The allele frequencies and the polymorphism in the ABO blood group gene of 340 individuals living in the central part of Japan near Tokyo were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. We analyzed the known polymorphic sites (at positions 297, 526, 657, 703, 796, 803 and 930) between A and B alleles, and the single deletion at position 261 in 0 alleles using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), PCR-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) and sequencing methods. We found two new allele subtypes in the A and B alleles. A new A allele subtype showed four nucleotide differences at positions 297 (adenine versus guanine), 526 (cytosine versus guanine), 657 (cytosine versus thymine) and 703 (guanine versus adenine), and the allele frequency was 0.0044. This A allele subtype was probably generated by a crossing-over of B allele and A or 0 allele. Second new B allele subtype had a single nucleotide difference at position 467 (cytosine versus thymine) and the frequency was 0.0015. The ratio of a mutant O allele (the nucleotide differences at positions 646, 681, 771 and 826) to the common 0 allele in the central part of Japan was low in the western part (Osaka region) and higher in the northern part (Yamagata region). There may be a geo-graphical cline for these two allele frequencies in Japan. There was no difference in the transferase activities between common alleles and rare alleles.
We describe the right femur of an adult male from grave 4141 of the Pontecagnano Necropolis (Salerno, IV century BC).The cortical surface of the bone is raised around a bronze mass visible on the bone surface at the level of the lesser trochanter at the central area of the anterior surface of the femoral shaft.Around the mass there is new bone, which presents some microscopic evidence of inflammation.X-ray analysis reveals that the mass, which measures 2 cm in length, is the cone shaped posterior part of a javelin tip, directed upwards, and with the tip folded.Therefore, it appears that the javelin entered near the inguinal plica and struck the anterior surface of the femoral neck from below.This injury could have occurred if the aggressor struck the victim, who was likely on horseback, from below.The roentgenograms also show a well developed reactive bone around the bronze projectile.Both the macroscopic aspects of the injury and its radiographic picture indicate that the victim survived for a considerable time following his unusual injury.
DNA was extracted from human teeth samples excavated from the Nakazuma Jomon shell midden (BC 2500) which is located north of the Kanto Plain. Part of the mitochondrial control region (233 bp) was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction. Mitochondrial DNA sequences determined from 29 individuals were classified into 9 different haplotypes defined by 17 segregating sites. The most frequent haplotype was observed in 17 individuals (58.6%). Most individuals shared the same sequence, suggesting the possibility of close maternal relationships at this site. On the other hand, the sequence diversity at the Jomon site was almost the same as the mitochondrial sequence diversity observed in modern Japanese. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Jomon haplotypes were scattered among modern Japanese haplotypes and did not fall into specific clusters. Both the extensive sequence divergence and the results of phylogenetic analysis showed that the Jomon people at the Nakazuma site were not a genetically homogenous population. Moreover, the magnitude of the mitochondrial. diversity observed within the Nakazuma Jomon people may indicate that severe genetic bottleneck did not occur during the formation of the Jomon population.
This paper aims to compile an exhaustive list of the behavioral patterns exhibited by the chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. The compilation is based on the glossary compiled by Goodall (1989), but a substantial numbers of new terms have been added. Thus, we list 316 simple anatomical terms, 81 complex anatomical terms, 37 simple functional terms, and 81 complex functional terms, in addition to 116 synonyms. The behavioral patterns are divided into eight categories on the basis of degree of universality: (1) commonly seen in both Homo and two species of Pan, (1?) commonly seen in Homo and only one species of Pan, (2) patterns common to the genus Pan but not to Homo, (3) patterns common to the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes but not the bonobo Pan paniscus, (4) patterns common to eastern (P.t. schweinfurthii) and central (Pt.troglodytes) but not western (P.t.verus) chimpanzees, (5) patterns unique to the eastern chimpanzees, P.t.schweinfurthii, (6) patterns unique to the population of Mahale, (7) patterns unique to many individuals (at least most members of an age/sex class) of M group chimpanzees, (8) patterns limited to a single (idiosyncrasy) or a few individuals of M group.It is most likely that the behavior patterns of the last common ancestor of Homo and Pan are found in Categories 1 and 1? and less likely in Categories 2 and 3.It is possible that behavior patterns belonging to Categories 5, 6 or 7 are cultures.