Purpose: Knowledge regarding programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in lung cancer is limited. We aim to clarify PD-L1-positive expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma subtypes.
Methods: In all, 90 NSCLC specimens containing various adenocarcinoma subtypes, in addition to squamous cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma were selected. PD-L1 was immunohistochemically stained by murine monoclonal antibody clone 22C3.
Results: When PD-L1-positive expression was defined by tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥1%, the positive cases were 0/11 in adenocarcinoma in situ, 0/12 in minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, 1/10 in lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma, 1/13 in papillary predominant adenocarcinoma, 8/14 in acinar predominant adenocarcinoma, 6/11 in solid predominant adenocarcinoma, 0/3 in micropapillary predominant adenocarcinoma, 0/4 in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, 4/9 in squamous cell carcinoma, and 2/3 in large-cell carcinoma. PD-L1 positivity was higher in males, smokers, advanced pathologic stages, positive vessel invasion, and positive lymphatic invasion. Postoperative survival analysis revealed that PD-L1-positive expression was a significantly worse prognostic factor in univariate analysis for recurrence-free survival (RFS).
Conclusion: PD-L1-positive tumors were frequent in acinar predominant adenocarcinoma and solid predominant adenocarcinoma than other adenocarcinoma subtypes. PD-L1 expression seemed to increase according to pathologic tumor progression, suggesting a worse postoperative prognosis in NSCLC patients.
Purpose: The correlation of advanced cancer with inflammation and/or nutrition factors is well known. Recently, the advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) was developed as a new prognostic tool for patients with advanced lung cancer. In this study, we examined whether ALI results are correlated with prognosis of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma who undergo lung resection.
Methods: From January 2009 to December 2014, 544 patients underwent lung resection due to primary lung cancer at Dokkyo Medical University Hospital, of whom 166 with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively investigated in this study. ALI was calculated as follows: Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2) × albumin (g/dL)/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR).
Results: Multivariate analysis revealed that gender, red cell distribution width (RDW), NLR, and ALI were parameters significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). Patients with an ALI value less than 22.2 had an inferior 5-year OS rate as compared to those with a value of 22.2 or higher (p <0.001) as well as an inferior 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate (p <0.001).
Conclusion: Low ALI was correlated with poor prognosis in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Those with an ALI value less than 22.2 should be carefully followed regardless of cancer stage.
Purpose: In this study, we aim to investigate the efficacy and clinical results of using Del Nido solution (DNS) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery by comparing with intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (IWBC).
Methods: Between March 2017 and February 2018, 297 adult patients who underwent primary isolated CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included in the study. We used DNS in 112 patients and IWBC was used in 185 patients. We compared both the clinical and the laboratory results.
Results: Aortic cross-clamp time, CPB time, and peak glucose level are lower with DNS. But we did not observe any meaningful difference of clinical results between two methods including postoperative myocardial enzyme release.
Conclusion: Del Nido cardioplegia was developed for immature heart and pediatric surgery. But in our opinion, it is a good and useful alternative to CABG surgery with similar results to IWBC.
Francis Park-Yun Cheung, Naveed Zeb Alam, Gavin Michael Wright
Pulmonary metastases are a sign of advanced malignancy and an omen of poor prognosis. Once primary tumors metastasize, they become notoriously difficult to treat and interdisciplinary management often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Over the last 25 years, the emerging body of evidence has recognized the curative potential of pulmonary metastasectomy. Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases is now commonly considered for patients with controlled primary disease, absence of widely disseminated extrapulmonary disease, completely resectable lung metastases, sufficient cardiopulmonary reserve, and lack of a better alternative systemic therapy. Since the development of these selection criteria, other prognostic factors have been proposed to better predict survival and optimize the selection of surgical candidates. Disease-free interval (DFI), completeness of resection, surgical approach, number and laterality of lung metastases, and lymph node metastases all play a dynamic role in determining patient outcomes. There is a definite need to continue reviewing these prognosticators to identify patients who will benefit most from pulmonary metastasectomy and those who should avoid unnecessary loss of lung parenchyma. This literature review aims to explore and synthesize the last 25 years of evidence on the long-term survival, prognostic factors, and patient selection process for pulmonary metastasectomy.
Objective: Suvorexant is an orexin receptor antagonist and is effective in inducing sleep. We hypothesized that Suvorexant would reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Methods: We reviewed 88 patients (12 women, mean age: 69.3 ± 2.5 years) who were undergone CABG alone. Patients were divided into two groups; patients received Suvorexant (S group, n = 36), patients not received Suvorexant (N group, n = 52), and the following data were analyzed and compared between two groups.
Results: Intensive Care Unit Delirium Screening Checklist Score was significantly lower in S group compared with N group (N:S = 2.0 ± 1.7:0.8 ± 1.0, p = 0.0003). Although POD was present in 11 of 52 patients (21.2%) in N group, one patient (2.8%) developed in S group (p = 0.008). In S group, both intensive care unit stay (N:S = median 6:5 days, p = 0.001) and hospital stay (N:S = median 23:20 days, p = 0.035) were significantly shorter than in N group.
Conclusions: Suvorexant might reduce incidence of POD in patients undergone CABG.
Purpose: To evaluate prognosis of patients with esophageal carcinoma undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy, and help determine appropriate therapeutic strategies.
Methods: We retrospectively studied 16 patients (15 men and one woman; median age 66.5 years) with esophageal carcinoma, who underwent curative resection of pulmonary metastases. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed.
Results: In all, 11 patients underwent wedge resection, three segmentectomy, and two lobectomies. The average operating time and blood loss were 147 min and 103 mL, respectively. There were no perioperative deaths or severe complications. Five-year overall survival rate was 40.2% and 2-year disease-free survival rate was 35.2%. All recurrences occurred within 2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that absence of adjuvant chemotherapy after therapy for esophageal carcinoma was a significant predictor of poor prognosis and recurrence, respectively (p <0.05). The prognosis of seven patients who underwent esophagectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy was better than that of the other nine patients (p = 0.0166).
Conclusion: Pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with esophageal carcinoma was only one choice of multimodal treatment, and perioperative chemotherapy was important for long-term survival after pulmonary metastasectomy. Pulmonary metastasectomy was effective in patients undergoing esophagectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.
Lachmandath Tewarie, Ajay K Moza, Mohammad Amen Khattab, Rüdiger Autschbach, Rashad Zayat
Purpose: Timing and ideal reconstructive approach in deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) and mediastinitis still remain controversially debated. We present our own combined surgical strategy of bilateral pectoralis major muscle flap (BPMMF) or omental flap (OF) transposition.
Methods: Between July 2010 and July 2016, poststernotomy patients with DSWI and mediastinitis underwent a secondary wound closure with modified BPMMF (Group A, center for disease control class (CDC)-II, n = 21; Group B, CDC-III, n = 20) or with OF (Group C, CDC-III, n = 19) following vacuum-assisted closure (VAC).
Results: Significant risk factors for mediastinitis (CDC-III) were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; p = 0.001), peripheral arterial disease (PAD; p = 0.012), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (p = 0.027), total operation time (p = 0.039), total intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p = 0.011), and blood transfusion (p = 0.049). Mean antibiotic therapy (18.4 ± 8.8[B] vs. 36.2 ± 24.4[C] days, p = 0.026) and length of hospitalization (25.2 ± 12.1[B] vs 53.8 ± 18.5 days[C], p = 0.053) were significantly longer in group C. In-hospital death was 3/19 (15.8%) in group C versus 0 in group B (p = 0.026). Frequency of recurrent mediastinitis was equal (p = 0.92); however, complications occurred more often in group C (31.6% vs. 0%, p = 0.031). The mean follow-up time was 111 ± 62 days.
Conclusion: In younger (<70 years) patients without sternal bone necrosis, the BPMMF is superior to the OF technique with relatively low recurrence and mortality risks.
Robert Tonks, Gurion Lantz, Jeremy Mahlow, Jeffrey Hirsh, Lawrence S. Lee
Purpose: The Convergent procedure is a hybrid, multidisciplinary treatment for symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) consisting of minimally invasive surgical epicardial ablation and percutaneous/catheter endocardial ablation. We investigated outcomes following introduction of the Convergent procedure at our institution.
Methods: Retrospective study examining single-center outcomes. Demographic, procedural, and post-procedural variables were collected with follow-up data obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months.
Results: In all, 36 patients with paroxysmal (11%) or persistent/long-standing persistent (89%) AF underwent the Convergent procedure. 36% also underwent concomitant left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion by thoracoscopic placement of an epicardial clip. Mean age 60.6 ± 8.0 years with mean arrhythmia burden of 3.9 ± 2.7 years. All patients had failed prior attempts at medical management, 81% had failed prior cardioversion, and 17% had failed prior catheter ablation. Convergent was performed successfully in all patients with no peri-procedural deaths or major complications. At 3 and 12 months, 77.8% and 77.3% of patients, respectively, were free from symptomatic arrhythmia. 65.8% were off anti-arrhythmic medication at 12 months.
Conclusions: The Convergent procedure is safe and has good short- and intermediate-term clinical success rates. This unique hybrid approach combines strengths of surgical and catheter ablation and should be part of any comprehensive AF treatment program.
A primary cardiac tumor is a rare clinical entity which was reported an incidence of 0.03% in previous autopsy series. 75% cardiac tumors are cardiac myxoma and cardiac hemangiomas constitute only 1–2% of primary cardiac tumors. With the development of modern medical imaging technology and the enhancement of people’s health awareness, more and more asymptomatic cardiac hemangiomas were found and confirmed eventually. Here, we described a case of a 71-year-old man, who was hospitalized with intermittent palpitation for 1 year and a large mass of the heart was removed successfully via sternotomy which was confirmed as atrial hemangioma by postoperative histopathology. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of atrial hemangioma was conducted to date and a few recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon disorder were provided for clinicians.
Carlos R. Martinez Licha, Chelsea M. McCurdy, Sarina Masso Maldonado, Lawrence S. Lee
Purpose: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a significant cause of morbidity and requires prompt diagnosis and management. While non-surgical approaches have supplanted surgery as primary treatment, surgical pulmonary embolectomy (SPE) remains a vital option for select patients. We review the current management of acute PE, with a focus on surgical therapy.
Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify literature regarding PE and treatment. Results were filtered to include the most comprehensive publications over the past decade.
Results: PE is stratified based on presenting hemodynamic status or degree of mechanical pulmonary arterial occlusion. Although systemic or catheter-guided fibrinolysis is the preferred first-line treatment for the majority of cases, patients who are not candidates should be considered for SPE. Studies demonstrate no mortality benefit of thrombolysis over surgery. Systemic anticoagulation is a mainstay of treatment regardless of intervention approach. Following surgical embolectomy, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been shown to reduce recurrence of thromboembolism.
Conclusions: Acute PE presents with varying degrees of clinical stability. Patients should be evaluated in the context of various available treatment options including medical, catheter-based, and surgical interventions. SPE is a safe and appropriate treatment option for appropriate patients.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess whether hangekobokuto (HKT) can prevent aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery.
Methods: We performed a single-center, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study of HKT in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. JPS HKT extract granule (JPS-16) was used as HKT. The primary endpoint was defined as the prevention of postoperative aspiration pneumonia. The secondary endpoints included complete recovery from swallowing and coughing disorders.
Results: Between August 2014 and August 2015, a total of 34 patients were registered in this study. The rate of subjects with postoperative aspiration pneumonia was significantly lower in the HKT group than in the placebo group (p = 0.017). In high-risk patients for aspiration pneumonia, the rate was significantly lower in the HKT group than in the placebo group (p = 0.015). The rate of subjects with swallowing disorders tended to be lower in the HKT group than in the placebo group (p = 0.091), and in high-risk patients, the rate was significantly lower in the HKT group than in the placebo group (p = 0.038).
Conclusions: HKT can prevent aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. In high-risk patients for aspiration pneumonia, HKT can prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve swallowing disorders.
Fumihiro Shoji, Yuka Kozuma, Gouji Toyokawa, Koji Yamazaki, Sadanori Takeo
Background: Complete blood cell count (CBC)-derived inflammatory biomarkers are widely used as prognostic parameters for various malignancies, but the best predictive biomarker for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed early-stage NSCLC patients to investigate predictive effects of preoperative CBC-derived inflammatory biomarkers.
Patients and Methods: We selected 311 consecutive patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC surgically resected from April 2006 to December 2012. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analyses of recurrence-free survival (RFS) were used to test the preoperative systemic immune inflammation index (SII), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte–lymphocyte ratio (MLR).
Results: Preoperative high MLR levels were significantly associated with patient sex, smoking status, and postoperative recurrence (p <0.0001, p = 0.0307, and p = 0.0146, respectively), and preoperative high SII levels were significantly correlated with postoperative recurrence (p = 0.0458). Neither NLR nor PLR were associated with any related factors. Only preoperative MLR levels (p = 0.0269) were identified as an independent predictor of shorter RFS. The relative risk (RR) for preoperative high MLR level versus low level patients was 2.259 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094–5.000). Five-year RFS rates in patients with preoperatively high MLR levels were significantly lower than in those with low MLR levels (82.21% vs. 92.05%, p = 0.0062). In subgroup analysis by tumor size and MLR level, the high MLR level subgroup with tumors >2 cm had significantly shorter RFS than other subgroups (p = 0.0289).
Conclusions: The preoperative MLR level is the optimal predictor of recurrence in patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for multiple rib fractures accompanied with pulmonary contusion.
Methods: The clinical records of consecutive 167 patients with multiple rib fractures accompanied with pulmonary contusion, who were treated from June 2014 to June 2017, were retrospectively analyzed. Of them, 75 and 92 underwent surgery (surgery group) and non-surgical treatment (non-surgery group), respectively. Patient pain score, complications, length of hospital stay, cost of hospitalization, and post-treatment 3-month follow-up results were compared.
Results: The mean number of days and moderate pain in the surgery group was significantly lower than that of the non-surgery group (p <0.01). The incidence of post-treatment complications was significantly lower in the surgery group than in the non-surgery group. The length of hospital stay of the surgery group was also significantly shorter than that of the non-surgery group (p <0.01). The cost of hospitalization was significantly higher in the surgery group than in the non-surgery group (p <0.01). The chest computed tomography (CT) scan which was performed 3 months after the treatment revealed that the surgery group had a better recovery than the non-surgery group. Physical recovery of the surgery group was also significantly better than that of the non-surgery group.
Conclusion: Surgery to treat multiple rib fractures (≥ 4 fractures) accompanied with pulmonary contusion is safe and effective.
Background: To compare and analyze the safety and efficacy of fast-track and conventional anesthesia for transthoracic closure of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in pediatric patients.
Methods: A total of 82 pediatric patients undergoing transthoracic closure of VSDs between September and December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, including 42 patients in group F (fast-track anesthesia) and 40 patients in group C (conventional anesthesia). The perioperative clinical data of both groups were collected and statistically analyzed.
Results: There were no fatal complications in both groups. No complete atrioventricular block (AVB), new aortic valve regurgitation, and device closure failure were observed. No significant difference was found in preoperative general data or intraoperative hemodynamic changes between the two groups (P >0.05). However, the mechanical ventilation time, length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization expenses of group F were significantly lower than those of group C (P <0.05).
Conclusion: It is safe and effective to use fast-track anesthesia for transthoracic closure of VSDs in pediatric patients.
In case of complete circumferential dissection of the ascending aorta, the dissected flap has the potential to fold backwards, causing several complications. We report two cases of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) whose intimal flaps intussuscepted into the left ventricular outflow tract.
Case 1: A 41-year-old man with AAD in whom transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed the dissected flap as folded back into the left ventricular outflow tract, causing severe aortic regurgitation (AR) with rapidly progressing acute pulmonary edema. Despite performing salvage surgery, the patient could not be rescued.
Case 2: An 81-year-old man with annuloaortic ectasia developed Stanford type A AAD. TTE showed an extremely mobile intimal flap intussuscepting into the left ventricular outflow tract. However, AR was not severe as it was prevented by the flap itself. The patient was rescued by performance of the modified Bentall procedure.
Thilo Noack, Mateo Marin Cuartas, Philipp Kiefer, Jens Garbade, Bettina Pfannmueller, Joerg Seeburger, Michael A. Borger
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the clinical outcomes after isolated mitral valve (MV) repair in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <50%) with focus on perioperative characteristics, survival, and freedom from reoperations.
Methods: Between 1997 and 2015, 557 patients with reduced LVEF (age: 62.8 ± 11.7 years, male: 320) underwent MV repair for symptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR). Etiologies were dilated non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy in 487 (87.4%) and 70 (12.6%) patients, respectively; these were classified into three different subgroups: LVEF 40%–49% (group 1), 30%–39% (group 2), and <30% (group 3).
Results: Overall, 294, 145, and 118 patients had an LVEF of 40%–49%, 30%–39%, and <30%, respectively. Logistic EuroSCORE was significantly higher (P <0.001) as the LVEF worsened. The survival analysis for groups 1–3, respectively, revealed the following: 30-day mortality: 1.4%, 3.4%, and 7.6% (P <0.001); 1-year survival: 93.9%, 89.4%, and 82% (P <0.001); 5-year survival: 81.2%, 75.2%, and 58% (P <0.001).
Conclusion: MV repair in patients with impaired LVEF could be performed safely with good clinical short- and mid-term outcome. Nevertheless, reduced preoperative LVEF correlates with worse perioperative and long-term survival.
Purpose: We performed an experimental study comparing different suture techniques in trachea anastomoses using the ex vivo sheep model, which deals with the parameters that suture tension, air leakage, intraluminal pressure, and tension at which the anastomosis will rupture. We aimed to find an answer to “Which suture technique should be used in tracheal anastomoses?”
Methods: In all, 45 sheep tracheas were randomly divided into three groups (each n = 15) differing in suture technique for anastomoses: single stitches, mixed, and continuous suture. The anastomoses were evaluated for air leakage under normal (25 mbar) and high (70 mbar) intraluminal pressures without tension. Then, air leakage was followed under high intraluminal pressure with tensile stress. Tension levels of dehiscence were also recorded. Data were statistically evaluated.
Results: No air leakage was observed at 25 mbar intraluminal pressure. At 70 mbar pressure without tension, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups (p >0.05). However, single-stitch technique was the best in terms of air leakage tension and rupture tension levels (p <0.05).
Conclusion: The most reliable and advantageous is single-stitch technique for a tracheal anastomosis in short-term results. Further studies are needed to analyze longer ventilation periods in terms of other serious complications as ischemic dehiscence and stenosis.
Shuwen Li, Jiakai Lu, Weiping Cheng, Junming Zhu, Mu Jin
Purpose: Platelets are crucial components of the coagulation processes, and low admission platelet count (PLC) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD).
Methods: A total of 130 consecutive patients undergoing Stanford type A AAD surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014. Preoperative clinical and laboratory data from patients were collected. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent factors of low admission platelets.
Results: Adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that age (β: −1.069, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.109, −0.029), sex (β: −29.973, 95% CI: −56.512, −3.433), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI; β: 0.197, 95% CI: 0.039, 0.354), fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) (β: −0.476, 95% CI: −0.879, −0.074), and attack time (β: 11.125, 95% CI: 7.963, 14.287) were significantly associated with admission PLC. Admission PLC increased with attack time up to the 3 days (β: 16.2, 95% CI: 12.1, 20.2).
Conclusions: We found that increasing age, male patients, patients with lower serum levels of TFPI and higher serum levels of FDP, and patients with a shorter attack time were significantly associated with lower PLC at admission. Moreover, the turning point of attack time is 3 days after the onset of dissection.
Purpose: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation. We investigated the effect of EAT on postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery.
Methods: In all, 77 patients underwent scheduled cardiac surgery. Before the operation, we measured total epicardial adipose tissue (Total EAT) and left atrial (LA) EAT by three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). During surgery, we obtained samples of the right atrial appendage, aortic fat, and epicardial fat. The primary endpoint was occurrence of POAF within 1 week after surgery.
Results: POAF occurred in 21 patients (27%). Assessment of preoperative characteristics revealed significant differences of age and the use of aldosterone blockers and loop diuretics between the patients with and without POAF. In univariate analysis, the LA EAT/Total EAT ratio, age, use of aldosterone blockers and loop diuretics, P wave duration, cardioplegia volume, and central venous pressure (CVP) were all higher in POAF group. However, logistic regression analysis with propensity score matching found no significant differences of these factors although the LA EAT/Total EAT ratio was higher in POAF group.
Conclusion: The use of loop diuretics showed the strongest association with POAF. Logistic regression analysis suggested that a high LA EAT/Total EAT ratio had the second strongest association with POAF.
Ibrahim Alp, Murat Ugur, Ismail Selcuk, Ali Ertan Ulucan, Veysel Temizkan, Ahmet Turan Yilmaz
Purpose: In the treatment of the postsurgical pericardial effusions via pericardiocentesis, determination of the puncture site might be difficult. Contrast echocardiography may not be efficient due to surgical artefacts and pulmonary problems and therefore may lead to inaccurate evaluation. Alternative imaging methods might be helpful to perform the pericardiocentesis with decreased complications.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the patients who had undergone pericardiocentesis in our department from January 2008 through April 2018. The procedure was performed in slightly semi-seated position with the guidance of the echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Following the catheterization, percutaneous drainage was performed.
Results: There were 63 patients needed intervention due to pericardial effusion. 67% of the patients were using warfarin and the next patients were using acetyl salicylic acid and/or clopidogrel. All effusions were in the posterolateral localization. The mean volume of aspirated pericardial fluid was 404 ± 173 mL (150–980 mL). Control echocardiograms showed that almost all fluid was drained in all patients and there were no procedural or follow-up complications.
Conclusion: In the treatment of postoperative pericardial effusion, fluoroscopy is an alternative method to locate the catheter accurately in challenging situations following cardiac surgery. Thus, procedural risk minimizes and drainage of pericardial fluid is performed safely.