Whilst their use in biology teaching has reduced in recent decades, live animals are still used extensively in university research and less frequently in teaching in both universities and schools. Both Australia and Japan have followed worldwide trends in ensuring that animal welfare is strongly considered in both teaching and research, and each jurisdiction has similar laws preventing animal cruelty and ensuring integrity in biology education. In universities, appropriate committees exist in both countries to scrutinise animal use. This includes the appropriateness of experimentation, the skills of researchers and teachers, and the quality of animal housing and care. However, while in Japan universities themselves regulate the care and use of animals through relevant Animal Experimentation (and Use) Committees, Australian institutions, and their Animal Ethics Committees (AECs) are audited by State government agencies to ensure adherence to the prescriptions of the National Code. The membership of the committees also differs markedly between the two counties. In both countries, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) are guiding principles. In Australian schools, teachers wishing to use live animals for science practicals must seek approval from the relevant State-based AEC although animals used for pets and rearing require no such approval. In Japanese primary schools there is strong interest in animal-assisted education as well as in animal-rearing – the latter emphasising children’s education through assisting animals rather than being a focus on animals assisting education. Teachers are required to consult with veterinarians about proper care and rearing of subject animals. In Japanese senior secondary schools, Biology experiments with animals must only comply with the relevant animal welfare legislation.