Blunt thoracic aortic injuries are rare occurrences but carry an increased risk of mortality. Over the last two decades, however, major advances in diagnostic imaging, staging, and treatment have significantly improved outcomes. Modern imaging paved the way for a new staging system based on the anatomical layers of the aortic wall. This staging system, in turn, allowed for refinement of treatment, which now includes nonoperative management with anti-impulse therapy, endovascular intervention, and, if needed, open surgical repair. As is the case with any other rapidly evolving therapy, however, new challenges and controversies arise. The resolution of these challenges will rely on a broad, international, and multidisciplinary effort. (This is a review article based on the invited lecture of the 46th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery.)
A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to rest pain and gangrene on his left second foot digit. Angiography revealed continuous patency from the superficial femoral artery stent to the below-knee popliteal artery with a diffuse, occlusive lesion in the crural arteries. The distal portion of the lateral tarsal artery was patent. Popliteal to lateral tarsal artery bypass was performed, and an immediate amputation of the second foot digit resulted in secondary healing. Vascular surgeons should consider the distal portion of the lateral tarsal artery as an effective alternative target for infragenicular revascularization.
A 78-year-old woman with a prior history of a right femoropopliteal bypass 5 years before and a coronary artery bypass graft 3 months before was admitted for a non-healing ulcer on her right foot. A computed tomography angiogram revealed occlusion of her superficial femoral artery (SFA) from its orifice to the anastomotic site of the bypass graft. The lesion was thought to consist of a partial atherosclerotic plaque with a large number of relatively fresh thrombi, referring to an angiogram of her lower extremity 3 months ago. We recanalized the occlusive SFA by Fogarty thrombectomy, and endovascular therapy preceded by direct SFA endarterectomy.
Objective: Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are considered to be an alternative procedure when autogenous fistulas are not feasible. This study was conducted to establish a correlation between the inflow artery and outflow vein size and patency of AVGs.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Data was collected from patients who had forearm AVG performed at a university hospital from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. Spearman’s rho correlation test was used to identify the correlation between the artery and vein size and patency of AVG.
Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled in this study. Forearm loop configuration was performed in 33 patients (97%), and straight configuration was performed in one patient (3%). The median size of the brachial artery was 3 mm (interquartile range [IQR]: 2, 4) and that of the vein was 3 mm (IQR: 2, 5). The overall primary patency was 74% at six months, 59% at one year, and 32% at two years. The analysis showed that the primary patency increased with the artery size, but there was a reverse correlation between vein sizes.
Conclusion: Small inflow arteries may reduce the primary patency, but small veins do not result in a poor primary patency. Our method can be applied to patients with small veins, where it is still possible to perform forearm AVGs.
Introduction: Lower extremity hemodialysis access is offered to the patients who have severe central venous stenosis. Femoral vein transposition arteriovenous fistula (FV tAVF) is an alternative to lower leg arteriovenous prosthetic grafts. Its safety and patency is under observation.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who had FV tAVF between January 2011 and March 2016. Preoperative clinical findings, intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, and patency of the AVF were noted and analyzed.
Results: There were 7 patients who underwent FV tAVF during this study period. Most patients were female (6 : 1), with mean age of 45.2 years (range, 33–55 years). All patients were hypertensive. Mean BMI was 26.1 kg/m2. Patient had on average previous 6 dialysis accesses. Most patients had preoperative venograms (6/7). Mean interval between initiation of dialysis and creation of the arteriovenous fistula was 1.08 years. All procedures were done under general anesthesia. Four patients required extension of FV with either the small segment of polytetrafluorethylene or vein graft. Two patients had early postoperative complications. One patient developed hematoma, whereas other had wound dehiscence. All the accesses were utilized for dialysis after a mean interval of 6 weeks. All patients had a patent fistula on average follow-up of 2 years.
Conclusion: Appropriate patient selection for FV tAVF can provide good patency with low incidence of complications. This can be considered for good risk individuals undergoing their first lower extremity access.
A 19-year-old woman developed hypotension and abdominal distension during lumbar discectomy. Computed tomography revealed a right common artery injury and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. She was transferred to our hospital and brought to an angiography room directly. Endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta was performed by cardiologists while surgeons were preparing for surgery. With the hemodynamics stabilized, the injured artery was repaired. In such a case, closing the artery as soon as possible, whether by clamping or by balloon occlusion, is vital. The ability to respond with a “Heart Team” is essential for a small-manpower hospital to rescue a patient with a serious condition.