Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Online ISSN : 2186-1005
Print ISSN : 1341-1098
ISSN-L : 1341-1098
Current issue
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
Review Article
  • Jialu Wang, Shidong Liu, Xiangxiang Han, Yang Chen, Hao Chen, Shuai Do ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 83-95
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: December 10, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Purpose: The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the prognosis of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains unclear. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the impact of CKD and different stages of CKD on prognosis in patients undergoing TAVR.

    Methods: As of June 2020, we performed a comprehensive literature search on relevant studies using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Subsequently, we pooled the risk ratio (RR) of individual studies via random effects to analyze heterogeneity, quality assessment, and publication bias.

    Results: A total of 20 studies, involving 133624 patients, were eligible for analysis. Patients with CKD had higher all-cause mortality at 30 days (RR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31–1.47, P <0.001), 1 year (RR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.24–1.49, P <0.001), and 2 years (RR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.05–1.38, P = 0.009) of follow-up. Moreover, they also had higher acute kidney injury (AKI) (RR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16–1.63, P <0.001) and bleeding (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.18–1.50, P <0.001) at 30 days. CKD3 alone also increased all-cause mortality at follow-ups. Risk of all-cause mortality increased with severity of CKD for stages 3, 4, and 5 at follow-up.

    Conclusion: Patients with CKD are at an increased risk of all-cause mortality, AKI, and bleeding events after TAVR. Moreover, the mortality risk rises with increasing severity of CKD.

    Download PDF (5308K)
Original Articles
  • Fumiaki Shiratori, Takashi Suzuki, Satoshi Yajima, Yoko Oshima, Tatsuk ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 96-102
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: September 23, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Hypercalcemia has been reported as a poor prognostic factor in malignant tumors. However, no report has shown the clinical impact of serum calcium levels on patients with esophageal cancer. We evaluated the prognostic impact of preoperative serum calcium levels on patients with esophageal cancer.

    Methods: We evaluated 240 patients (197 men, 43 women; mean age, 66 years; age range, 34–85 years) with esophageal cancer who underwent radical surgery between September 2008 and December 2017. After assigning the patients to two groups (high calcium group, 8.8 mg/dL or more and low calcium group, 8.7 mg/dL or less), we compared the groups’ overall survival and the clinicopathological features. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of preoperative serum calcium levels were evaluated in a univariate and multivariate analysis.

    Results: The patients with deep tumors showed low serum calcium levels significantly more frequently (P <0.05). The low calcium group showed a significantly worse prognosis than the high calcium group (P <0.05). However, low serum calcium level was not an independent poor prognostic factor.

    Conclusions: Preoperative low serum calcium levels were associated with advanced tumors. Low serum calcium might be associated with esophageal cancer progression.

    Download PDF (206K)
  • Yuki Kuroyama, Mitsuru Tabusadani, Shunya Omatsu, Miyako Hiramatsu, Yu ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 103-110
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: August 26, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Purpose: To investigate the exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of surgical patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) preoperatively versus 6 months postoperatively.

    Methods: This prospective observational study included patients with NTM-PD and was conducted at a single center. The intervention was surgical resection plus perioperative and post-discharge physical therapy. The physical function was assessed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). HRQOL was assessed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. The postoperative HRQOL was compared between patients with and without preoperative clinical symptoms.

    Results: In total, 35 patients were analyzed. The preoperatively symptomatic group had significantly lower preoperative HRQOL than the preoperatively asymptomatic group (p <0.05). Compared with preoperatively, there were significant improvements at 6 months postoperatively in the 6MWT (p <0.01) and HRQOL, mainly in the SF-36 mental component summary (p <0.01). The SF-36 mental component summary in the preoperatively symptomatic group was very significantly improved from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively (p <0.05).

    Conclusion: The combination of surgical treatment and physical therapy for NTM-PD contributes to improvements in physical function and HRQOL.

    Download PDF (317K)
  • Zuo Liu, Zhaoming Gao, Mengzhe Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Jialin Gong, Shuai ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 111-120
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 15, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been successfully used in many clinical trials related to immunotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of ICIs and prognostic factors in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following neoadjuvant therapy in the real world.

    Methods: A total of 170 consecutive patients were finally selected and divided into two groups: the preoperative chemotherapy group (n = 91) and the chemo-immunotherapy group (n = 79). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoints were pathological response, clinical response, pathological nodal disease, and ability of multivariate Cox regression analysis to predict survival. Survival was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method and compared using log-rank test.

    Results: There was a statistically significant difference in DFS between the two groups (log-rank test, P = 0.019). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that maximum tumor diameter (P = 0.016), higher lymph node stage (ypN1, P = 0.016; ypN2, P <0.001), and major pathological response not achieved (non-major pathological response [MPR], P = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors for worse DFS.

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy yields better effects in pathological and clinical response than chemotherapy alone, which is also associated with longer DFS in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. Moreover, a larger tumor specimen diameter, higher ypN staging, and non-MPR after neoadjuvant therapy were associated with worse prognosis.

    Download PDF (1341K)
  • Nobuyuki Yoshiyasu, Fumitsugu Kojima, Hirotomo Takahara, Toru Bando
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 121-128
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: September 23, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of a segment-counting method in predicting lung function and volume after stapler-based thoracoscopic segmentectomy in comparison with lobectomy.

    Methods: Between 2014 and 2018, patients who underwent these procedures were retrospectively reviewed. Thoracic computed tomography and spirometry data before and 1 year after the surgery were assessed. We evaluated the differences between the predicted values using a segment-counting method and the actual postoperative values for lung function and volume in each group. Sub-analyses were also performed to assess the impact of the number of staples and resected segments in predicting patient outcomes.

    Results: We included 116 patients (segmentectomy, 69; lobectomy, 47). Actual postoperative lung function and volume values matched the predicted values in the stapler-based segmentectomy group, and significantly exceeded the predictions in the lobectomy group (P <0.01). Sub-analyses revealed lower postoperative lung function values than predicted existed after single segmentectomy, with an odds ratio of 3.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–10.70, P = 0.04) in a multivariable analysis. The degree of predicted error regarding lung function was negligible.

    Conclusions: The segment-counting method was useful in predicting lung function after stapler-based thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Segmentectomy rarely yielded lower-than-predicted lung function and volume values.

    Download PDF (1369K)
  • Hideo Ichimura, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masahiko Gosho, Kojiro Nakaoka, Tak ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 129-137
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: September 23, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: To evaluate postoperative patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and pain with and without a metal rib spreader (MRS) in patients with stage I lung cancer who underwent lobectomy through axillary mini-thoracotomy (AMT).

    Methods: This single-institution prospective observational study enrolled patients between January 2015 and April 2018. Their QOL and pain were evaluated using the EQ-5D and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 items (QLQ-C30). The EQ-5D was completed preoperatively (Pre) and on days 1/3/5/7 (D1/3/5/7), at 1 month (M1), and at 1 year postoperatively (Y1). The EORTC QLQ-C30 was completed at Pre, M1, and Y1.

    Results: The data of 140 patients were analyzed (video-assisted without MRS: VA/noMRS: 67, AMT with MRS: AMT/MRS: 73). Although the AMT/MRS group had more preoperative comorbidities, longer operative times, and more blood loss than the VA/noMRS group, the EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were not significantly different at any assessment point (Pre/D1/D3/D5/D7/M1/Y1) (VA/noMRS: 82/48/60/67/73/77/85, AMT/MRS: 80/46/60/66/73/76/85). Postoperative pain in the EQ-5D descriptive system and the EORTC QLQ-C30 was comparable between the groups.

    Conclusion: VA/noMRS and AMT/MRS showed similar postoperative QOL and pain scores, indicating that MRS negligibly impacts the postoperative QOL and pain.

    Download PDF (1212K)
  • Ying Kiat Tan, HaiDong Luo, Giap Swee Kang, Kristine LK Teoh, Theo Kof ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 138-145
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 03, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Objective: To examine N-acetylcysteine’s (NAC’s) renoprotective effect in adult cardiac surgery

    Methods: PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials published between January 1990 and May 2021 that investigated the effect of NAC in preventing acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The inclusion criterion was studies that assessed the effect of NAC in comparison to placebo by measuring the incidence of AKI.

    Results: Overall meta-analytic estimates of all 10 included trials showed that NAC did not have a significant effect (odds ratio [OR]: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64–1.10) on AKI. Further subgroup analysis did not show a significant benefit of NAC in preventing AKI.

    Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that NAC does not have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of AKI. However, there is notable heterogeneity among the included studies that could possibly account for the non-significant effect observed. It is worth noting that only one trial administered NAC high dosages perioperatively, and it is the only included trial to show a significant benefit in reducing the incidence of AKI (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11–0.81). Further studies on this dosage and duration of administration should be conducted to best elucidate the effect of administering NAC.

    Download PDF (2383K)
  • Vasileios Drosos, Koray Durak, Rüdiger Autschbach, Jan Spillner, Katha ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 146-153
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: October 23, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Purpose: Blood loss along with inadequate evacuation after cardiac surgery leads to retained blood syndrome (RBS) in the pleural and/or pericardial cavity. Re-sternotomy is often needed for clot evacuation. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) evacuation is a less-invasive procedure. However, sufficient evidence on safety and outcomes is lacking.

    Methods: Thirty patients who developed hemothorax and/or hemopericardium after cardiac surgery and underwent VATS evacuation between April 2015 and September 2020 were included in this retrospective single-center analysis.

    Results: The median patient age was 70 (interquartile range: IQR 62–75) years, body mass index (BMI) was 24.7 (IQR 22.8–29) kg/m2, time between initial cardiac surgery and VATS was 17 (IQR 11–21) days, 30% of the patients were female, 60% resided in the ICU, and 17% were nicotine users. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most frequent initial cardiac procedure. Median operation time was 120 (IQR 90–143) min, 23% of the patients needed an additional VATS, and the median length of hospital stay after VATS was 8 (IQR 5–14) days. All patients survived VATS, and we experienced no mortality related to the VATS procedure.

    Conclusion: In our study, VATS for evacuation of RBS after cardiac surgery was a feasible, safe, and efficient alternative approach to re-sternotomy in selected patients.

    Download PDF (2363K)
Case Reports
  • Kensuke Kojima, Tetsuki Sakamoto, Teiko Sakurai, Yuriko Yagi, Tomoki U ...
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 154-158
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    A 62-year-old woman with a history of lung resection for lung cancer was admitted to our hospital due to cough, which became progressively more severe. She was diagnosed with chronic empyema with bronchopleural fistula (BPF) of the right upper bronchial stump. Although a pedicled muscle flap was transposed to the empyema cavity, the fistula remained. We used a vacuum-assisted closure system after open-window thoracotomy and observed the cavity reduction with expansion of the transposed muscle flap. We quantitatively evaluated the dynamics of the cavity change using a three-dimensional image analysis system. A reduction of the volume of the muscle flap by prolonged empyema and expansion of the muscle flap was observed immediately after vacuum-assisted management. However, expansion of the right residual lung was not recognized. Pedicled muscle flap transposition followed by vacuum-assisted management after open-window thoracotomy may be effective for treating chronic empyema caused by BPF.

    Download PDF (767K)
  • Masaya Yamoto, Koji Fukumoto, Naoto Urushihara
    2022 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 159-162
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Introduction: Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) with a bilateral tracheal bronchus (TB) has not been reported as a subtype of CTS. A novel technique to manage CTS in patients with a bilateral TB is described.

    Case Report: An infant with tetralogy of Fallot underwent repair of cardiac anomaly at age 1 month. He experienced numerous cyanosis and episodes of transient respiratory arrest. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an aberrant bilateral upper lobe bronchus arising directly from the trachea and a stenotic trachea connecting the pseudo- carina to the true carina between the common right lower and left lower bronchus. On bronchoscopy, the diameter of the lumen of the narrowed segment was estimated to be less than 2 mm. Tracheal reconstruction was undertaken when he was 2 years of age. The surgical technique using a modified slide tracheoplasty for the correction of this anomaly are described. After surgery, the patient was extubated and has had no respiratory symptoms.

    Discussion and Conclusion: The patient had unique anatomic considerations that made reconstruction challenging. Our technique of covering a stenotic section by normal trachea is a modification of the slide tracheoplasty technique and is useful for CTS with a unilateral and a bilateral TB.

    Download PDF (1069K)
feedback
Top