The local control effect of esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection (3FLD) is reaching its limit pending technical advancement. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) by thoracotomy is slowly gaining acceptance due to advantages in short-term outcomes. Although the evidence is slowly increasing, MIE is still controversial. Also, the results of treatment by surgery alone are limiting, and multimodality therapy, which includes surgical and non-surgical treatment options including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endoscopic treatment, has become the mainstream therapy. Esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard treatment for clinical stages II/III (except for T4) esophageal cancer, whereas chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is regarded as the standard treatment for patients who wish to preserve their esophagus, those who refuse surgery, and those with inoperable disease. CRT is also usually selected for clinical stage IV esophageal cancer. On the other hand, with the spread of CRT, salvage esophagectomy has traditionally been recognized as a feasible option; however, many clinicians oppose the use of surgery due to the associated unfavorable morbidity and mortality profile. In the future, the improvement of each treatment result and the establishment of individual strategies are important although esophageal cancer has many treatment options.
Brenda Martínez-González, Cynthia Guadalupe Reyes-Hernández, Alejandro Quiroga-Garza, Víctor E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Claudia N. Esparza-Hernández, Rodrigo E. Elizondo-Omaña, Santos Guzmán-López
There is a significant variety of vascular conduits options for coronary bypass surgery. Adequate graft selection is the most important factor for the success of the intervention. To ensure durability, permeability, and bypass function, there must be a morphological similarity between the graft and the coronary artery. The objective of this review was to analyze the morphological characteristics of the grafts that are most commonly used in coronary bypass surgery and the coronary arteries that are most frequently occluded. We included clinical information regarding the characteristics that determine the behavior of the grafts and its permeability over time. Currently, the internal thoracic artery is the standard choice for bypass surgery because of the morphological characteristics of the wall that makes less prone to developing atherosclerosis and hyperplasia. The radial and right gastroepiploic arteries are the following second and third best options, respectively. The ulnar artery is the preferred choice when other conduits are not feasible.
Ahmed A. Abouarab, Hany H. Elsayed, Hussein Elkhayat, Ahmed Mostafa, David C. Cleveland, Ahmed El Nori
This article is a continuation of previous reviews about the appropriate method for long-segment tracheal reconstruction. We attempted to cover the most recent, successful and promising results of the different solutions for reconstruction that are rather innovative and suitable for imminent clinical application. Latest efforts to minimize the limitations associated with each method have been covered as well. In summary, autologous and allogenic tissue reconstruction of the trachea have been successful methods for reconstruction experimentally and clinically. Autologous tissues were best utilized clinically to enhance revascularization, whether as a definitive airway or as an adjunct to allografts or tissue-engineered trachea (TET). Allogenic tissue transplantation is, currently, the most suitable for clinical application, especially after elimination of the need for immunosuppressive therapy with unlimited supply of tissues. Similar results have been reported in many studies that used TET. However, clinical application of this method was limited to use as a salvage treatment in a few studies with promising results. These results still need to be solidified by further clinical and long-term follow-up reports. Combining different methods of reconstruction was often required to establish a physiological rather than an anatomical trachea and have shown superior outcomes.
Alexander Andersen Juhl, Sofie Hody, Tina Senholt Videbaek, Tine Engberg Damsgaard, Per Hostrup Nielsen
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcome for patients with or without muscle flap reconstruction after deep sternal wound infection due to open-heart surgery.
Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study, including patients who developed deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery in the Western Denmark Region from 1999 to 2011. Journals of included patients were reviewed for clinical data regarding the treatment of their sternal defect. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they received a muscle-flap-based sternal reconstruction or traditional rewiring of the sternum.
Results: A total of 130 patients developed deep sternal wound infection in the study period. In all, 12 patients died before being discharged, leaving a total of 118 patients for analysis. Of these, 50 (42%) patients received muscle flap reconstruction. Muscle flap recipients had significantly longer total hospital stays (p <0.001). However, after receiving muscle flap reconstruction, patients were discharged after a median of 14 days, with 74% not needing additional surgery.
Conclusion: It is difficult to predict which patients eventually require muscle flap reconstruction after deep sternal wound infection. Although patients receiving muscle flap reconstructions have longer hospital stays, they are quickly discharged after the reconstruction.
Background: We often experienced early recurrence in patients with completely resected N2-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of muscle mass is a poor prognostic factor in patients with several stages of NSCLC. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative loss of muscle mass and postoperative early recurrence in patients with N2-positive NSCLC.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 47 male patients with completely resected pathological N2-positive NSCLC. Early recurrence was defined as that diagnosed within 1 year after the operation. We used the L3 muscle index (cross-sectional area of muscle at the L3 level, normalized for height) as a clinical measurement of loss of muscle mass (cutoff value, 52.4 cm2/m2).
Results: In all, 18 patients with early recurrence had significantly poorer outcomes compared with those without (P <0.01). In univariate analysis, loss of muscle mass (P = 0.023), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level >5.0 ng/mL (P = 0.002), and absence of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.042) were predictors of postoperative early recurrence. In multivariate analysis, loss of muscle mass (P = 0.004) and CEA level >5.0 ng/mL (P = 0.001) were independent predictors.
Conclusions: Loss of muscle mass is an independent predictor of postoperative early recurrence in pathological N2-positive NSCLC patients.