Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the ability of 1-mm and 5-mm section Computed Tomography(CT) to detect pulmonary metastases in patients with pulmonary metastases.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 106 patients with pulmonary metastases due to malignancies treated at Toho University Omori Medical Center between 2013 and 2020.
Results: Cases with only one nodule evaluated by 5-mm section CT had significantly lower discordance with 1-mm section CT than cases with two or more nodules detected by a 5 mm section (p = 0.0161). After reference to a 1 mm section, cases with only one nodule reevaluated by 5-mm section CT had significantly lower discordance than cases with two or more nodules reevaluated using 5-mm section CT. In cases with only one nodule, reevaluation using a 5 mm section was consistent with evaluation using a 1 mm section. However, this was not observed in cases with two or more nodules, with a significant difference between one nodule and two or more nodules.
Conclusions: If there are two or more nodules observed in 5-mm section CT it may be necessary to reevaluate using 1-mm section CT to determine the exact number of pulmonary metastases.
Purpose: To evaluate the utility of ultrasonographic assessment of blood flow to the lower limb below the cannulation site in minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS).
Methods: Twenty-two patients who underwent ultrasonographic assessment in MICS were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, the right femoral artery was used for arterial cannulation. Ultrasonographic assessment was performed using a 15-MHz ultrasonography small probe, and regional oxygen saturation was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
Results: The mean flow velocity at the distal side of the cannulation site was 46.2 ± 25.4 cm/s. In six patients, a >40% decreased from baseline regional oxygen saturation was observed. In five of the six patients, the flow velocity was very slow, and spontaneous echo contrast was also observed in three cases. Their regional oxygen saturation was improved rapidly after distal leg perfusion. In the remaining case, the flow velocity was not decreased. In another one case, the stenosis at the cannulation site was detected after decannulation and repaired immediately. No limb ischemic complications were observed in this series.
Conclusion: Ultrasonographic assessment combined with the NIRS monitoring is useful to prevent lower limb ischemic complications after femoral arterial cannulation in MICS.
Purpose: Unlike loop diuretics, tolvaptan is reported to have a renal protective effect. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of tolvaptan administration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients following open-heart surgery.
Methods: From February 2017 to August 2020, 75 patients with preoperative CKD stages IIIb–V were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 30) and the tolvaptan group (n = 45). All patients routinely received conventional diuretics starting from postoperative day (POD) 1. Tolvaptan at 7.5–15 mg/day was administered if the patients had persistent fluid retention or poor response to conventional diuretics.
Results: Tolvaptan administration was initiated at a mean of POD 2.9 ± 2.2, and the mean dosing period was 4.1 ± 3.0 days. The mean time to return to the preoperative body weight in the control and tolvaptan groups was similar. However, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly increased at the time when body weight reached the preoperative level and at discharge in the tolvaptan group than in the control group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renal protective effect of tolvaptan even in advanced CKD patients after open-heart surgery.
Purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a formidable disease with no effective treatment at present. With the goal of developing potential therapies, we attempted to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP) could alleviate PAH and its mechanism.
Methods: Pulmonary smooth muscle cells were cultured in conventional low-oxygen environments, and cellular proliferation was monitored after treatment with either EP or phosphate-balanced solution (PBS). Expression of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) protein were detected by western blot. After hyperkinetic PAH rat models were treated with EP, hemodynamic data were collected. Right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling were evaluated. Expression of HMGB1 and RAGE protein was also detected.
Results: In vitro, proliferative activity increased in low-oxygen environments, but was inhibited by EP treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting showed the decreased expression of HMGB1 and RAGE protein after EP treatment. In vivo, pulmonary artery pressures were attenuated with EP. Right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling were also reversed. Additionally, the expression levels of HMGB1 and RAGE were reduced in lung tissues.
Conclusions: EP can alleviate PAH by suppressing the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via inhibition of HMGB1/RAGE expression.
Purpose: Pulmonary nodules suspected to be cancerous are rarely diagnosed as pulmonary infarction (PI). This study examined the clinical, radiological, and laboratory data in cases diagnosed with PI to determine their potential utility as preoperative diagnostic markers. We also assessed factors affecting the postoperative course.
Methods: A total of 603 cases of peripheral pulmonary nodules undiagnosed preoperatively were resected at Hokkaido University Hospital from 2012 to 2019. Of these, we reviewed cases with a postoperative diagnosis of PI. We investigated clinical symptoms, preoperative laboratory data, radiological characteristics, and postoperative complications.
Results: Four patients (0.7%) were diagnosed with PI. All patients had a smoking history. One patient received systemic steroid administration, and none had predisposing factors for thrombosis. One case showed chronologically increased nodule size. Three cases showed weak uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. One patient with preoperative high D-dimer levels developed a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) in the postoperative chronic phase and was treated with anticoagulants.
Conclusions: Preoperative diagnosis of PI is difficult, and we could not exclude lung cancer. However, if a patient diagnosed with PI has a high D-dimer level, we recommend postoperative physical examination for deep venous thrombosis. Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy should be considered to avoid fatal PE.
We report a 33-year-old man who presented with recurrent right pneumothorax. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large bulla with a maximum diameter of 8 cm in the right middle lobe; he subsequently underwent bullectomy. Histopathology revealed that pulmonary parenchyma adjacent to the bulla represented nodular proliferation of clear cells characterized by a papillary structure resembling placental chorionic villi. Immunohistochemically, clear cells were positive for CD10, suggesting placental transmogrification of the lung (PTL). We reviewed 36 surgical cases of PTL, and only 2 cases (5.6%), including our case, were operated for spontaneous pneumothorax. Bullous lesions secondary to PTL tend to appear as unilateral large cystic masses in non-upper lobes, which is atypical for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Although PTL is considered a very rare cause of secondary pneumothorax, we must carefully differentiate this condition.
Objectives: One of the serious problems after lung transplantation is chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Most CLAD patients pathologically characterized by obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4)-Ig is a combination protein of the Fc fragment of human IgG1 linked to the extracellular domain of CTLA4. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of CTLA4-Ig therapy on OB using a mouse intrapulmonary tracheal transplantation (IPTT) model.
Methods: IPTT was performed between BALB/c (donor) and C57BL/6 (recipient) mice. Abatacept, which is a commercially available form of CTLA4-Ig, was intraperitoneally injected in recipient mice immediately after surgery, on days 7, 14, and 21. The mice in the control group received human IgG.
Results: We performed semi-quantitative analysis of graft luminal obliteration at post-transplant day 28. We calculated the obliteration ratio of the lumen of the transplanted trachea in each case. The obliteration ratio was significantly lower in the CTLA4-Ig group than that in the control group (91.2 ± 2.1% vs. 47.8 ± 7.9%, p = 0.0008). Immunofluorescent staining revealed significantly decreased lymphoid neogenesis in the lung.
Conclusions: CTLA4-Ig therapy attenuated tracheal obliteration with fibrous tissue in the mouse IPTT model. The attenuation of fibrous obliteration was correlated with the inhibition of lymphoid neogenesis.
In locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), mediastinal staging is the cornerstone of the therapeutic decision and echoendoscopy is the most practiced exam to assess the lymph node involvement. We describe a rare case of endobronchial involvement by cells originating from a metastatic lymph node after endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with a squamous cell lung cancer with mediastinal nodal involvement proven by EBUS. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with partial response and was scheduled for a lobectomy. Before surgery, a fibroscopy was performed which demonstrated a 1-cm polypoid lesion settled on the internal face of the main right bronchus corresponding to the EBUS puncture site. The histological analysis confirmed tumoral cell in this lesion. The patient was rejected for surgery and undergo chemoradiation. This case highlights the need for a careful endoscopic control before surgical resection in case of prior positive EBUS followed by an interval of time.
A 48-year-old woman with extensive clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) was successfully treated by left lower lobectomy and lingulectomy following combination treatment of intravenous/inhaled amikacin plus bronchial occlusion by Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs). A left pneumonectomy was initially indicated for removing all the lesions, but the procedure would have been barely tolerated by the patient. However, her preoperative combination treatment sufficiently reduced the lesions requiring resection to allow surgical preservation of the left upper division. This novel approach might be promising for patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease whose pulmonary reserve will not allow an extensive parenchymal resection.
Purpose: Assessing microbiological culture results is essential in the diagnosis of empyema and appropriate antibiotic selection; however, the guidelines for the management of empyema do not mention assessing microbiological culture intraoperatively. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative microbiological culture may improve the management of empyema.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 47 patients who underwent surgery for stage II/III empyema from January 2011 to May 2019. We compared the positivity of microbiological culture assessed preoperatively at empyema diagnosis versus intraoperatively. We further investigated the clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes of patients whose intraoperative microbiological culture results were positive.
Results: The positive rates of preoperative and intraoperative microbiological cultures were 27.7% (13/47) and 36.2% (17/47), respectively. Among 34 patients who were culture-negative preoperatively, eight patients (23.5%) were culture-positive intraoperatively. Intraoperative positive culture was significantly associated with a shorter duration of preoperative antibiotic treatment (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference between intraoperative culture-positive and -negative results regarding postoperative complications.
Conclusions: Intraoperative microbiological culture may help detect bacteria in patients whose microbiological culture results were negative at empyema diagnosis. Assessing microbiological culture should be recommended intraoperatively as well as preoperatively, for the appropriate management of empyema.
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, occasionally accompanied by malignant tumors. Immunosuppressive therapy is the mainstay treatment for idiopathic NMOSD; no guidelines have been published for paraneoplastic NMOSD because it is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of a 67-year-old man with paraneoplastic NMOSD associated with thymic carcinoid whose cells expressed aquaporin-4 antibody. After surgical resection, the patient’s symptoms improved, and serum aquaporin-4 autoantibody turned negative. We believe that radiographic examination for mediastinal tumors in patients with NMOSD is necessary because thymic epithelial tumors could have a role in the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic NMOSD. After mediastinal tumor has been detected, they should be surgically resected to improve neurological symptoms.
We sought to evaluate the feasibility of esophageal carcinoma (EC) surgery in cases requiring dialysis. Among 250 consecutive patients undergoing surgical resection for EC, three on maintenance dialysis were identified. We retrospectively analyzed their clinical characteristics. The three dialyzed patients were all males, 39–77 years old at EC surgery. The operations were thoracoscopic esophagectomy with nodal clearance (Case 1), cervical esophageal resection without thoracic procedures (Case 2), and thoracoscopic esophagectomy without reconstruction, emergently conducted for tumor bleeding (Case 3). Reoperation had been required for postoperative abdominal hematoma in Case 1. Postoperative tracheostomy had been performed due to severe pneumonia in Case 2. EC surgery for dialyzed patients, despite appearing to be feasible, might be associated with a high risk of life-threatening morbidities. To minimize surgical risk, therapeutic decision-making for such cases should be based on the balance between radicality and safety.
Purpose: The course of coexisting mitral valve stenosis is not clear after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). We investigated the effect of AVR for AS on coexisting mitral stenosis (MS).
Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2019, 1338 consecutive patients underwent surgical AVR at Shiga University of Medical Science. Of them, 34 patients with moderate MS (mitral valve area [MVA]: 1.5–2.0 cm2) were included in the present study. We evaluated the postoperative clinical outcomes in these patients.
Results: Mean MVA in our cohort significantly increased 1 week after operation compared with preoperative values, and the change was maintained for 5 years after surgery. Follow-up was completed in 94.1% (32/34) patients, and mean follow-up duration was 4.0 ± 3.0 years. No patients underwent mitral surgery for remaining MS after AVR during postoperative follow-up.
Conclusion: AVR for AS resulted in increased MVA in patients with MS, and the change was maintained during follow-up.
Objective: In this study, we aimed to reveal the prognostic differences between skip and non-skip metastasis mediastinal lymph node (MLN) metastasis.
Methods: A total of 202 patients (179 males and 23 females; mean age, 59.66 ± 9.89 years; range: 29–84 years) who had ipsilateral single-station MLN metastasis were analyzed in two groups retrospectively between January 2009 and December 2017: “skip ipsilateral MLN metastasis” group (sN2) (n = 55,27.3%) [N1(–), N2(+)], “non-skip ipsilateral MLN metastasis” group (nsN2) (n = 147,72.7%) [N1(+), N2(+)].
Results: The mean follow-up was 42.63 ± 34.91 months (range: 2–117 months). Among all patients, and in the sN2 and nsN2 groups, the median overall survival times were 63.5 ± 4.56, 68.8 ± 7, and 59.3 ± 5.35 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 38.2%, 46.3%, and 36.4%.
Conclusion: Skip metastasis did not take its rightful place in TNM classification; thus, further studies will be performed. To detect micrometastasis, future studies on skip metastasis should examine non-metastatic hilar lymph nodes (LNs) through staining methods so that heterogeneity in patient groups can be avoided, that is, to ensure that only true skip metastasis cases are included. Afterwards, more accurate and elucidative studies on skip metastasis can be achieved to propound its prognostic importance in the group of N2 disease.
Background: Whether continuous thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) and continuous paravertebral block (PVB) have similar analgesic effects in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy was compared in this study.
Methods: In all, 86 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy were enrolled in the prospective, randomized clinical trial. Group E received TEA. Group P received PVB. The primary endpoint was postoperative 24-hour visual rating scale (VAS) on coughing. Side effects and postoperative complications were also analyzed.
Results: Pain scores at rest or on coughing at 24 and 48 h postoperatively were significantly lower in group E than in group P (P <0.05). At 24 h postoperatively, more patients in group E suffered from vomiting (32.6% vs 11.6%, P = 0.019), dizziness (55.8% vs 12.9%, P = 0.009), pruritus (27.9% vs 2.3%, P = 0.002), and hypotension (32.6% vs 4.7%, P = 0.002) than those in group P. Patients in group E were more satisfied (P = 0.047). Four patients in group P and two patients in group E suffered from pulmonary complications (P >0.05). The length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays were not significantly different.
Conclusions: Though TEA has more adverse events than PVB, it may be superior to PVB in patients undergoing VATS lobectomy.
Purpose: We propose a novel technique for reconstruction of the dissected aortic root with the use of TachoSil fibrin sealant patch.
Methods: Patients with acute type A aortic dissection involving the aortic root were included. Appropriately prepared TachoSil fibrin sealant patch was placed between the dissected layers of the aortic root to achieve their durable fusion. Thus, the false lumen was eliminated, and the anatomical and functional structure of the aortic wall was restored.
Results: In all, 13 patients mean aged 57 ± 10.3 years underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection with the use of TachoSil fibrin sealant patch. All patients survived the surgery. The mean follow-up time was 30.8 ± 16.4 months. Follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans confirmed no aortic root dissection in all patients.
Conclusions: This technique ensures durable restoration of the aortic wall structure, eliminates the secondary aortic valve regurgitation, and allows for the preservation of patients’ native aortic valve.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 10-minute (standard term) versus 20-minute treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) on mechanical stability and physical strength of human pericardium in the setting of the OZAKI procedure.
Methods: Leftover pericardium (6 patients) was bisected directly after the operation, and one-half was further fixed for 10 additional minutes. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ultimate tensile strain (uts), and collagen elastic modulus were evaluated.
Results: Both treatments resulted in similar values of uniaxial stretching-generated elongations at rupture (10 minutes 25 ± 7 % vs. 20 minutes: 22 ± 5 %; p = 0.05), UTS (5.16 ± 2 MPa vs. 6.54 ± 3 MPa; p = 0.59), and collagen fiber stiffness (elastic modulus: 31.80 ± 15.05 MPa vs. 37.35 ± 15.78 MPa; p = 0.25).
Conclusion: Prolongation of the fixation time of autologous pericardium has no significant effect on its mechanical stability; thus, extending the intraoperative treatment cannot be recommended.
A 74-year-old man was admitted with lung cancer, and preoperative blood test showed abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Coagulation factor screening and APTT mixing test achieved a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A (AHA). Bypassing agent therapy was indicated and lobectomy was successfully performed without bleeding complications. APTT returned to normal after the operation without any additional treatment for AHA. The pathogenesis of AHA is still unknown and there is no evidence for hemostatic strategy for AHA patients requiring surgery. This study supports the importance of hemostatic therapy and suggests that malignancy might cause AHA.
Background: Cadaveric lobar lung transplantation (L-LTx) is developed to overcome donor–recipient size mismatch. Controversial short- and long-term outcomes following L-LTx have been reported compared to full-sized lung transplantation (F-LTx). This study reports long-term outcomes after L-LTx.
Methods: We reviewed patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx) between 2000 and 2016. The decision to perform L-LTx was made based mainly on donor–recipient height discrepancy and visual assessment of donor lungs. Predicted donor–recipient total lung capacity (TLC) ratio was calculated more recently. Primary outcome was overall survival.
Results: In all, 370 bilateral LTx were performed during the study period, among those 250 (67%) underwent F-LTx and 120 (32%) underwent L-LTx, respectively. One- and 5-year survival rates were 85% vs. 90% and 53% vs. 63% for L-LTx and F-LTx, respectively (p = 0.16). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)-free survival at 5 years was 48% in L-LTx vs. 51% in F-LTx recipients (p = 0.89), respectively. Age, intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT) were significant prognostic factors for survival using multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Overall survival and CLAD-free survival following L-LTx were comparable to F-LTx. Given the ongoing donor organ shortage, cadaveric L-LTx remains as an important resource in LTx.
Minimally invasive surgery/coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG) via left thoracotomy and multiple CABG is a reported alternative to the standard sternotomy approach. However, harvesting the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) under direct vision requires high surgical skill. We describe MICS CABG with the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and a composite graft using the in situ right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) and radial artery (RA) to achieve complete coronary revascularization. No complications occurred, and postoperative computed tomography showed patency of all grafts. Our experience suggests that this composite graft can be used safely and effectively in MICS CABG for complete arterial revascularization without difficulty.
Purpose. Surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is an important diagnostic tool for interstitial lung disease (ILD), yet the risk factors for SLB are still debatable and long-term outcomes remain unknown.
Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 85 consecutive patients with ILD who underwent SLB by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) from 2008 to 2019. Risk factors for complications and differences of outcomes between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other ILDs were examined.
Results. All patients who underwent VATS had no mortality or acute exacerbation of ILD within 90 days of SLB. The rate of complication was 9.4%, and there were no statistically significant risk factors for complications. While the IPF group was not significantly different from the non-IPF group with regard to surgical parameters or complications, patients with IPF had significantly higher rates of mortality (50% vs. 9% in 5 years; p <0.001) and readmission due to acute exacerbation (75% vs. 8% in 5 years; p <0.001).
Conclusion. VATS lung biopsy for ILD can be a safe approach regardless of underlying phenotypes. An accurate diagnosis of IPF via SLB may be beneficial for correct patient management.
Purpose: To compare efficacy and safety of dual docetaxel/nedaplatin treatment versus docetaxel alone as second-line chemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer.
Methods: In all, 36 patients with metastatic and/or recurrent esophagus squamous cell carcinoma resistant to first-line chemotherapy (fluorouracil/cisplatin) were recruited from 2011 to 2018 and randomized into two groups. Treatment response and survival were compared between the docetaxel/nedaplatin (60/80 mg/m2/day) group and docetaxel (70 mg/m2/day) group. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until tumor progression. Patients were followed up until March 2019 or death.
Results: The frequency of Grade 3 or higher adverse events in the docetaxel/nedaplatin group (58.8%) was higher compared with the docetaxel group (26.3%) (P = 0.090). We found a treatment response rate of 52.9% and 36.8% and a median survival of 8.9 and 7.0 months in the docetaxel/nedaplatin-treated and docetaxel-treated group, respectively (P = 0.544).
Conclusion: No significant survival advantage was found for docetaxel/nedaplatin-treated patients, although there was an increased frequency of high-grade adverse events compared to docetaxel-treated patients. Because of the limited cohort size, a Phase III study based on our findings is not warranted to assess the clinical impact of docetaxel/nedaplatin treatment. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN 000005877).
Background: More evidence was required to guide the management of left subclavian artery (LSA) during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The present study aimed to compare the outcomes of LSA coverage with LSA revascularization. Another purpose of this study was to share our experience of LSA revascularization with castor single-branched stent-graft.
Methods: From January 2016 to December 2019, 134 patients with type B aortic dissection (TBAD) or intramural hematoma (IMH) were enrolled and divided into two groups, the LSA-covered group (n = 61) and the LSA-revascularized group (with castor single-branched stent-graft, n = 73). The results, such as in-hospital and 30-day mortality, stroke, paraplegia, left arm ischemia, operation time, endoleak, were compared between the two groups.
Results: The incidence of 30-day stroke in the LSA-covered group (8.2%) was significantly higher compared with the LSA-revascularized group (0%, P = 0.018). 30-day ischemia of left arm occurred in more patients in the LSA-covered group (11.5%, P = 0.003). No statistical difference was found in the incidences of paraplegia, endoleak, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day mortality.
Conclusions: LSA should be revascularized during TEVAR to reduce the incidences of stroke and left arm ischemia. Castor single-branched stent-graft was feasible and safe for treating TBAD or IMH.
Objectives: We would like to clarify the imaging findings of the main tumor that may omit the requirement for lymph node dissection in clinical IA (cIA) lung adenocarcinoma.
Methods: A total of 336 patients with cIA lung adenocarcinomas with normal preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) who underwent surgical resection were analyzed. We investigated the association between various computed tomography (CT) imaging findings or the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography (FDG-PET) and lymph node metastasis. The maximum tumor diameter was calculated from the CT images using both the lung window setting (LD) and mediastinal window setting (MD). The diameter of the solid component (CD) was defined as consolidation diameter in lung window setting. The solid component ratio (C/T) was defined as CD/LD.
Results: SUVmax, MD, and C/T were independent factors related to lymph node metastasis, but CD was not (p = 0.38). The conditions required for the positive predictive value (PPV) to reach 100% were 10.6 mm for MD, 12.5 mm for CD, and 0.55 for C/T. SUVmax did not reach 100%.
Conclusions: In cIA lung adenocarcinoma with CEA in the normal range, we found that it may be possible for lymph node dissection to be omitted by MD, CD, and C/T.
Purpose: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) complex segmentectomy has been challenging for thoracic surgeons. This study was designed to compare the perioperative outcomes between uniportal and multiportal VATS complex segmentectomy.
Methods: Data on a total of 122 uniportal and 57 multiportal VATS complex segmentectomies were assessed. Propensity score (PS) matching yielded 56 patients in each group. A crude comparison and PS matching analyses, incorporating preoperative variables, were conducted to elucidate the short-term outcomes between uniportal and multiportal VATS complex segmentectomies.
Results: The uniportal group had a significantly shorter operation time (173 min vs. 195 min, p = 0.004), pleural drainage duration (2.5 d vs. 3.5 d, p <0.001), and postoperative hospital stay (4.2 d vs. 5.3 d, p <0.001) before matching, and a significant difference was also observed after matching for pleural drainage duration (2.5 d vs. 3.6 d, p <0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (4.5 d vs. 5.2 d, p = 0.001). The numbers of dissected lymph nodes in N1 and N2 stations, the intraoperative and postoperative complication rates were not significantly different between these two groups.
Conclusions: The uniportal VATS complex segmentectomy was not inferior to multiportal VATS in terms of perioperative outcomes and therefore should be considered as a viable surgical approach for treatment.
Background: Our aim in this study was to compare the results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with those of open surgery regarding efficacy, morbidity, and long-term recurrence of bronchogenic cysts in light of the literature.
Methods: This study comprises the data of 51 patients whose pathological diagnosis revealed bronchogenic cyst after surgical excision between January 2010 and December 2016. There were two groups according to the type of resection: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy.
Results: Of the patients included in the study, 25 (49%) were male and 26 (51%) were female. Their average age was 41.7 ± 14.1 years. While 14 patients (27.5%) were asymptomatic in the preoperative period, 37 patients (72.5%) had symptoms. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was 0 in 35 patients (68.6%) and 1 and above in 16 patients (31.4%). While 22 (43.1%) patients underwent cyst excision via VATS, 29 (56.9%) patients underwent thoracotomy. The average length of hospital stay was 1.77 ± 0.68 days for patients who had VATS, whereas it was 3.82 ± 3.3 days for patients who had thoracotomy (p <0.001).
Conclusion: VATS procedure is a safe method in the surgical treatment of bronchogenic cysts, with less hospitalization and similar recurrence rates.
We report a case of extended bronchoplasty in which anastomosis between the left main and the superior segmental bronchi with resection of the left upper lobe and basal segment was required to avoid pneumonectomy for locally advanced lung cancer. The main tumor located at the left upper lobe invaded the basal segment, and involved both the basal pulmonary artery and left secondary carina. Regarding anastomosis, the bronchi were cut in a deep wedge shape and a wall flap was made by part of the lower lobar bronchus. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful and he has been alive without recurrence for more than 3 years after surgery.
A 40-year-old woman with idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) and flat chest underwent left single lung transplantation (SLT). Although she had developed over-systemic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) at transplantation, it was alleviated. However, her PAP gradually increased again. Her transplanted lung was well-inflated, but progression of fibrosis in her right native lung appeared to have caused a mediastinal shift, and her flat chest caused obstruction of the outflow tract of the pulmonary vein. She died of heart failure and associated infection 1.5 years after transplantation. An autopsy confirmed irreversible pulmonary arterial and venous changes in the transplanted lung, suggestive of chronic pressure overload. The flat chest associated with IPPFE can affect pulmonary circulation after SLT.
We describe a rare case of newly discovered pulmonary metastases and surgical confirmation 12 years after initial surgery for a pheochromocytoma. A 61-year-old asymptomatic man was referred because of an abnormal shadow in the right lung field upon chest radiography. Computed tomography (CT) showed two well-demarcated tumors in the basal segment of the right lung. Twelve years previously, he underwent right adrenalectomy and was pathologically diagnosed as having a benign pheochromocytoma. Thereafter, he received a medical check-up annually. To confirm the diagnosis of two pulmonary tumors, video-assisted thoracic surgery was done and wedge resection of the right lower lobe completed. Pathology studies revealed these tumors as pulmonary metastases from the pheochromocytoma, which indicated that the true diagnosis was a malignant pheochromocytoma. Patients with a benign pheochromocytoma should continue to undergo careful monitoring for a long time after the initial surgical procedure. Thoracic surgeons should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary metastases even if >10 years have passed since initial resection of a benign pheochromocytoma.
We report a surgical case of bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) that directly connected to a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein through an abnormal vessel. It was complicated by racemose hemangioma. This is a rare vascular malformation. An 82-year-old female had a large BAA that was found incidentally. First, we consider treating the BAA with embolization by interventional radiology (IVR). However, because of strong meandering of the bronchial artery, we could not advance a microcatheter into the BAA. Therefore, a surgical operation was performed through a standard posterior lateral thoracotomy. The BAA was located between the upper and lower lobes and directly connected to the pulmonary artery. Some bronchial artery branches that provided inflow to the aneurysm were ligated, and the abnormal vessel that connected the BAA to the upper pulmonary vein was ligated easily. A fistula between the BAA and pulmonary artery was sutured by the cardiovascular surgeon using an artificial cardiopulmonary device, with permissive stenosis of A2b (ascending A2).
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition which involves various organs. This is a very rare case of IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) with the invasion into diaphragm. The patient was a 71-year-old man with a long-term exposure to asbestos who had a mass shadow in the left lower lung lobe, which was suspected to invade the left diaphragm on computed tomography (CT). Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT also presented an avid intake of fluorodeoxyglucose in the mass, which suspected lung cancer. Although bronchoscopic biopsy could not lead to the definite diagnosis, we performed left lower lobectomy combined with the resection of left diaphragm. The specimen showed the features of IgG4-RLD on pathology: the vein stenosis and fibrosis around the vein, the infiltration of IgG4-positive cells, and IgG cells to IgG4 cells ratio of 40%. Furthermore, there were inflammatory cells infiltrating to the diaphragm.
Introduction: Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) with a bilateral tracheal bronchus (TB) has not been reported as a subtype of CTS. A novel technique to manage CTS in patients with a bilateral TB is described.
Case Report: An infant with tetralogy of Fallot underwent repair of cardiac anomaly at age 1 month. He experienced numerous cyanosis and episodes of transient respiratory arrest. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an aberrant bilateral upper lobe bronchus arising directly from the trachea and a stenotic trachea connecting the pseudo- carina to the true carina between the common right lower and left lower bronchus. On bronchoscopy, the diameter of the lumen of the narrowed segment was estimated to be less than 2 mm. Tracheal reconstruction was undertaken when he was 2 years of age. The surgical technique using a modified slide tracheoplasty for the correction of this anomaly are described. After surgery, the patient was extubated and has had no respiratory symptoms.
Discussion and Conclusion: The patient had unique anatomic considerations that made reconstruction challenging. Our technique of covering a stenotic section by normal trachea is a modification of the slide tracheoplasty technique and is useful for CTS with a unilateral and a bilateral TB.
A 62-year-old woman with a history of lung resection for lung cancer was admitted to our hospital due to cough, which became progressively more severe. She was diagnosed with chronic empyema with bronchopleural fistula (BPF) of the right upper bronchial stump. Although a pedicled muscle flap was transposed to the empyema cavity, the fistula remained. We used a vacuum-assisted closure system after open-window thoracotomy and observed the cavity reduction with expansion of the transposed muscle flap. We quantitatively evaluated the dynamics of the cavity change using a three-dimensional image analysis system. A reduction of the volume of the muscle flap by prolonged empyema and expansion of the muscle flap was observed immediately after vacuum-assisted management. However, expansion of the right residual lung was not recognized. Pedicled muscle flap transposition followed by vacuum-assisted management after open-window thoracotomy may be effective for treating chronic empyema caused by BPF.
Bilateral aorto-profunda femoris bypass with Dacron bifurcation graft was performed by a patient with aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) and horseshoe kidney (HSK) who had undergone stenting of the right common iliac artery and of the left superficial femoral artery with subsequent stent thrombosis as well as significant subrenal aortic stenosis. As endovascular treatment was not feasible and surgical treatment by means of transperitoneal incision would be associated with high risk of damage to the HSK, the operation was successfully accomplished through left pararectal retroperitoneal approach.
Solitary splenic metastasis from primary lung cancer is extremely rare. Here, we demonstrated a solitary splenic metastasis of primary lung cancer that was difficult to distinguish from benign cystic disease. A 69-year-old-female was diagnosed as middle lobe lung cancer. Although preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a low-density splenic nodule, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed no fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the splenic nodule. Therefore, the nodule was diagnosed as benign cystic disease and middle lobe lobectomy was performed. Postoperative pathologic examination demonstrated papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma with mucin, and the tumor was diagnosed as primary lung cancer. However, the splenic nodule continued to increase postoperatively. Splenectomy was undergone 30 months after the pulmonary resection and the splenic tumor was diagnosed as the splenic metastasis of lung cancer. In the 24 months since the splenectomy, no recurrence has been observed in the absence of treatment. Splenectomy was an effective treatment for solitary splenic metastasis of lung cancer in this case. FDG uptake in the splenic tumor was not evident due to marked mucus production.
Spontaneous hemothorax caused by the rupture of a benign schwannoma has rarely been reported. Herein, we present the successful excision of an extremely rare case of mediastinal ancient schwannoma causing intrathoracic bleeding. A 27-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department because of back pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed massive pleural effusion with a posterior mediastinal tumor. We performed a resection of the tumor which had ruptured, and the tumor was diagnosed as an ancient schwannoma.
Mediastinal ectopic goiter is a thyroid tumor that lies entirely below a plane extending from the superior surface of the first thoracic vertebra to the suprasternal notch, and commonly lies in the vicinity of the thymus. Intrapericardial ectopic goiter is extremely rare. We present an extremely rare case of a 63-year-old woman with an intrapericardial ectopic goiter and review the pertinent literature.
Glomus tumors originate from a neuroarterial structure called the glomus body, and grow mostly in soft tissue. It is rare for glomus tumors to develop in the respiratory system. The patient of the present case had an abnormal shadow in the right lung on chest X-ray, and computed tomography (CT) findings displayed a lung tumor in the right S6. Bronchoscopy was performed for the diagnosis of the lung tumor, and a polypoid bronchial tumor was unexpectedly found to occupy the right B3. The bronchial tumor was diagnosed as a glomus tumor, and the lung tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. The bronchial glomus tumor was cauterized by argon plasma coagulation (APC). Three weeks after the cauterization by APC, the right lower lobectomy was performed for the treatment of the lung adenocarcinoma. The patient has remained disease free for 2 years.
The progress and popularization of microvascular surgical techniques may improve the outcomes of esophageal reconstruction using non-gastric tube (GT) grafts. A pedicled jejunum (PJ) with microvascular anastomoses is frequently selected as a reconstructed conduit for esophageal reconstruction when the GT is unavailable, and the internal thoracic (IT) vein is frequently selected as a recipient blood vessel for microvascular anastomosis. However, the IT vein may be inadequate for microvascular anastomosis because of its absence or underdevelopment. Since it is difficult to preoperatively predict such rare cases, it becomes necessary to urgently and rapidly prepare an alternative blood vessel. Herein, we present surgical procedures for superdrainage using the cephalic vein (CeV). Due the superficial nature of the CeV, it is both easy to identify and collect sufficient length. Thus, the CeV is very useful as an urgent substitute blood vessel when the IT vein is unavailable for microvascular anastomosis in esophageal reconstruction.
In 2002, a 37-year-old male with Marfan syndrome underwent the Bentall operation, total arch replacement, and aortobifemoral bypass for DeBakey type IIIb chronic aortic dissection, annuloaortic ectasia, and aortic regurgitation. In 2007, mild mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by mitral valve prolapse was identified. In April 2017, echocardiography revealed the worsening of MR and moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Moreover, coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a coronary artery aneurysm in the left main trunk (LMT). In August 2017, the patient underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), tricuspid annuloplasty (TAP), and coronary artery reconstruction. We reconstructed the LMT aneurysm using an artificial graft. True aneurysm of the coronary artery complicated with Marfan syndrome is a rare complication that has seldom been reported. This case highlights that it is essential to carefully follow-up patients with Marfan syndrome after the Bentall operation.
We describe a 36-year-old asymptomatic female with multiple bronchial artery aneurysms (BAAs) and a bronchial artery (BA) to pulmonary artery (PA) fistula. She was treated with thoracoscopic BA resection without lobectomy in lieu of catheter embolization as first-line treatment. The configuration of the BA and the location of the BAAs were clearly visualized using three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT); therefore, the segment of the BA to resect was assessed preoperatively and complete resection of all BAAs was performed. Preoperative BA angiography delineated the BA to PA fistula, and guided surgical decision-making.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) through a peripheral arterial access is often complicated by concomitant arteriopathy. We describe here the first successful case of TAVI through the carotid artery in Japan. The patient was an 83-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Preoperative computed tomography (CT) revealed a shaggy distal aortic arch and left subclavian artery ostium, along with severely calcified bilateral iliofemoral arteries. Trans-apical and direct aortic approaches were abandoned because of frailty. Following the thorough cerebrovascular assessment, the left common carotid artery was selected for arterial access and a CoreValve transcatheter aortic valve was successfully implanted without neurologic complications.