In the current Japanese urban areas, bonds of local residents have been dilutive, under the influence of low birthrate, aging, personalization of life, and diversification of values. After Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, these problems become obvious, and there has been a growing demand to regeneration of neighborhood community. The purpose of this study is to explore the way of planning of open type dwelling unit to activate the community. This paper examines the relationship between the dwelling unit plan and the formation of territory on 3-dimensional streets in case of the experimental housing "NEXT21". Especially, focusing the "Visual connection" between a living room and a 3-dimensional street, we analyzed the spread of personal areas on 3-dimensional streets. If there is a "Visual connection" between a living room and a 3-dimensional street, it caused the "intermediate space" with the device in the vicinity of the boundary. The device is the invitational design technique, also the exclusive design technique. Due to differences in the arrangement of the "intermediate space", they were classified into five types of "Visual connections" between a living room and a 3-dimensional street. To target the dwelling unit that has direct "Visual connection", we analyzed "Areas of comfortable" and "Areas to be worried about if there are strangers". "Areas of comfortable" are recognized as the private areas of proceeds. "Areas to be worried about if there are strangers" are recognized as the areas visible from the familiar life spaces. If the living room of the dwelling unit is spread in the "intermediate space", "Areas to be worried about if there are strangers" are formed in the areas of "Visual connection" with not only the living room but also the "intermediate space". Furthermore, "Areas of comfortable" are formed in the areas of the invitational quality. However, "intermediate space" having a large opening prevents the formation of "Areas of comfortable" under the influence of the exclusive quality. Through analysis, we were able to see how the private areas spread the living room to the "intermediate space" and 3-dimensional streets in stages. Simply not only to pursue the securing of privacy, but also it is necessary to perform open type dwelling planning in the hope that the community will be formed after a few years. There, it is important that "intermediate space"s become cores of communication, and connect in three dimensions by "Visual connections".
Medical institution for disabled children is the only facilities where a child lives though under RYOUIKU( habilitative treatment). In recent years, a target of RYOUIKU has changed from recovery and improvement of the motor function into the whole aim-like developmental support, because obstacles of children with disabilities in the facilities are getting variously. It's learned that play behaviors has the effect on the whole aim developmental, and it's wished for that residential spaces of medical type facilities is the environment that is easy to play for children with disabilities.
So, successive studies set a goal to clarify spatial factors in medical type facilities for children with disabilities to contribute the development of severely disabled children. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the use characteristics of the residential spaces of Medical type facilities for children with disabilities. To get some knowledge for constructing a playing environment tailored to the child's disability characteristics, this paper focuses on children's play behaviors and playgroup. The survey targets are residential spaces of before rebuilding / after rebuilding of K rehabilitation center, and the survey is a behavior trucking observation at 10minutes intervals. We obtained the following findings.
1) Disabled children living at medical facility are actively playing, except severely retarded children. Analysis of relations between play behavior and disability characteristics shows that Motor-impairing restricts play behaviors with body action, such as playing with toys and body sensory play, and Intellectual-impairing restricts play behaviors with conversation or understanding of contents. 2) As a result of analyzing the distribution of playing behavior settings in the residential spaces, disabled children living at medical facility are actively using the physical settings like wide spaces or corners with toy shelves. Especially, corners with toy shelves or televisions increase play behavior with some body action. These results indicates that the corners which is formed in both YUKAZA-space (the floor seating space) and ISUZA-space (the chair-seating space) are valid for improvement of difficulty in playing. 3) Analysis of playgroup showed that children living at medical facility use different spaces according to care-staff's participation in play or playing with children alone. Senior and lightly disabled children tends to choose places where they can stay away from care-staffs such as their bedroom (in the before rebuilding institution) and alcoves of common space (in the after rebuilding institution). 4) For the children with intellectual disabilities, play spaces with small scale and corner setting are an important physical requirement for play with calm or with mutual negotiation with other children.
In this study we carried out impression evaluation experiments using the “caption evaluation method” in a Tokyo metropolitan area terminal “Station T”, and analyzed spatial elements that were pointed out, numbers of spatial elements pointed out and spatial impressions along routes of movement, and design elements and features of signs that were important for experiment participants. The findings from this study are described below.
(1) For participants who felt that they would easily get lost in Station T, "directional signs" and "map signs" were readily recognized. However, from the fact that those targets had been graded both with "〇" and "×", those are "items of consideration" that require judgment in the formulation of development policies, and systematic and useful measures are required.
(2) "Elements" related to commercial facilities, such as "stores", were all graded with "〇", indicating that the shops in the terminal station might be a landmarks for route finding.
(3) There were particular objects that attracted attention during movements in train stations. In particular, attention to signs in the middle of passageways was concentrated.
(4) Though the degree of importance of signs is high in stations, opinions on the current state of signs are varied, and the ease of movement depends on users' frequency of using signs. The ease of determining current location and the ease of finding signs play important roles in improving the ease of movement.
(5) Displaying destinations in "directional signs" and "map signs" could improve the "ease of understanding". About "directional signs", with the consideration of the locations at which signs are placed, big font sizes contribute to the improvement of "ease of understanding". And displaying information about the current floor in "directional signs" in the stations with multi-level structures improves the "ease of understanding". On the other hand, displaying the “current location” labels at eye level in "map signs" improves the "ease of understanding".
1. Objective This study was aimed at regulating an approximate formulation of the selection rates of facilities for the elderly based on the actual choices of facilities in accordance with ‘daily living areas’, which is defined as care service providing districts by local government, in a particular municipality.
2. Methods A case study was conducted for the usage situation of 9 community-based multi-care facilities, 12 group living facilities (group homes) for the elderly with dementia, and 8 intensive-care homes for the elderly (nursing homes) in Municipality K, Ishikawa Prefecture. For this purpose, all information regarding current address and address before admittance to the facilities of all users of the above three kinds of facilities was obtained from Municipality K(as of April 1, 2013). The information was mapped using GIS to measure and analyze the incidence of users of services in each area and users of facilities within and outside the areas for the different ‘daily living areas’, according to the type of facility.
3. Results and Discussion The following observations and conclusions were made: - The overall average rates for the selection of facilities within the ‘daily living areas’ was 63.8% for community-based multi-care facilities, 38.5% for group living facilities, and 31.3% for nursing homes. - In the area where three kinds of facilities were established, average rates for the selection area always became larger in the order of nursing homes, group living facilities, and community-based multi-care facilities. The overall average selection rates were higher for community-based facilities than for facilities covering wide areas and higher for outpatient care facilities than for inpatient care facilities. - In terms of movements within and between ‘daily living areas’, selection rates for small multi-care facilities, which are community-based and provide outpatient services, were 50% or higher in all areas where such facilities are available, indicating that movements between different ‘daily living areas’ were relatively few. However, selection rates for nursing homes, which cover wide areas and provide inpatient services, were found to be lower than 30% in three areas, indicating that there was a high incidence of movements between different ‘daily living areas’. Furthermore, selection rates for group living facilities, which are community-based and provide inpatient services, were intermediate between those for nursing homes and community-based multi-care facilities. - The larger the 75-years-or-older population was or the lower the actual establishment rate of facilities was, the ratio of users from within the area tended to be higher. However, if there was no facility in the area, the ratio of facility users for the 75-years-or-older population itself tended to become lower. - Only the selection rate for group living facilities was found to have a strong positive correlation with the capacity limit of the facility within the living area. - A strong negative correlation was found between the selection rate for group living facilities and that for community-based multi-care facilities. This is possible because they are in complemental relation for the care of the elderly with dementia in the area. A strong negative correlation was found between the selection rate for inpatient facilities and that for community-based multi-care facilities. - An approximate formulation of the selection rates of these three facilities for the elderly in the living area was made on the basis of the above considerations.
In experiencing spaces, we receive information through the five senses and make a value judgment. Particular spaces create particular emotions that later define our behavior towards the spaces. A feeling of ‘Tanoshisa’ is a such emotional association in spaces. Architects create spaces based on their own experiences, often emphasizing on the aspects of “Tanoshisa” in the spaces. However, when talking of ‘Tanoshisa’ the meaning of the word varied from people to people since the understanding of the word is different by individuals. As a result, polymorph naturally occurs in language as our ideas of the words mix with the ideas of others. This research aims to uncover hidden aspects of the word “Tanoshisa” and to derive a conceptual framework of the word by analyzing the polymorph of “Tanoshisa” in text description of buildings by architects. The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract sentences that contain words associated with the meaning of “Tanoshisa” used by architects to explain their design of architecture in the architectural magazine, Shinkenchiku during 1950 ? 2011. 2. Extract Object, Subject and Character. Object is the word described as “Tanoshisa” or related to it. Subject is the one creates “Tanoshisa”. Character is an attribute of the object. 3. Consider and analyze the relationships between Object and Subject, Subject and Character. After that, derive the tendencies of their relationships. 4. Categorize the relationships by creating a matrix in which the vertical axis is the tendency of Object and Subject, and the horizon axis is of Subject and Character, and derive aspects of polymorph of “Tanoshisa”.
As a result, four tendencies of the relationships between Object and Subject were found : ”Tanoshisa” of planning a creation, “Tanoshisa” of intervening with a human operation, “Tanoshisa” of having the link to nature and “Tanoshisa” of making architectural creativity. And three tendencies of the relationships between Subject and Character were found: Internalization of extroverting influence, Situations affected by others and Production of unconstrained spatial aspects.
Through the investigation of the matrix, 23 different types of interpretations of polymorph of “Tanoshisa” were derived. At the same time, “Tanoshisa” is expressed with three major frameworks as below: 1) The Natural: Nature itself brings us closer physically and emotionally. 2) The Architectural: When composing an architecture as a whole, architects plan to leave extra spaces to allow users to create their own usages, on the other hand, when assembling a partial element of architecture, architects design in unique and creative ways. 3) The Active: when architects encounter unexpected events or difficulties, they find them as opportunities of creativity.
To summarize, architects reflect the idea of ‘Tanoshisa’ on to their architectural design considering the changes in uses of architecture throughout its life time and the frequent changes of users, and transforming building or mixing more than two different elements appropriate to the changes.
Nagaya-mon gate is one of factors consisted of farmhouse premises. The paper aims to clarify layout conditions of the gate focusing on setting up premises of farmhouse. Utsunomiya city in Tochigi prefecture were chosen for investigation because many Nagaya-mon gates of rural type still exist in the area. Through map surveys on web browser and field studies, all gates in the city were categorized into several types from view-points of gate's attributes, such as orientation, common axis with main house, and connection of public road adjacent to the site. The conclusions introduced from the analyses can be summarized as follows: 1) Both main houses and Nagaya-mon gates mostly face the south, and the layout of the premises shows that main house and Nagaya-mon gate have common axis along each approach with parallel position; 2) four fifth of the cases correspond with the previous relation, and no Nagaya-mon gate facing the north is observed; 3) assuming the typical case mentioned above, cases not applicable to the type seem to be caused by some conditions such as relation to the adjacent road, restriction due to landform of the site, and are consequently considered that Nagaya-mon faces the east or west with no common axis between the main house; 4) few Nagaya-mon gates face local main road like the national and the prefectural road, while the others mainly face inferior public roads or private roads; 5) considering the transition of the surroundings, original Nagaya-mon gate is assumed to have a private approach on its own site. Categorizing the cases from view-points of the Nagaya-mon gates' orientation, relation to main house and the adjacent road, distribution of the categories don't apparently shows any differences between plain areas and mountainous area, but cases of the same category concentrate in each local area. A hypothesis can be introduced that an existing Nagaya-mon gate and its surroundings must have presented a norm or standard at that time when gates enthusiastically built in each area. Taking findings from five case studies of time sequence analysis into consideration, it can be said that residents generally consider layout of the Nagaya-mon gates as important factor of their premises and seem to be affected by physiognomy of a house. Nagaya-mon gate not only functions as a boundary between inside and outside of the homestead like premises forest, watercourses and fences, but also uniquely presents an intermediate space between private and public zone. In addition, approach to Nagaya-mon gates is likely to have changed because of projects of extending roads, land reallocation or farm land consolidation, popularization of automobiles and agricultural machines. Nagaya-mon gate integrates resident's inferior needs of life and exterior social relations to community.
It needs to be clarified how children grow up with the people around them and their surroundings. For this process, the cooperation among school, families and the community is necessary. Recently, the combination and reorganization of schools increases due to the declining of the birthrate. Wider school zone becomes because of the combination and reorganization, more difficult the cooperation between a school and its community becomes. On the other hand, a certain way of integration combination and reorganization of schools catches attentions. It is to establish unified elementary through junior high schools. This type of school is also considered as one of the solutions to work on some academic issues. Inside of the stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, for example, unified elementary through junior high school has established, being aimed at the revival of the education in that area. This method is expected to strengthen the social ties in the community. However, only few attempts have so far been made at the research on the cooperation between unified elementary through junior high school and its community, because this type of school is comparatively new in Japan. So, the purpose of this paper is to acquire the basic knowledge of the cooperation between unified elementary through junior high school and its community. For Kyoto Ohara Gakuin that was consolidated to unified elementary through junior high school for the purpose of staying the school in the area, this paper clarify the outlines of the activities of the students inside and outside the classes in cooperation with local residents, the effect of the activities on local residents and teachers and requirements to promote cooperation. First, we carried out an interview survey to local residents in order to grasp the outlines of the activities, the contents of cooperation and awareness of the people in the activities. Secondly, we carried out a questionnaire survey and an interview survey to class teachers and the principal so as to grasp the conditions of planning and operation of the activities by class teachers and the awareness of the class teachers about the activities. The number of activities with the community has increased after introduction of unified elementary through junior high school education. Local residents` children or grandchildren who go to Kyoto Ohara Gakuin and other local residents work together in the activities, because the teachers positively communicate with local residents in the community`s events in order to take care of them and strengthen the relationships among them. The effects on local residents through the cooperation to the activities are the following points; to utilize a place for activities as one part of the community, an opportunity to hang out is increased and to be able to be vigorous. The effect on teachers is to come to have a better communication with local residents and start to have a feeling that this school is necessary for the community. The cooperation between a unified elementary through junior high school and its community gives the desirable effect to the local residents who cooperate as well as operate the activities; the awareness of themselves and better life. All in all, to promote the cooperation between unified elementary and junior high school and local residents, it is important to value the place to interact with local residents in order to make relationships with residents other than guardians and to make connections within a school zone. As a result, it seems reasonable to say that the consciousness that things of school are also things of the community has been raised, and, as a consequence, the cooperation among them has been improved.
Since the Japanese housing system was marketed at the end of the 20th century, a huge amount of private sale housings were built and became a receiver for the people who returned to the metropolitan area. As more than 20 years have passed since the arrival of the era of urban core revival, it is indispensable to analyze “lifestyle images” seen in the housing market to read changes in the living environment. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how residential housing has changed the living environment by analyzing expressions used in housing advertisement. There were three investigations and following was obtained:
1) Location and value change of private sale housing under the era of urban core revival It became clear that the private sale housing in the era of urban core revival can be roughly divided into two groups. One is a group of houses (named “standard private sale houses”) with a price of 30-60 million yen in size of 60-89 square meters and a floor height of 15 floors or less, and the other is a group of houses with various characters (named “special private sale houses”). The former is distributed throughout the metropolitan area, whereas the latter was found to have a radial distribution structure centered around the Yamanote line. Also, paying attention to the difference in living environment value, the former will only enjoy the basic value, while the latter will enjoy more diverse and image-wise value. As mentioned above, two groups with different properties have been supplied to private sale houses to promote population return to central Tokyo.
2) Transition of the regional image caused by soaring and falling of residential land prices Based on the value expression of the location area in the housing advertisement, it became clear that the regional images were categorized into six clusters, each having a unique distribution tendency. While three regional images of “CL1: low convenience area with lacking of living facilities”, “CL3: low image area with lacking of natural values”, and “CL4: high ground permanent-living area” tend to be distributed throughout the metropolitan area, ”CL2 education / security specialized area” tend to be distributed around 20km from central Tokyo, and “CL5: urban area with entertainment” and “CL6: advanced image inclusive area” are distributed mainly around the peripheral area and some coastal areas. Next, looking at the transition of regional images under the return to the city center, we found that the transition to “CL3: low image area with lacking of natural values” is mainly progressing in the whole metropolitan area. Areas that achieved transitions of regional images different from these were extracted as "transitions of unique area images" from this analysis.
3) Actual state of the areas that achieved transitions of unique regional images In the six areas that achieved "transitions of unique area images", small factories, condominiums, detached houses, apartment complexes, corporate houses were found to be subject to renewal. Among them, in the price rising region, there is a diverse characteristic in the change of building uses, and accordingly there was a difference in the transition of the regional images. On the other hand, in the price falling area, construction of condominiums is progressing but there is no clear difference in the change of building use. Instead of it, it was grasped that cognitive changes in location areas such as expansion of the view of the surrounding area, replacement from the natural environment to the child rearing environment, accreditation and boost by the administration are strongly influenced on the transition of regional images in the price falling area.
In this research, houses with historical scenic beauty are first classified according to the construction period, and then elements such
as the current physical condition, the suppliers, and the maintenance status are investigated. There are 4 main conclusions. The
buildings with historical scenic beauty are mostly inherited, but many of the houses that are not inherited currently are in a mixed
state; new constructions are not connected to the improvement of the historical scenic beauty; the maintenance management system
of buildings with historical scenic beauty is weakening; there is an increasing tendency in the efforts for utilization of traditional
An elevated pedestrian deck that has been constructed over a station plaza is a facility to connect a station with surrounded area in order to achieve smooth traffic. Approximately 230 decks has been constructed along with railway station in Japan, and the aging of the decks becomes a problem recently. With the case study of Kashiwa Station East Deck “Double Deck” which is the oldest deck in Japan, the purpose of this paper is to examine process and system of the deck management as a plaza with achieving revitalization of the decks as urban open spaces. The reason why the Double Deck had been built was not only to create a pedestrian friendly space within downtown in Kashiwa, but also to provide a traffic plaza space that was lacked at this moment. Applying the Urban Redevelopment Project provided for the Urban Renewal Act, one third of the station square floor was built with the deck in 1973. At the time of its completion, the deck space was the road under a law, but it became popular place as a symbol plaza and event space because of the first elevated car-free space. In fact, the number of music performances on the deck has increased since 1990s, and then Kashiwa city made the rule about performance on the deck, “Kashiwa Rule” in 2005, to support their activity. It allows performers to do their activities throughout a year with easy and low-cost registration procedure. After 40 years from construction, in 2012, its seismic repair was accomplished. Along with this repair, the deck also increased plaza floor for event space. In the same period of deck repair, private sector which is composed of 4 shopping street organizations redeveloped the space below the deck as pedestrian plaza in order to create a pedestrian friendly environment at the ground level. After its redevelopment, the private sector handed over an arrangement to the Kashiwa city about management of the plaza. These two redevelopments make the station square more friendly for pedestrians, and it became more fascinating space. Moreover, the station square leads the public private partnerships in public space management on the Double Deck. The Kashiwa Rule is also the part of its management system. Logistical management work are taken by NPO and local private organization under an arrangement with Kashiwa city. On the other hand, from 2016 April, the Kashiwa Machidukuri Kosha Public Corp. started a comprehensive management including the Double Deck and its ground pedestrian plaza, following private sector's management. This total management aims to increase diversity of activities in the station square, with deregulating road occupancy permission by the Act on Special Measures concerning Urban Reconstruction. The Kashiwa east station square including the Double Deck is still “road” in law. However, through spatial regeneration and formation of management by public private partnership, it has become almost “plaza” spatially and functionally. Many of the pedestrian decks built in Japan are still planed only as a part of transportation hub. In order to promote the revitalization of downtown around the railroad station in the future, it is necessary to reconsider the function of a station square and its deck, and also to establish a guideline to design a station square as a more vibrant and more pedestrian friendly space.
Nagoya city's urban landscape master plan became a leading plan example of initial period for a landscape master plan for a whole city area. Although Municipal Landscape Policy is being conducted unifying under the Landscape Law today, before Nagoya city's approach, it was being conducted in a framework of individual law except it by municipal own ordinance. In the approaches by municipal own ordinance until the 1970's, most cities such as Kanazawa city, Takayama city and Kyoto city had themes of historical environment. In the 1980's in Kobe city and Nagoya city, Landscape Basic Plan as Urban Landscape Master Plan not only for historical environment but also for a whole city area was formulated in accordance with each municipal Landscape Conservation Regulation. In the formulation approaches of each city's plan, they evaluate regional landscape by spatial zoning in the whole city. Kobe city makes zoning in advance by Typification of Landscape, and Nagoya city makes zoning for city area by Independent Landscape Zone, Fundamental Landscape Zone and Spatial Construction based on Standard Axis of Landscape. Although such a difference is seen in both, it is not right or wrong question. Thereafter Nagoya's approach had reference quality to lead landscape master plan of Fujisawa city, Kita-Kyushu city and Tokyo city. The features of pioneering Plan Formulation are high evaluation, Formulation System and Method in the planning process. There is an administrative monograph of the past concerning Nagoya city's Urban Landscape Master Plan, however the study concerning Planning Formulation Method is not seen. According to this study of Planning Formulation Method, there is the usefulness for various Planning Formulation as a reference concerning Contemporary city's Master Plan.
The present study develops a new methodology to visualize the interactions between stakeholders during consensus building processes. The research takes as an example the urban environment improvement master plan consultation process for a commercial street in Dongseong-ro, Dae-gu city, Korea and, based on qualitative coding analysis of the project discussion proceedings, clarifies: 1. The priority and importance of each discussion topic. 2. The various natures of the interactions between participants. 3. The changing roles of each participant along the process. On that purpose, firstly, the whole proceedings of the project meetings that took place a total of 15 times from July 16, 2007 to April 3, 2009 were studied. The project was divided in 4 stages: Master Plan image, First project design check, Further corrections, and finally, last comments and common agreement. Secondly, inside each project phase, discussions were classified according to speaker (Master Architect (MA), Expert, Government, heads Citizens, Local Merchants and Government officers), topic of each comment (street features and area aesthetics) and position of the speaker and reactions of other participants (8 types). Based on this points a new methodology for objective visualization of the discussion process was developed. Finally based on this method, the whole consensus building process was defined and the main points of the discussion and idea adjustments were clarified. As a result, the following points were clarified: 1. Concerning the evolution of the discussion topics, the research proved that the dimension of the discussion changes. In the first stages, larger issues related to the urban space (plaza, street, etc.) are the center of attention, and gradually the discussion turns to physical elements (trees, street furniture, etc.). 2. In terms of participation during the discussions, the MA is more present and active during the first two design proposal stages. Community groups show more commitment during the project check and modification phases. Governmental officers show more interest in the implementation of the project and during the last stage they try to verify the process with the technicians. 3. With regard to the key roles in the discussion, the leader position changes along the course of discussions: the MA holds the leading position in the initial stages, but then takes the role of coordinator in the last phases of the project. Finally, this new visualization methodology could be used in other different cases as a tool to evaluate the weak/strong points of past consultation processes. Besides, it can also be useful to anticipate conflict in similar participatory projects.
This study shows a strong correlation between light variation and psychological influence in the nighttime landscape. The evaluation factors of the impression of the nighttime landscape in Yokocho consist of two elements; liveliness and attraction. And when we see the street from a perspective of the entire space, face, lighting, etc., the diversity of light variations play a pivotal role in creating liveliness and attraction. From this result, further study on light variation with regard to nighttime landscape in Yokocho is needed. The variety of the amount of light and the position of lighting has a positive influence on the element of the liveliness. The same result is also applicable to various lighting modes. The uniform light quantity in a dark space and the various light quantities in a bright space exert positive effects on attraction of Yokocho. The same result also applies to the case of regular form of lighting. The results show the characteristics of the four targeting Yokocho (Fig. 7). In addition, various light fluctuation factors or mutual relations among the elements illustrates the characteristics of Yokocho And from the viewpoint of the element of the variation of light, we have got clues to develop the attractive nighttime landscape in Yokocho (Fig. 8).
Over two millions of public houses are managed by local governments in Japan, and more than half of the total stock requires updating and improvement because of their physical deterioration and mismatching of current housing standards. Actually, they increasingly implemented renovation projects for existing public houses with financial support from the national government. However, there are little wooden public houses renovated with the governmental support. That's because the overwhelming majority of the public houses was those constructed of reinforced concrete or concrete blocks, and those constructed of wood are likely to be newly built compared to the other types of construction. Given that more wooden public houses will past the statutory durable lifetime (30 years for wooden public houses) in the near future, it is increasingly important for local governments, most of which faced financial difficulties, to maintain existing wooden public houses as community assets. This study aims to show real situation of maintenance and management of wooden public houses and to offer basic knowledge which can contribute to proper management of them. As preliminary research, the author conducted analysis of nationwide statistical data of public houses. The results indicate that stocks of wooden public houses was basically divided into two: those constructed before 1970 and those after 1980. The former was constructed by standardized planning and design for resolution of serious accommodation shortage just after WWII, and the latter was characterized by original design and adoption of traditional construction methods and materials and expected to be a regional symbol of dwelling environment. The results also showed that small municipalities, particularly those managing less than 100 units of public houses, are largely divided into two groups: those at a very high rate of wooden public houses and those with a very low rate. As case research, the author selected ten municipalities, which varies in population from less than 10,000 to more than 800,000, and where most of the wooden public houses were built after 1980. According to analysis of the relevant documents including long-life plans of public houses, which are mandatory documents for application for national governmental support, wooden ones are likely to be planned to be utilized continuously even if they past the statutory durable lifetime. Based on the detailed interviews with the officials at the local governments, most of the municipalities pointed out physical deterioration of wooden public houses, and necessities for any refurbishment and renovation. Out of the refurbishment and renovation works after 2000, (1) external wall refurbishment, (2) roof refurbishment, (3) installment of hot-water supply equipment, (4) maintenance of water supply and drainage and (5) termite extermination were pointed out as particularly costly works. But because of difficulties to secure a sufficient budget, most of these works had to be fully financed by themselves. It was found that the municipalities have difficulty to apply for governmental financial support for refurbishment and renovation works of wooden public houses, and they have to adopt an appropriate refurbishing method to construction methods and materials in existing buildings. To implement refurbishment and renovation works for wooden public houses effectively, they should be appreciated from a viewpoint of life cycle cost, and manuals or guidelines for officials at local governments which describe periodic works and expected costs should be organized.
This paper investigates the task distribution among “Design Architect” and “Architect of Record” by examining “Matrix of Responsibilities”. It is typically utilized in US projects, which clarifies tasks and responsibilities among architects in a descriptive manner. The authors obtained nine “Matrix of Responsibilities” from six US based design firms (Table 1). First, the transition of Prime Responsibilities from “Design Architect” to “Architect of Record” was investigated based on the Project Phases. Then, the role and responsibilities of “Design Architect” and “Architect of Record” was investigated in each Project Phases. Finally, the equally distributed responsibilities are focused to identify the specific intent of the architects. The list of the findings as follows; 1. The prime responsibility of “Design Architect” is transferred to the “Architect of Record” mainly in the CD phase (Table 2, Fig. 1). 2. Design Management in the Design Phase: “Architect of Record” is responsible of consultants’ coordination and approval from the public agencies, especially in the CD phase (Table 3). 3. Design Document Preparation in the Design Phase: “Design Architect” is mainly responsible for the production of drawings until the DD phase. The prime responsibility of the production of specification is handed over to the “Architect of Record” earlier phase than the drawings. Preparation of presentation documents is in charge mainly by “Design Architect” in the SD and the DD phase. Documentation for authority approval is prepared solely by “Architect of Record” (Table 3). 4. Bidding and Negotiation phase: Neither of architects takes prime responsibility in the management of Bidding and Negotiation. “Architect of Record” takes full responsibility in the production of documents for Bidding and Negotiation (Table 4). 5. Construction Contract Administration phase: “Architect of Record” covers most of the responsibilities in the Construction Contract Administration. “Design Architect” sometimes controls “Material and Color” and other specific design elements (Table 5). 6. Both “Design Architect” and “Architect of Record” are assigned equal responsibilities of Design Management related issues in the Design Phase (Table 6).
To assess the potential for care-taking of vacant houses by local residents in an area where traditional wooden houses remain, I conducted a questionnaire survey of residents living along and in the vicinity of the “T Street” in order to assess their awareness of vacant houses and their attitude towards care-taking of these houses. A total of 98 persons responded to the questionnaire survey, which was conducted in January 2016. Prior to conducting the survey, I determined that approximately 13% of the houses along the street were vacant. Of these, around one half were considered to be abandoned, in the sense that no caretaker had entered the house. Although no buildings were on the verge of collapse, about 30% of the houses had weeds growing at their entrances, and the vacant houses appeared to be in need of maintenance. Among the respondents, there was a 50:50 split between men and women and the mean age was 68.2 years; many of the respondents were from households consisting of elderly couples. More than 80% of the respondents were involved in town planning activities. The respondents responded that they would like as many residents as possible to be involved in town planning activities. The respondents are very concerned about the increase in vacant houses that has occurred in recent years throughout Japan. This concern arose from realizing that the number of vacant houses in their neighborhoods has increased over the last three to five years. The main concerns about vacant houses were “untidiness of shrubbery and weeds,” “risk that houses may collapse,” and “degradation of landscape and scenery.” Regarding the willingness of local residents to share care-taking responsibilities in the neighborhood, the survey revealed that more people were “not willing to cooperate” than were “willing to cooperate”. Respondents were particularly apprehensive about the technical aspects associated with tasks such as “checking and inspecting for leaks inside houses,” “pruning shrubbery,” and “inspecting external walls and roofs for damage from the outside.” Respondents were strongly opposed to entering houses in order to “clean and tidy up interiors and discard disused articles,” Conversely, activities on which a relatively high number of respondents were “willing to cooperate” included “simple cleaning of entranceways and gardens,” “opening windows to ventilate interiors,” and “weeding of entranceways and gardens.” Thus, these are all care-taking activities that local residents could be expected to get involved in. Next, regarding the willingness to accept support from local residents in the event that one's own house was to become vacant, there were more unwilling respondents than willing ones. This reveals a strong resistance to having people entering the house to perform work. Still, there is potential for local residents to provide support by performing simple tasks from outside such houses. The findings of the study showed that, in practice, it is generally somewhat difficult to get local residents to take care of vacant houses due to apprehension about the physical effort and technical aspects of the work required depending on the task, and also because of residents' reticence to entering houses or sites. However, residents are willing to cooperate on some activities, so there is potential for getting them to get involved in simple outdoor tasks.
The objective of this study is to reveal the floor plan characteristics of townhouses in Hida-Takayama. Hida-Takayama has two preservation districts for groups of traditional buildings and multiple townhouses, which form the core townscape of historical urban development. Traditional survey reports and research papers have mainly focused on the floor plan classification of townhouses in the preservation districts; thus, the overall understanding of the preservation districts and their surroundings and the characteristics based on the restoration study of the townhouses remain unclear. Previous research by Dr. Kunikazu Ueno focused on the “Tateyazousaku-tategu-kosaikakiagecho (Kakiagecho)” of 1843 and provided an overall summary based on the reports and illustrations of townhouses of upper-class townsmen in Hida-Takayama. This research showed a floor plan analysis of townhouses but did not provide the specific details of the floor plan characteristics such as flared rooms and zigzag plans. Therefore, in this study, we created a restoration floor plan based on field surveys and document investigations of townhouses in the preservation districts and their surroundings, considered the correlation analysis from the townhouse floor plans described in the “Kakiagecho” of 1843 to examine the floor plan characteristics of townhouses in Hida-Takayama, and revealed the following points. An examination of the floor plan characteristics of townhouses in the “Kakiagecho” revealed that there is an outer doji (dirt floor) with an independent komise (substore) or mise (main store) at the front and an inner doji widening out into flared rooms such as the kitchen at the back. The living spaces are mainly two-row or three-row floor plan structures consisting of over seven rooms. Zigzag plan in depth direction are observed at the front and back living spaces of the majority of townhouses. Additionally, the back living rooms had spacious sitting rooms with the zigzag plan in frontage direction tending to merge with zigzag plan in depth direction. Comparing the restoration floor plans of existing townhouses, in addition to the five townhouses that have been discussed in the past, we found one more townhouse that showed a close resemblance to the floor plans in the “Kakiagecho.” When looking at the restoration floor plans, living spaces can be broadly classified into one-row structures with over three rooms, two-row structures with over five rooms, and three-row structures with over seven rooms. In large townhouses with a wide front area, mainly the three-row structured ones, there were some cases where a courtyard was established in the front corner with an adjacent tearoom. In particular, we observed a connection between the komise on the side at the front and the doji with flared rooms such as kitchens at the back. Additionally, zigzag plan in depth direction were observed in most of the two-row and three-row structured townhouses, and approximately 60% of them have zigzag plan in frontage direction creating a living space in the back with a spacious sitting space. These characteristics match the floor plan characteristics of the townhouses in the “Kakiagecho.” Furthermore, we considered the reason for the zigzag plan in depth direction and indicated the possibility that this was to provide spacious sitting rooms and altar rooms at the back of the gable side living space as well as the ability to move in and out of these rooms without entering the front kazuki, a room unique to Hida-Takayama.
Shiga-in Temple is a Tendai sect temple located in Sakamoto Otsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. While this structure was built in the first half of the 17th century, ruled over by the Rinnouzi-Monzeki priesthood who were of royal blood, it is currently the main temple of the Hiezan Enryakuji-temple concourse, the leading site of the Tendai sect, and at the same time is a residence for the Tendai master. Buildings constructed by Nikai-Syoin, Kyakuden, and Kuri can be found within the precincts of Shiga-in Temple; the Edo period buildings that were previously located on this site burned down during 1877. Early research on Shiga-in Temple initially assumed that the site functioned as a private academic training or retirement facility for Rinnouzi-Monzeki at Mt. Hieizan, and secondarily as an officially controlled temple. However, while these initial studies did partly discuss the function of Shiga-in Temple, no research to date has dealt with either the construction or management system of this site. This study uses newly available historical materials in the collection of Eizan Bunko on Hieizan Enryakuzi to clarify the management system and prefectural organization of the Shiga-in Temple. First, we demonstrate the presence of three organizations that controlled the operation of Shiga-in Temple, Tendaizasu, Rinnouzi-Monzeki, and Shiga-in Rusui. Of these, Tendaizasu was the top level of a sect denominated from ancient times in Hieizan, while Rinnouzi-Monzeki was the top level of the newly established Tendai sect denominated in Kanto. Finally, Shiga-in Rusui was a worker for an organization responsible for the temple of Hieizan Enryakuzi. Although previous research has argued that the Tendaizasu and the Rinnouzi-Monzeki were unified subsequent to the Edo period, the two organizations were formally at the top level of Shiga-in Temple. This is because these sects were always present in Kanto, while Shiga-in Temple was always managed by a Shiga-in Rusui on this mountain. Shiga-in Rusui was a priest appointed to fulfill a number of duties, including that of representing the temple in external relations, of serving as deputy for the head of the temple when he was absent, as well as managing internal tasks and receiving guests. The second aim of this study is an attempt to verify that Shiga-in Temple building was not reconstructed during the modern era. To do this, we used documents and pictures from historical records. Our analysis shows that building work at Shiga-in Temple started in 1645, and that initial restoration work was carried out in 1748, before large earthquakes occurred in 1751 and 1830. Documents and comparisons of pictorial records of construction show that six periods of restoration and maintenance work took place in the early Edo period. From 1744, four images provide evidence for this. The first shows the first restoration, and the second, from 1767, shows painting before repairs as a result of extensive restorations carried out by the shogunate government. The third image shows repairs carried out by the shogunate government in the 19th century, while the fourth is a picture from the Meiji era, towards the end of the Edo period. These images show the extent of restorations in each period up until the present. Historical documents and diary materials reveal that repair work to Shiga-in Temple was carried out repeatedly. In addition, using historical drawings, we are able to elucidate the appearance of Shiga-in Temple during each period of restoration work. For example, we are able to elucidate the construction of the precinct from historical drawings, and verify a group of northern boundaries as a Kyakuden, a Kosyoin, and a Kitchen, while a Nikai-syoin is represented by a group in the south.
This paper aims to describe the role of housing companies rooted in traditional mutual loan system in Japan's housing supply from Taisho period to postwar period. House ownership rate increased rapidly in this period, these companies developed in synchronization with it. This paper also aims to analyze the process of the diffusion of home ownership from the viewpoint of private companies and consumers. These companies were called ‘‘Jutaku Mujin’’ in prewar period, and called ‘‘Geppu Jutaku’’ in postwar period. I collected 8 representative companies' company histories and founder's publications. In the result, these companies can be traced back to older age, they were more various in marketing method and locality than previously known, and most of them had strong connection in personnel. ‘‘Jutaku Mujin’’ companies developed since 1930s and ‘‘Geppu Jutaku’’ companies developed since 1950s because of the shortage of housing and the increase of motivation of having home ownership. Existed laws had difficulty to regulate them, so some of them were likely to be recognized as social problem. At times the problem of these companies were examined in National Diet both prewar period and post war period. These companies could come to market with small capitals, but client tended to have complaint about the condition of breaking leases because of their characteristic of mutual loan system. ‘‘Geppu Jutaku’’ companies developed and had about estimated 7% share of privately provided houses especially in 1960s. These companies have not been succeeded nowadays. New prefabrication method and home loan system by private banks seemed to take the place of these companies. But they had significance that they could supply houses which government couldn't covered.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the ceremonial space associated with the nation and the Imperial Court in modern Tokyo. Focusing on the temporary use of parade grounds and imperial estates in the western part of Tokyo, I derived the possible factors for the site selection and the characteristics of the ceremonial spaces of modern imperial funerals in Tokyo. The subjects of investigation are the imperial funerals of Empress Eisho in 1897, Emperor Meiji in 1911, Empress Shoken in 1914 and Emperor Taisho in 1927. In the second chapter, I digested the history of the western part of Tokyo, as a condition of the thesis. Extending from the center part to the periphery, parade grounds and imperial estates were located in modern Tokyo to be concentrated on the north side of the Oyama Road (Current Aoyama St.). On the other hand, during the expansion of the urban area of Tokyo, the Nihon Railway Shinagawa line and the Kobu Railway were built to connect the western part of Tokyo to the center of Tokyo and also to the western Japan, then the western part of Tokyo became the hub for travel and transportation, especially for the military purpose. In the third chapter, I examined the process of site selection, the plan, the scale and the route of each imperial funeral by researching the government documents, then I clarified the fact that the site had sifted from Aoyama Parade Ground to Yoyogi Parade ground and to Shinjuku Gyoen, influenced by the environmental changes of the western part of Tokyo. Then I also revealed that the site of the modern era was larger than that of the early modern era and all sites had the same layout plan of temporary buildings in funerals. As for the route, I pointed that all of them were 4-7 km, containing the Oyama Road and that the whole route served as the urban scale ceremonial space. From the above analysis, I derived the four possible conditions of the site for imperial funerals; 1 possession, 2 history, 3 size and figure, and 4 location. Ueno Park and the Imperial Palace Plaza also met the condition 1, 2 and 3, but as for the condition 4, the parade grounds and imperial estates in the western part of Tokyo were favorable because they were close to the Oyama Road, the Nihon Railway Shinagawa line and the Kobu Railway. It can be argued that the site selection was much influenced by the limited use of the parade grounds and imperial estates and also the existence of the military installations and the development of the traffic networks. The candidate sites were almost limited to the parade grounds and the imperial estates in the western part of Tokyo by the conditions, and the site for each funeral was selected according to the situation at the time. Then, in adapting to the different site, the ceremonial space in modern Tokyo had become universal, not defined by any specific site or institution. The site in the early modern era, Sennyu-ji temple has been strongly connected to the Imperial Court from the medieval era, while those in the modern era had been connected to the Imperial Court since the Meiji era and become commemorative places by being used as the site for imperial funeral, and then it led to the development of the surrounding area after that.
This article considered the photograph which W. K. Burton photographed after the Nobi earthquake in Ogaki of the stricken area, and following points become clear. The photograph which Burton photographed after the Nobi earthquake in Ogaki has 2 pieces of photograph (1) and photograph (2) put in “THE GREAT ERTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.”, 4 pieces of photograph (3)～(6) which was put in the Imperial Household Agency without being put in that book, I can confirm 6 pieces of existence in total at least. In photograph (1), Tenjinsya and its south side site were photographed, looked to the north-northwest direction on the municipal road of east side of the Tenjinsya, at Shinmachi in Ogaki city. Photograph (2), Burton looked to the northwest direction from the Tenjinsya neighboring site and photographed fried lost territory, Ogaki Castle, Ikeda mountains of the rear. Photograph (3), (4), he turned to the north from the Tenjin bridge southern coast and photographed the ruin of a fire of Jyoren-ji temple. Photograph (5), he overlooked the east side from Ogaki Castle tower and photographed it, and the Western-style building on the right side of screen is equal to the building of photograph (6). Photograph (6), he overlooked the former Rokugai-gakko school at Kuruwamachi and photographed it from the east bank of the moat.
This paper discusses Wang Da-Hong's “Chineseness”, that is, a central focus of his design, through five representative houses that he designed. There are five chapters in this paper. Chapter 1 introduces and provides the scope of this paper, while chapters 2 through 4 examine and discuss in turn five of Wang's projects, consisting of the Atrium House, Wang's house, Ro's house, the Hong-Lu apartments and the Hong-Ying apartments. In the final chapter, authors discuss the results of their analysis and conclude with Wang's approach to designing Chinese space. Through this examination of Wang's representative works it may be said that Wang started from a courthouse building type and took the traditional houses of Suzhou as a model to create the composition of Jin(進) as his first step to creating Chinese space. Later, he focuses on Ting(庁) and shifts his approach to Jian(間). However, no matter Jin or Jian, Wang's housing design shows his consideration of multi-spatial layering, which creates a depth of space. This is Wang's original viewpoint for representing his idea of Chineseness.
In terms of seeking new perspectives for the development of modern architecture, Horiguchi Sutemi is known for focusing on traditional Japanese Sukiya-style buildings and for his thorough research on the tea room that gave rise to this style. At the root of his wide-ranging tea room research is the question of asymmetric construction methods. The importance of asymmetry in his entire architectural philosophy has been pointed out by many previous studies; however, because the term asymmetry is also a slogan in modern architectural thought in general, little has been discussed concerning the real facts of the case. Considering that Horiguchi describes the whole modeling concept of the tea ceremony in terms of asymmetry—not limited to the tea room itself but encompassing the tea garden, set of tea ceremony instruments, and philosophy of the ceremony—it can be assumed that his idea is probably contained therein. Therefore, in this manuscript, we intend to interpret his statements concerning the “center post,” (a topic of particular interest with regard to asymmetry) and clarify how he understood the meaning of this post.
In a tea room, the hearth, known as the ro, is the place where water is boiled and is the fundamental element of the tea ceremony, whereby a master prepares tea to be consumed by guests. On the other hand, the alcove, known as the tokonoma, is the place where decorations showing the purpose of the tea ceremony and the intention of the owner are displayed, and this tokonoma is located in the upper stage of the tea room. According to Horiguchi, the center post is supposed to establish “balance” between these two important elements of the tea room, i.e., the ro and the tokonoma.
Taian and Joan are the types of tea rooms that particularly attracted Horiguchi's attention, and he identified the “balance” by considering the equilibrium between the aesthetic arrangement of the decorative objects in the tokonoma and the functional beauty of the utensils used in the ro on the other side of the room. In addition, the tokonoma, which is a static place, and the ro, which is the center of a dynamic space, are not separate entities and constitute an integrated system.
Horiguchi strives to identify the characteristics of the tokonoma and the center post as the establishment background of this “balancing.” Both serve to “cut off halfway and connect halfway,” but they reflect exactly the opposite because the main purpose of the tokonoma is separation whereas that of the center post is connection. In particular, the center post, which plays the distancing role in relation to the tokonoma, is considered to play an integrating role in harmony not only for the tea room but also for the tea ceremony itself. He considered these characteristics of the center post as clearly expressing asymmetry.
This paper is intended to comprehensively and relatively grasp the content and its position of the book Survival Through Design, as a discourse on Neutra's 【Age Recognition】. The keywords of the subjects were sorted out as a number of items and examined from the viewpoint of the hierarchical composition of the meaning, by extracting the thesis which becomes the subject from his thesis, which leads to the policy and method. 【Age Recognition】 shown in Neutra's book is consisted of the second level of five items of "environment", "civilization", "style", "construction", and "beauty". "Environment" consists of [natural environment] and [artificial environment]. "Civilization" is [technology], [technology / machine], [standardization], [product / material], [performance], [maintenance], and [user / client]. In this paper I mainly focus on the items of the second level, from the items, which are particularly mentioned and exhaustively examined in each chapter. First, concerning Neutra 's concept of "Environment", he shows concern about human beings being separated from "nature", and the necessity of "finding" the interrelationship of natural phenomena from "nature". In particular, it will be distinguished by the uniqueness of the collaborative "Genius Loci" in California. At the same time, Neutra shows the necessity of gazing at the individuality to each of the "nature" components according to the growth and function of "nature", "to find" harmony between growth and function in the "natural environment". In [artificial environment], he looked at production (growth) and discordance of function, and contrast with [natural environment]. Neutra raises "found out" "function founded" from "natural environment", which is different from the general modern functional theory, he said "function" to his own "biology" As a matter of fact, we have identified the "adjustment", "change" of the environment by ourselves. Then, as a concept about his "Civilization", although [technology] itself shows the expectation for the transformation that life brings to life and the interest in adaptation of its design, [technology] is only a means, at the same time, its progress is obviously an opportunity to lose human nature. Among them, he finds a clear difference between "standardization" by [technology] and the "unity" that responds to the characteristics of the region, that is, it leads to the authenticity of regionalism. This "unity" is a concern for altering the way of making towns and buildings by "standardization" and the act of daily life itself, he was conscious of that. And he presented consistency created by form, material, scale etc. as his own "useful scale". In other words, it can be said that Neutra positions [technology] under the interaction of nature and humanity. This is also in agreement with the second phase of Walter Benjamin's technology two stages (the first stage of which is to conquer nature). From the perspective of such civilization, Neutra is a necessary condition for "Survival" that Neutra is the subject, positive standardization of materials, and improvement of construction technology by the standardization taking into account the characteristics of the region. He acquired a viewpoint on harmony of both with the universality of recruitment and the individuality of the importance of the material of "raw" for the "Survival" of humanity for his architectural design.
Aldo Rossi (1931-1997) had led the movement “La Tendenza” since the Venice Biennale of 1973, and attracted worldwide attention. There are some eminent architects, like Herzog & de Meuron, who was students of Rossi in the ETH Zurich, referred to Rossi's material sense close to Arte Povera.
This paper focus on materiality of Aldo Rossi by two methods. One is through documents written by Rossi himself about architectural materials. Another is through the hands-on observations and photographies of finishes of his architectures by author.
In Section 1, Rossi's materiality about city and architecture was discussed. He laid stress on technology of traditional cities, such as masonry and he had a strong interest in the plaster. In 1975, he used colored-plaster in his work and he associated it with the idea “povertào miseria (poverty or misery)”.
In Section 2, Rossi's materiality in his works in 1960s was discussed. For example, in “Monument to the Resistance in Segrate (Fountain in Segrate)” shows his interest in white plaster in 1965. Then in 1969, he painted white and gray plaster in his renovated parts of “Elementary school in Broni ”and emphasized color contrast of plasters.
In Section 3, it was shown that he contrasted plaster and other material in 1970s. In “Elementary School in Fagnano Olona”, he assembled white-plastered wall and glass roof with steel sashes. He named modern materials, such as steel, metal and glass, as “light materials” and he combined them with surface which is associated with masonry.
In Section 4, it was shown that he accepted changes of material plans. For example, he changed color plan of “Modena cemetery”. In the same time. he deals with plaster as a material with a temporal change. Moreover it was revealed that he helped building materials show as one's life.
For conclusion, it was revealed that Rossi handed down materiality of Modernism architects and he deals surface and materials as if they would have autonomic life in his works with plasters.
This study aims to elucidate the design process of the Hosei University Ichigaya Campus Project by Hiroshi Ohe. Ohe often uses the term “Konzai-Heizon,” which means interminglement and coexistence, to describe his architectural view. To determine the mechanism of the principle of Konzai-Heizon, we collected and analyzed the drawings of the Hosei University Ichigaya Campus Project, i.e., Ohe's debut works, from the planar form viewpoint. We divided the design period of the Hosei University Ichigaya Campus Project into three phases and analyzed the design process in each period based on collected drawings. In the first phase, the 53-year-old pavilion was built to start the Hosei University Ichigaya Campus Project. In the form of the 53-year-old pavilion and Ohe's discourse at that time, the desire to realize modernism architecture that Ohe embraced for a long time since his college life is expressed. The master plan comprised volumetric groups based on geometric forms with the philosophy of modernism architecture like the 53-year-old pavilion, and there is a consciousness to create the axis using the symmetrical planar form. Moreover, we can find an intention to seek monumentality as a traditional architectural characteristic from the president's office, a symbol of the authority of the university, which is situated on the axis. In the second phase, the 55-year-old pavilion was built. From the form of the 55-year-old pavilion and Ohe's discourse, it can be observed that the philosophy of modernism architecture based on functionalism and rationalism continues from the first phase. Conversely, from Ohe's discourse of the later years, it can be seen that he had a doubt regarding modernism architecture and gradually recognized the necessity of fundamental direction change of the project after overseas travel in 1954. In the master plan of the second phase, the consciousness of the axis symmetry due to the planar form of symmetry is further clarified by the addition of a butterfly form. We demonstrate that the form of the butterfly bears the influence of Kenzo Tange who was one of Ohe's classmates during his college days. In the third phase, the 58-year-old pavilion and the 58-year-old pavilion No. 2 were built. In this phase, the project theme shifted from the realization of modernism architecture through the pursuit of functionality and rationality to the acquisition of “monumentality,” which is an important characteristic that modernism architecture has lost. Ohe said that what is responsible for the “monumentality” of the university is the “community” of people and that the student hall was planned as an expression of the same. It can be noted that the design process was a deconstruction of the axis, as seen in the master plan until the second phase. Based on this analysis, it is clarified that the planar form of the Hosei University Ichigaya Campus Project gradually changed from symmetrical to asymmetrical, and it is concluded that the change of the planar form is considered to the beginning of the Konzai-Heizon principle.
In general, the key concepts of Muratori's research method "tipologia edilizia" and "tessuto urbano" are known through "Studi per una operante storia di Venezia" (1959), but the theoretical formation of Muratori dates back to 1940's. Initial theoretical articles written from 1943 to 1946, before and after the end of the World War II, are considered to be important. First of all, these arguments constitute the basis of the subsequent theoretical development of Muratori. And secondly the thought of Muratori can be interpreted as a valuable record of the unique point of view of the Italian architects located around the periphery of the "Modern Architectural Movement" at the turning point of the 20th century. Saverio Muratori(1910-1973) graduated from the "Scuola superiore di Architettura di Roma" in 1933 and was able to fully absorb the idea of Gustavo Giovannoni (1873-1947), an "architect who integrates" engineering and art. In particular, the lecture which played an important role for his formation was "I caratteri degli edifici" by Enrico Calandra (1877-1946). According to Calandra, "expression" by architects has been tied to the era and the land in which the architect is involved, and it appears together with maturity of the economy, society and culture of a certain civilization. Such a way of thinking of Calandra was pierced by the historical criticism spirit. He points out the dangers of abstract building typology that is manualized from such standpoints(Chapter 2). The first theoretical work of Muratori was to discuss critically the historical evolution of the mondern architecture(S. Muratori, Storia e critica dell'architettura contemporanea, 1944.). It was almost the first attempt to describe the history of modern architecture as a synthesis in Italy, where they had took a distance from the European modern movement. In that context, the discourse of Muratori was strongly influenced by Croce's neoidealistic philosophy, reigning as an intellectual authority of Italy in the first half of the 20th century. Muratori thought that what Italy aims for in the upcoming "Architecture as an organism" is a recovery of human values and scales expelled by "functionalism" and "rationalism", and very interestingly he considered that some architectural works of Le Corbusier had proved the fundamental way to realize the modern building as a constructed but vital entity that belongs to the universe with the humanity sense. That is exactly the "constructed organism" that Muratori thought(Chapter 3). The important influence that we can observe in the texts of Muratori after 1945 was the introduction of the concept of the "Space", provably flowed in by the work of S. Giedion's "Space, time architecture". By this Muratori succeeded in grasping the entity of architecture as "structural complexity" and "spatial complexity". In this point of view the distinction between "architecture" and "building" begins to be absurd because both of them is the same spatial-structural organization for the human beings. The definition of "type" of architecture/building was derived from this stage of his evolution of the critical thinking(Chapter 4). In conclusion, the central issue of Saverio Muratori's primary thesis written around the end of World War II was to critically reconstruct the traditional architectural concepts. The central concept of his thoughts was the "constructed organism", which has been included in the idea of traditional Italian cities. And the concept of "type" that can be considered as a conclusion of the discourse is surely influenced by the abstract "space" concept in modern architectural theories of foreign countries, and in that sense Muratori's thought takes a step beyond the position of the pre-war Italian architectural theory. With this new vision he could start an exploration of the City-Architectural studies.
The present paper analyzes the spatial composition with the theme and layout of the Christian paintings focusing on the relationship between the tomb and the paintings in the Chora Church's parekklesion (Fig. 1). The Chora Church's parekklesion consists of a single nave with an apse and a dome that is located on the north-south axis of the naos' dome (the dashed line in the lower left image in Fig. 2), and contains Christian paintings throughout the walls and ceiling. Four arcosolia serve as tombs in the parekklesion. The tomb of the Chora Church's founder in the fourteenth century, Theodore Metochites, which should be a primary focal point in the church, is located outside the north-south axis of the domes. The importance of his tomb is unclear due to its architectural aspect. However, the layout of the paintings presumably gives meaning to the holy religious space where the founder's tomb connects to the dome above, where “The Virgin Beseeches” is depicted, and to the apse, where “The Salvation of Christ” is represented. This paper is a continuation of our preceding one and describes how the layout of the paintings of the Chora Church gives meaning to the architectural space. This church has enormous implications for determining how a holy space was constructed. Interior elevations, an interior view of the ceiling, a photomontage, a section of the northwestern tomb, a photomontage, and an axonometric drawing of the parekklesion are created, and the spatial composition with the theme and layout of the paintings is analyzed, focusing on the Old Testament prefigurations of the Virgin, the representation of “Heaven” in the “Last Judgment,” and the location of Theodore Metochites' tomb. In the Chora Church's parekklesion, the paintings of the Old Testament stories positioned clockwise from the southern wall's (1) “Bearing of the Ark of the Covenant” to the northern wall's (9) “Moses and the Burning Bush” are prefigurations of the Virgin (Arrow 1 in Fig. 5). “The Virgin Beseeches” is represented in the domed bay (Fig. 4 and Arrow 2 in Fig. 5). The soul of Theodore Metochites, who is assumed to have been buried in the tomb of the northern wall under the dome, invoking “The Salvation of Christ” in the earthly world, is presented for “Last Judgment” by the angel in the painting (Arrows 3 and 4 in Fig. 5) and enters “Paradise” (painted on the northern wall with the Elect) (Arrow 5 in Fig. 5) without falling to “Hell,” which is painted on the southern wall. Furthermore, the “Resurrection” is placed on the apse over this area (Arrow 6 in Fig. 5). Therefore, Theodore Metochites’ prayer is represented in the holy space where his tomb connects to the dome above, and to the apse. The fact that the passageway from the parekklesion to the Naos was constructed during renovation of the Chora Church is not the reason why Theodore Metochites' tomb is located outside the north-south axis of the domes. His tomb is located in the domed bay where “The Virgin Beseeches” is depicted with the Old Testament paintings positioned clockwise on the southern and northern walls, adjoining the doorway to the naos, which is the center of the entire church, and connecting with “Heaven” after the “Last Judgment” and “Resurrection.” It does, however, establish a three-dimensional Byzantine religious space with the Christian paintings. In other words, the holy space was devised, integrating the architecture with paintings to represent Theodore Metochites’ prayer that invokes “The Virgin Beseeches” in the domed bay and the resulting “Salvation of Christ” as its accomplishment in the apse.
In this report, the author chooses the Umeda River of Sendai city as an example and investigates the actual situation of the water-drawing activity by victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The investigation was conducted by interviewing or collecting questionnaires from the victims. The subjects of the survey were the local inhabitants and managers of public-accommodations of the neighborhoods adjoining the Umeda River. These investigations yielded the following results. 1) In the areas where the water supply was cut-off for more than a week, approximately 30% of inhabitants drew water from the river. In addition, in the public accommodation that became a base of refuge and restoration support, the manager too drew the river water. Victims from afar too would travel by cars to water. 2) The local inhabitants mostly drew water from the river in groups of two people twice a day, drawing an average of 23L per trip (total approximately 46L/day). By dividing this quantity of water by the mean household number of people, this worked out to around 13L/day per person. 70% of the water drawn was carried on foot. The enforcement period of the water drawing was an average of six days. 3) 90% of the local inhabitants chose the site of their water-drawing activity based on its proximity to their homes. In addition, the mean-transportation distance from the waterside to their home was 217 m. 4) The public-accommodations managers mostly performed water drawing from the river in groups of around three people twice a day (totaling approximately 70 L/day or 35 L per trip). 80% of water conveyance was done by a chassis. The enforcement period of the emergency water intake was an average of 12 days. 5) "18 access points” existed in the area where the water supply was cut off for more than a week, and water drawing was carried out at 13 of those points. In other words, it was revealed that access points were useful in areas that needed water. In addition, water drawing activity was carried out at 12 other points on the waterside that were harder to access, and three other points situated on top of a bridge. 6) In the area where water-drawing was heavily practiced, the event that always featured the theme of a river was carried out lively. This fact showed that an everyday river experience led to an understanding of water-drawer-activity enforcement the time of the earthquake disaster. 7) Users came from distant areas to the waterside adjacent to a major road with much traffic. This fact showed that the an access point was particularly effective at such a place. 8) The waterside that was hard to access existed among them and served as a base for the river-cleaning activity by the neighborhood inhabitants. In the case of such a waterside, it was difficult for a site generally recognized as a water-drawing site to be confirmed. Improvement of such watersides is necessary as soon as possible.