Purpose of this study is to describe and explain global perspective of physical education teacher education during COVID-19 in the United States. There are several themes that are discussed following that: a） current trend and status of physical education teacher education （PETE） in the United States, b） public school teachers’ challenges and struggles while teaching physical education during COVID-19, c） college and university professors’ paradigm shifts from face-to-face teaching to online education, d） changing business and operational models of colleges and universities, e） future direction of physical education and sport after COVID-19.
The COVID-19 pandemic is forced to introduce online physical education （OLPE） rapidly and has brought a great opportunity to rethink the future Physical Education （PE）. This paper aims to discuss the new relationship between PE and society over the digitalization in PE lesson based on the theories related school structure and PE teacher through some outcomes in our OLPE project. Subjects were two classes: one is 3rd grader striking/fielding game unit with 48 junior high school students while another is 3rd grader handball game unit with 45 students. These units were implemented as blended unit with OLPE lessons and face-to-face lessons in using student-centered approach with cooperative learning model for promoting social skills. Outcomes of the lessons were analyzed in using both quantitative and qualitative data with questionnaire and teacher reflection. A potential gap between PE and society 〈teacher-centered teaching and student-centered learning〉 was found through this OLPE project. In other words, teacher was unable to teach in face-to-face as before, therefore the limitation of teacher-centered teaching which had been difficult to recognize by oneself in the closed school structure has exposed. At the same time, OLPE which was able to student-centered learning may become one of the tools to correct that gap. On the other hand, a dilemma which is difficult to progress the digitalization of PE was also confirmed. There are many reasons to hinder the rapid introduction of digitalization to PE such as teachers’ competencies to use digital tool and expected role of PE teacher in school and the school structure that is difficult to accept new changes. Also, PE has its indispensable role as the medium to interact in each other through physical. This way of learning is specific in PE. It was suggested the possibility to solve current issues in PE through blended learning style in using OLPE lessons and face-to-face lessons. In addition, PE teacher should participate in teachers’ network for their wish fulfillment actively as one independent subject and they should be encouraged by evidence-based support.
Due to the coronavirus crisis, schools and universities in Japan faced temporary closures. Online classes were introduced to schools and universities to tackle the situation. Many discussions arose over online classes and face-to-face classes, but they sometimes turned out to be unproductive. In this paper, three points are shown from the viewpoint of pedagogy for sorting out and improving the discussions. The first point is the autonomy of learners. Under the coronavirus crisis, online classes were sometimes recognized as being in accordance with the traditional ‘chalk and talk’ teaching style. However, online learning had originally been promoted in the context of self-directed learning. The second point is the view of curriculum. There are two views of curriculum: curriculum as a teaching plan and curriculum as what is learned by the students. In the discussions under the coronavirus crisis, the latter tended to be neglected. This led to problems such as lack of places for casual talk among students before and after the class and an overload of assignments. The third point is physicality. In online classes, images of the teacher and the students are shown on the display. However, in reality, they have bodies and interact with their surroundings through them. By paying attention to this aspect, online classes can be enhanced.
From the concept of “mode of information”, It was Mark Poster, an American historian and media researcher, who considered communication in the electronic media environment. Through the concept of “mode of information”, when considering the changes in physical education brought about by “Covid-19”, it is necessary to consider it not only as an object requiring solutions to clinically unprecedented social issues, but also from the perspective of historical and social transformation as a change in the media environment. In this paper, I considered the process by which the learner himself or herself informatizes the performance recorded on a tablet PC using keywords such as self-instruction, “body as an image”, database, and subjectivity. As a result, I explain how Covid-19 pandemic brought about a transformation in the learning space and the way physical education is taught as it helped disseminate and normalize the use of tablet PCs in schools. Specifically, I conclude how this radically transformed the politics of the boby that was previously hidden from view.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reproduction of high school baseball “narratives” and its media effects focusing on media representations of the change in approach for competition and practice. Previous studies about high school baseball “narratives” focused on analyzing the “narratives” as a fixed structure based on ritual theory. However, only few studies have focused on the fluctuation, including the fluctuation and change, of the “narratives” itself. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the reproduction of the “narratives”, while considering the change in approach for competition and practice in recent years. In the national high school baseball tournament in Japan called “Koshien”, tactical change from only one pitcher completing whole games to successive pitching has occurred in recent years. Following this tactical change, we analyzed messages and significations from media representations of complete games and games with successive pitching by a media text analysis of the sport documentary entitled “Fierce Battle Koshien”（entitled “Netto Koshien” in Japanese）. The analysis showed that the media representation of complete games focused on the signification of “the spirit conveyed by the pitcher overcoming difficulties”, whereas that of games with successive pitching concentrated on the signification of “friendship conveyed by two pitchers working together”. It seems that both semantics “spirit” and “friendship” are elements of traditional high school baseball “youth narratives”. The present result therefore suggests that media representations in practice change within the possible interpretative framework of “youth narratives”. Further, the study suggests that through that media representation the framework of high school baseball “narratives” itself has been reproduced with the internal fluctuation of “how ‘youthfulness’ or ‘youth’ should be”.
In this study, we analyze nationalism in the sense of its vague attachment to members of the same nation, also called “cognitive nationalism”. As pointed out in previous studies, the national stereotypes found in sports coverage play important roles in the construction of “cognitive nationalism”. Therefore, in this research, we look at the stereotype that “Japanese players are inferior in “physical ability”” in soccer magazines and analyze it quantitatively and qualitatively. The first of the findings of this study is that the popular statement that “Japanese players are inferior in “physical ability”” was rarely seen until the early 1990s. These discourses were for the most part limited to the mid-1990s and early 2000s. The second finding is that since the mid-2000s, Japanese players’ evaluation of “physical ability” has been highly consistent. In other words, discourses with the meaning “although Japanese players are inferior in the strength and size of the body, they compensate with superiority in momentum, quickness, and speed” continued to be produced over a long period of time. Finally, the third finding of this study is that the consistent evaluation of the “physical ability” of Japanese players was possibly built by the slogan “Japanization of Japanese football” advocated by Ivica Osim, who was assigned to coach the Japanese national team in 2006.