm to enumerate 2D floor-plan based on reverse search method has been proposed by Nakano. However, an algorithm to enumerate 3D floor-plan which is consisted of some small cuboids isn't known yet. In this paper, We propose an enumeration algorithm of 3D floor-plan based on reverse search method by extending Nakano's algorithm. A reverse search method is an algorithm to enumerate nodes on spanning tree T with root. If we can define root and parent-child relationship between 3D floor-plans well, we can search the 3D floor-plans by depth-first search on T without knowing T itself. In all spaces of arbitrary 3D floor-plan S, there is only one space with vertex G of which all X, Y, Z coordinates are maximum. We call this space “n-th space”. If we can remove the n-th space by compressing it along X+ or Y+ or Z+ axis direction, we can get a new 3D floor-plan with n-1 spaces as shown Fig. 3. We define the new 3D floor-plan as parent of S. If we repeat removing n-th space, it must be end up with the 3D floor-plan with one space. We call this 3D floor-plan R1 and define it as root. As above, we can define T of 3D floor-plan. In an opposite process, by pushing n-th space to 3D floor-plan, we propose an algorithm to generate all children of 3D floor-plan. By applying this algorithm recursively from R1, we can enumerate 3D floor-plan with n spaces. This algorithm is shown in Fig. 8. More detail of this algorithm are given in chapter 3. By comparing the numbers of 3D floor-plan between our algorithm and algorithms of precedence research, the algorithm in this paper is confirmed appropriate as shown in Table. 1, 2. Also the numbers of 3D floor-plan enumerated by our algorithm are shown in Table. 3. As shown in Fig. 4, there are 3D floor-plan in which it is impossible to remove n-th space. To find an algorithm to enumerate all 3D floor-plan is remained as an open problem.