Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Online ISSN : 2186-3342
ISSN-L : 2186-3342
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  • Toshihiko KUMAZAWA, Kunihiko KOTAKE, Atsuhisa NISHIMURA, Noriyuki ASAI ...
    Type: Full Paper
    2020 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: September 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recently, we found a novel function of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus derived from miso, a fermented soy paste, that induces interleukin (IL)-22 production in B cells preferentially. IL-22 plays a critical role in barrier functions in the gut and skin. We further screened other bacteria species, namely, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, Pediococcus, and Bacillus, in addition to Tetragenococcus and found that some of them possessed robust IL-22-inducible function in B cells in vitro. This process resulted in the augmented expression of activation markers CD86 and CD69 on B and T cells, respectively. However, these observations were not correlated with IL-22 production. We isolated Bacillus coagulans sc-09 from miso and determined it to be the best strain to induce robust IL-22 production in B cells. Furthermore, feeding B. coagulans sc-09 to mice augmented the barrier function of the skin regardless of gut microbiota.

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  • Ryodai YAMAMURA, Koshi NAKAMURA, Naoya KITADA, Tomoyasu AIZAWA, Yu SHI ...
    Type: Full Paper
    2020 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 11-17
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to play an important role in maintaining human health. Fecal SCFA concentrations correlate well with colonic SCFA status and gut microbiota composition. However, the associations with the gut microbiota functional pathway, dietary intake, blood SCFAs, and fecal SCFAs remain uncertain. To clarify these relationships, we collected fecal samples, blood samples, and dietary habit data from 12 healthy adults aged 22–51 years. The relative abundance of several SCFA-producing bacteria, gut microbiota diversity, and functional pathways related to SCFA biosynthesis were positively associated with fecal SCFAs even after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, fecal acetate was likely to be positively associated with serum acetate. By contrast, dietary intake was not associated with fecal SCFAs. Overall, the present study highlights the potential usefulness of fecal SCFAs as an indicator of the gut microbiota ecosystem and dynamics of SCFAs in the human body.

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