Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Online ISSN : 2186-3342
ISSN-L : 2186-3342
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-23 of 23 articles from this issue
  • Kenichi TAKESHITA, Haruka TAKEI, Saori TANAKA, Haruka HISHIKI, Yuta II ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-093
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 17, 2024
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    Single-strain Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics with low birth weight neonates. However, the effectiveness and safety of multi-strain Bifidobacterium supplementation are not well known. Thirty-six neonates weighing less than 2,000 g (558–1,943 g) at birth and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit were randomly assigned to receive a single strain or triple strains of Bifidobacterium with lactulose enterally for 4 weeks from birth. The relative abundances of Staphylococcus and Bifidobacterium in the fecal microbiota at weeks 1, 2, and 4 were investigated. Based on the study results, no significant difference was detected between the two groups in the abundance of Staphylococcus; however, the triple-strain group had significantly high abundances of Bifidobacterium at weeks 2 and 4. The fecal microbiota in the triple-strain group had significantly lower alpha diversity (Bifidobacterium-enriching) after week 4 and was different from that in the single-strain group, which showed a higher abundance of Clostridium. No severe adverse events occurred in either group during the study period. Although no significant difference was detected between single- and multi-strain bifidobacteria supplementation in the colonization of Staphylococcus in the fecal microbiota of the neonates, multi-strain bifidobacteria supplementation contributed toward early enrichment of the microbiota with bifidobacteria and suppression of other pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp.

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  • Yuka MASAMURA, Ryuichi KUBO, Yuki MIDORIKAWA, Natsuko O SHINOZAKI, Sat ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-049
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 12, 2024
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    Depression is a prevalent mental health disorder, and its incidence has increased further because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The gut microbiome has been suggested as a potential target for mental health treatment because of the bidirectional communication system between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, known as the gut-brain axis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the human gut microbiome and depression screening by analyzing the abundance and types of microbiomes among individuals living in Japan, where mental health awareness and support may differ from those in other countries owing to cultural factors. We used a data-driven approach to evaluate the gut microbiome of participants who underwent commercial gut microbiota testing services and completed a questionnaire survey that included a test for scoring depressive tendencies. Our data analysis results indicated that no significant differences in gut microbiome composition were found among the groups based on their depression screening scores. However, the results also indicated the potential existence of a few differentially abundant bacterial taxa. Specifically, the detected bacterial changes in abundance suggest that the Bifidobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae families are candidates for differentially abundant bacteria. Our findings should contribute to the growing body of research on the relationship between gut microbiome and mental health, highlighting the potential of microbiome-based interventions for depression treatment. The limitations of this study include the lack of clear medical information on the participants' diagnoses. Future research could benefit from a larger sample size and more detailed clinical information.

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  • Shunsaku SUGIURA, Mika IKEDA, Yuichi NAKAMURA, Riko MISHIMA, Mika MORI ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-104
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 10, 2024
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    Nukadoko, a fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables called nukazuke, has a complex microbiota. Within it, deep interactions between the microbiota of the pickled vegetables and nukadoko characterize and control the qualities of both products. To address this notion, we monitored the changes in the microbiota of nukadoko and nukazuke while pickling different vegetables. Raw or roasted rice bran was mixed with salted water and fermented at 24℃ for 40 days, following which different species of vegetable, Cucumis sativus var. sativus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, or Raphanus sativus var. hortensis, were pickled. The microbial composition of the washing solution of fresh vegetables, as well as that of the nukadoko and nukazuke for each vegetable, was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Although the microbiota of nukadoko varied depending on the species of pickled vegetables, no transcolonization of any species of bacteria from fresh vegetables to nukadoko was observed. However, some lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species eventually dominated the microbiota of both nukazuke and matured nukadoko, although they were not detected in either the fresh vegetables or rice bran. Particularly, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was dominant among all pairs of pickled vegetables and matured nukadoko, whereas the transcolonization of some other LAB species was observed in a pickled vegetable-specific manner. Staphylococcus xylosus was observed to some extent in each nukadoko, yet it was not detected in any nukazuke. Overall, a LAB-dominant microbiota was established in both nukadoko and nukazuke in an underlying process that was different but partly common among vegetables.

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  • Hendra ZUFRY, Putri Oktaviani ZULFA, Timotius Ivan HARIYANTO
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2024-020
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 07, 2024
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    Emerging research indicates the potential involvement of gut bacteria in the etiology of Graves’ Disease (GD). However, the evidence regarding this matter is still conflicting. The primary objective of this investigation was to examine the correlation between gut microbiota and GD. A comprehensive search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Scopus, Europe PMC, and Medline databases up until August 1, 2023, utilizing a combination of relevant keywords. This review incorporates literature that examined the composition of gut microbiota in patients with GD. We employed random-effect models to analyze the standardized mean difference (SMD) and present the outcomes together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of ten studies were incorporated. The results of our meta-analysis indicated that patients with GD have a reduced alpha diversity of gut microbiota as evidence by a significant reduction of Chao1 (std. mean difference –0.58; 95% CI –0.90, –0.26, p=0.0004; I2=61%), ACE (std. mean difference –0.64; 95% CI –1.09, –0.18, p=0.006; I2=77%), and Shannon index (std. mean difference –0.71; 95% CI –1.25, –0.17, p=0.01; I2=90%) when compared with healthy controls. At the phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes was reduced in GD patients, while that of Bacteroidetes was increased. This study suggests a notable decrease in the richness and variety of gut microbiota among people diagnosed with GD in comparison with healthy controls.

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  • Kaho MATSUMOTO, Fu NAMAI, Ayako MIYAZAKI, Yoshiya IMAMURA, Kohtaro FUK ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2024-0046
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 28, 2024
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    Intestinal homeostasis and integrity are important factors for maintaining host health. This study established intestinal epithelial cell lines and organoids from the same swine jejunal crypts to develop seamless swine intestinal in vitro evaluation systems. The study evaluated the proliferative capacity and tight junction formation of the epithelial cell line and characterized the cell differentiation potential of the intestinal organoids. The evaluation systems were subsequently exposed to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) to simulate viral infections and assess the antiviral responses. The results demonstrated no differences in the response to type I interferons. There were, however, significant differences in the expression of interferon-stimulated genes. This study collectively introduced a flexible evaluation system using cell lines and organoids and revealed notable differences in the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, highlighting the complexity of the immune responses in these in vitro systems and the importance of intestinal heterogeneity in assessing viral responses.

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  • Saori TANAKA, Mayuko TAKAHASHI, Kenichi TAKESHITA, Koo NAGASAWA, Haruk ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-079
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 20, 2024
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    Probiotics such as bifidobacteria have been given to low-birth-weight neonates (LBWNs) at risk for a disrupted gut microbiota leading to the development of serious diseases such necrotizing enterocolitis. Recently prebiotics such as lactulose are used together with bifidobacteria as synbiotics. However, faster and more powerful bifidobacteria growth is desired for better LBWN outcomes. The prebiotic 1-kestose has a higher selective growth-promoting effect on bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in vitro among several oligosaccharides. Twenty-six premature neonates (less than 2,000 g) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly assigned to receive Bifidobacterium breve M16-V with either 1-kestose or lactulose once a day for four weeks from birth. A 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed similar increases in alpha-diversity from 7 to 28 days in both groups. The most dominant genus on both days was Bifidobacterium in both groups, with no significant difference between the two groups. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of S. aureus tended to be lower in the 1-kestose group than in the lactulose group at 28 days. The number of E. coli was higher in the 1-kestose group at 7 days. The copy number of total bacteria in the 1-kestose group was significantly higher than that in the lactulose group at 3 time points, 7, 14, and 28 days. No severe adverse events occurred in either group during the study period. l-Ketose may offer an alternative option to lactulose as a prebiotic to promote the development of gut microbiota in LBWNs.

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  • Yuji YAMAMOTO
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2024-002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 14, 2024
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    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a type of bacteria that convert carbohydrates into lactate through fermentation metabolism. While LAB mainly acquire energy through this anaerobic process, they also have oxygen-consuming systems, one of which is flavoprotein oxidase and the other is exogenous heme- or heme- and quinone-dependent respiratory metabolism. Over the past two decades, research has contributed to the understanding of the roles of these oxidase machineries, confirming their suspected roles and uncovering novel functions. This review presents the roles of these oxidase machineries, which are anticipated to be critical for the future applications of LAB in industry and comprehending the virulence of pathogenic streptococci.

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  • Masafumi NODA, Narandalai DANSHIITSOODOL, Keishi KANNO, Masanori SUGIY ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-102
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 07, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We previously showed through clinical trials that one plant-derived lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can improve constipation. We preliminarily found that the plant-derived LAB Lactococcus lactis BM32-1 can grow in a mixture of sericin and fibroin, which are extracted from silk and have been reported to help promote health. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the favorable effect of a sericin/fibroin mixture (S/F-M), which was extracted from silk prepared from cocoons reared in an aseptic rearing system using an artificial diet, fermented with the BM32-1 strain through a clinical trial. The trial was conducted at Hiroshima University from June to October 2022 as a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized parallel-group comparative study with 50 eligible subjects (aged 23–71) who had an average defecation frequency of less than 5 times per week. The subjects were instructed to drink 100 mL of fermented S/F-M or placebo every day. After the 12 weeks of the clinical trial period, the average defecation frequency increased significantly—1.4 times higher than that at baseline in the test group—as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, the fecal microbiota was also compared before and after treatment, revealing that intake of the fermented S/F-M significantly multiplied the relative abundance of the genera Enterococcus and Clostridium, which have been reported to contribute to the amelioration of constipation by improving the gut microbiota and producing butyric acid, respectively. In conclusion, the S/F-M fermented using the BM32-1 strain improves defecation frequency through alteration of the gut microbiota.

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  • Kanako HAYASHI, Riichiro UCHIDA, Taro HORIBA, Tomohiro KAWAGUCHI, Keik ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-103
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 29, 2024
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    The short-chain fatty acids responsible for gut homeostasis are volatile fatty acids produced by commensal bacteria in the gut as fermentation products from undigested food components. Among the short-chain fatty acids, butyrate is important for maintaining intestinal tract anaerobic conditions, promoting epithelial barrier functions, and inducing regulatory T cells that suppress inflammatory bowel disease and allergic diarrhea. However, the type of food-derived molecular components and mechanisms by which they regulate the growth and butyrate production of butyrate-producing bacteria are not clearly understood. Agathobacter rectalis is a butyrate-producing bacterium highly colonized in the gut of the Japanese population. In this study, we investigated the effects on Agathobacter rectalis of a soy sauce-like seasoning made by brewing with a low salt concentration. The soy sauce-like seasoning promoted the growth of A. rectalis 2.6-fold. An ethanol precipitate prepared from the soy sauce-like seasoning was critical for promoting the growth of A. rectalis and the production of butyrate, propionate, and lactate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis suggested that polysaccharides were active ingredients in the ethanol precipitate of the soy sauce-like seasoning. Inulin, a representative prebiotic with effects against butyrate-producing bacteria, had a limited effect on the growth of A. rectalis compared with the soy sauce-like seasoning. Our results indicate that polysaccharides in a soy sauce-like seasoning contributed to the growth of A. rectalis and enhanced production of butyrate, propionate, and lactate.

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  • Adriyan PRAMONO, Martha ARDIARIA, Edward Kurnia Setiawan LIMIJADI, Eti ...
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2023-111
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 29, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cumulative evidence suggests that intermittent fasting (IF) has beneficial effects on human metabolic health. It has been indicated that its impact on the gut microbiota may mediate these beneficial effects. As a result, we hypothesized that IF may impact the human gut microbiota. A systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol using the PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. We registered our systematic review protocol in PROSPERO under registration number CRD42021270050. Human intervention studies published until April 30, 2023, were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed using National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment study tools for intervention studies. The search in the database returned 166 studies, of which 13 matched all criteria for the final qualitative analysis. The body of evidence suggests that IF modulates human gut microbiota alpha and beta diversity in lean (relatively healthy) and relatively healthy overweight/obese individuals but not in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IF also alters human gut microbiota composition in all phenotypes. Of interest, the gut microbiota taxa or microbial metabolites after an IF intervention are associated with metabolic markers. According to this review, IF influences the diversity and taxonomic levels of the human gut microbiota. Individual metabolic phenotypes may alter the effect of IF on the diversity and taxonomic levels of the gut microbiota.

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  • Kentaro TOMINAGA, Yuichi KOJIMA, Yuzo KAWATA, Kazuya TAKAHASHI, Hiroki ...
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2024-014
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 23, 2024
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    Diversion colitis (DC) is characterized by mucosal inflammation in the defunctioned segment of the colon following a colostomy or ileostomy. The major causes of DC are an increase in the number of aerobic bacteria, a lack of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and immune disorders in the diverted colon. However, its exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Various treatment strategies for DC have been explored, although none have been definitively established. Treatment approaches such as SCFAs, 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, steroid enemas, and irrigation with fibers have been attempted, yielding various degrees of efficacies in mitigating mucosal inflammation. However, only individual case reports demonstrating the limited effect of the following therapies have been published: leukocytapheresis, dextrose (hypertonic glucose) spray, infliximab, an elemental diet, and coconut oil. The usefulness of probiotics for treating DC has recently been reported. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising treatment for DC. This review provides an update on the treatment strategies of DC, with a particular focus on FMT and its relationship with the intestinal microbiota. FMT may become the first choice of treatment for some patients in the future because of its low medical costs, ease of use, and minimal side effects. Furthermore, FMT can also be used for postoperative DC prophylaxis.

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  • Shino TAKEUCHI, Mohammad Shaokat ALI, Yoshihiko TANIMOTO, Eriko KAGE-N ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-091
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
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    Lactococcus kimchii is isolated from commercial kimchi, which is a traditional Korean fermented food. This study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic effects of L. kimchii. Caenorhabditis elegans was fed L. kimchii, and its longevity, motility, and gene expression were examined. When fed a 1:1 mixture of Escherichia coli OP50 and L. kimchii (OP+LK), Caenorhabditis elegans had a significantly longer lifespan and increased locomotion than when it was fed OP alone. There was no significant difference in brood size between the OP+LK and OP groups, suggesting that these effects occurred in a dietary restriction-independent manner. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontology analysis showed that the expression of ins-20, an insulin-like peptide and agonist of the insulin receptor, was significantly upregulated in the OP+LK group. The ins-20 mutation annulled the effects of OP+LK on lifespan extension and motility. In addition, OP+LK failed to extend the lifespan of C. elegans deficient in daf-2, a receptor for the insulin-like signaling pathway. These results suggest that L. kimchii extends the lifespan and alleviates motility decline in C. elegans through the insulin signaling pathway, highlighting the potential of using L. kimchii as a beneficial bacterium for probiotics and postbiotics.

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  • Naoko YAMAGISHI, Daisuke KYOUI, Naoko MORIYA, Ayako AOKI-YOSHIDA, Tats ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-095
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
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    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in both the pathogenesis and alleviation of host depression by modulating the brain-gut axis. We have developed a murine model of human depression called the subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) model, which impacts not only behavior but also the host gut microbiota and gut metabolites, including bile acids. In this study, we utilized liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to explore the effects of sCSDS on the mouse fecal bile acid profile. sCSDS mice exhibited significantly elevated levels of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in fecal extracts, leading to a notable increase in total bile acids and 7α-dehydroxylated secondary bile acids. Consequently, a noteworthy negative correlation was identified between the abundances of DCA and LCA and the social interaction score, an indicator of susceptibility in stressed mice. Furthermore, analysis of the colonic microbiome unveiled a negative correlation between the abundance of CDCA and Turicibacter. Additionally, DCA and LCA exhibited positive correlations with Oscillospiraceae and Lachnospiraceae but negative correlations with the Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group. These findings suggest that sCSDS impacts the bidirectional interaction between the gut microbiota and bile acids and is associated with reduced social interaction, a behavioral indicator of susceptibility in stressed mice.

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  • Momoka YAMANE, Shuntaro SAKAI, Miho HIRAI, Mizuki TAKAYAMA, Kohya SASA ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-092
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 28, 2024
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    Kimoto-type Japanese rice wine (sake) has a wide variety of flavors, as the predominant microbes, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria, that spontaneously proliferate in the fermentation starter vary depending on the brewery. In this study, we traced the microbiota in four lots of starters manufactured in a newly established brewery and evaluated the lot-to-lot variation and characteristics of the microbiota in the brewery. The results of a 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon analysis showed that the starters brewed in the second brewing year had a more diverse microbiota than those in the first brewing year. Among the LAB predominated at the middle production stage, lactococci, including Leuconostoc spp., were detected in all the lots, while lactobacilli predominated for the first time in the second year. These results suggest that repeated brewing increased microbial diversity and altered the microbial transition pattern in the kimoto-style fermentation starters. Phylogenetic analyses for the LAB isolates from each starter identified Leuconostoc suionicum,Leu. citreum, and Leu. mesenteroides as predominant lactococci as well as a unique lactobacillus in place of Latilactobacillus sakei. We also found that a rice koji-derived Staphylococcus gallinarum with nitrate-reducing activity was generally predominant during the early production stage, suggesting that there was a case in which staphylococci played a role in nitrite production in the starters. These findings are expected to contribute to the understanding of the diversity of microbiota in kimoto-type sake brewing and enable control of the microbiota for consistent sake quality.

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  • Natalia MOLODOZHNIKOVA, Anna BERESTOVA, Iza BERECHIKIDZE, Dariya SHORI ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-070
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 19, 2024
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    The present study aimed to investigate the peculiarities of adaptation of tissue elements of the gastric mucosa during interaction with Helicobacter pylori, as determined by genetic characteristics of the bacterium and the host. Venous blood and biopsy samples of the mucosa of the antrum and body of the stomach from young patients (18 to 25 years old) were examined. The condition of the gastric mucosa was assessed using stained histological preparations. Venous blood was collected from the patients to ascertain the polymorphisms of the IL-lß and IL-IRN genes. The most pronounced changes were observed in the parameters of reparative regeneration of epithelial differentiation during colonization of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori strains carrying the CagA(+) and BabA2(+) genes. These included an increase in proliferation and apoptosis rates and alterations in epithelial differentiation markers characterized by elevated production of Shh and MUC5AC, as well as a reduction in the production of the protective mucin MUC6 by isthmus gland cells. The presence of the vacAs1 and vacAs2 genes of H. pylori results in a high level of apoptosis in epithelial cells without accelerating proliferation. It was found that after eradication, patients with preserved cellular infiltrates in their gastric mucosa plates were carriers of mainly the IL-1ß*T/IL-1RN*2R haplotypes after 12 months.

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  • Hitoshi SHIMBO, Ayumi FUKAGAWA, Oji NAKAMURA, Shiho MURAKAMI, Yutaka M ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-105
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2024
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    The anti-allergic effects of extracts prepared from two species of honeybush, Cyclopia genistoides and C. subternata, were demonstrated in vivo in a murine allergy model for inhaled antigen induced with ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation to mimic pollen allergy. Intake of the extracts increased the production of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E (IgE), IgG1, and IgG2a antibodies in serum and significantly suppressed anaphylactic reaction-induced body temperature decline. Moreover, the extracts significantly inhibited antigen–antibody-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. They also inhibited body temperature decline when the allergic mice were given them after antigen sensitization, indicating that anti-degranulation activity is the major mechanism underlying the anti-allergic effect of Cyclopia extracts. Despite their qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition, the two extracts exhibited similar effects, suggesting that several active compounds might be involved in the activity. Therefore, oral administration of either Cyclopia extract potentially exerts a systemic anti-allergic effect, supporting the increased consumption of honeybush tea for general wellness and improved quality of life.

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  • Yutaka MAKIZAKI, Mana KISHIMOTO, Yoshiki TANAKA, Hiroshi OHNO
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-084
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 15, 2024
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    Constipation is strongly associated with the deterioration of quality of life (QOL), and patients with constipation desire clear spontaneous defecation without the feeling of incomplete evacuation, rather than improved defecation frequency. The use of common osmotic or stimulant laxatives has not been shown to lead to a satisfactory improvement of bowel movements. In addition, softening of stools by increasing their water content has been reported to increase the frequency of spontaneous defecation and improve hard stools, straining during defecation, and abdominal symptoms, such as abdominal bloating, thereby leading to improvement of QOL deterioration caused by constipation. Thus, the present study screened bacterial strains in vitro using intestinal epithelial T84 cells, aiming to identify one that activates chloride channels involved in water secretion into the intestinal tract. As a result, the conditioned medium of Bifidobacterium longum CLA8013 was found to induce ion transport. Also, this effect was suppressed by CFTR (inh)-172, a CFTR chloride channel inhibitor. Furthermore, both live and heat-killed CLA8013 similarly induced ion transport, suggesting that bacterial cell components are responsible for the effect. In addition, the administration of heat-killed CLA8013 to loperamide-induced constipation rats resulted in an increase in fecal water content and promoted defecation. These results suggest that the active components in CLA8013 act on CFTR chloride channels in the intestinal tract, promote water secretion into the intestinal tract, and soften stools, thereby promoting bowel movements.

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  • Jianquan GUO, Liyang YANG
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2023-100
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 14, 2024
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    Pulmonary fibrosis is an end-stage respiratory disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of extracellular matrix and collagen, which is accompanied by inflammatory damage. The disease is mainly based on pulmonary dysfunction and respiratory failure, the incidence of it is increasing year by year, and the current treatment methods for it are limited. In recent years, it has been found that gut microbes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary fibrosis. The microecological disturbance caused by changes in the composition of the intestinal flora can affect the course of pulmonary fibrosis. The regulatory network or information exchange system for gut-lung crosstalk is called the “gut-lung axis”. This review focuses on the frontier research on entero-pulmonary regulation in pulmonary fibrosis and on intervention strategies for changing the gut microbiota to improve pulmonary fibrosis, including fecal microbiota transplantation, traditional Chinese medicine interventions, and supplementation with probiotics. In addition, the present problems in this field are also raised in order to provide strong theoretical and strategic support for the future exploration of regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic drug development. This paper reviews the interaction of the intestinal flora with pulmonary fibrosis, introduces the research progress for improving pulmonary fibrosis through interventions targeted at the intestinal flora, and provides new ideas for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

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  • Aki OKANO, Sachi TANAKA, Kazuha YAMADA, Naoto HASHIMOTO, Jun WATANABE
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-073
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2024
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    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented foods, and some LAB modulate the immune response. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which LAB isolates from fermented Brassica rapa L. induce the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 by the murine spleen and RAW264 cells. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice or the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264 were cultured with heat-killed LAB isolated from fermented B. rapa L., and the IL-10 level in the supernatant was measured. Latilactobacillus curvatus K4G4 provided the most potent IL-10 induction among 13 isolates. Cell wall components of K4G4 failed to induce IL-10, while treatment of the bacteria with RNase A under a high salt concentration altered K4G4 induction of IL-10 by spleen cells. In general, a low salt concentration diminished the IL-10 induction by all strains, including K4G4. In addition, chloroquine pretreatment and knock down of toll-like receptor 7 through small interfering RNA suppressed K4G4 induction of IL-10 production by RAW264 cells. Our results suggest that single-stranded RNA from K4G4 is involved, via endosomal toll-like receptor 7, in the induction of IL-10 production by macrophages. K4G4 is a promising candidate probiotic strain that modulates the immune response by inducing IL-10 from macrophages.

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  • Thornthan SAWANGWAN, Daleena KAJADMAN, Ratchanon KULCHANANIMIT
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-090
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 22, 2024
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    This research investigated and compared the prebiotic properties of a rice bran extract obtained through commercial xylanase extraction in comparison with water extraction. Prebiotic properties were evaluated by probiotic growth stimulation (L. casei and L. plantarum) and gastrointestinal pathogen inhibition (B. cereus and E. coli). The rice bran extract obtained with xylanase (RB1) displayed significantly higher total polysaccharide and total reducing sugar contents than those obtained with water (RB2; p<0.05). After extraction for 30 min, RB1 exhibited the highest total polysaccharide and total reducing sugar contents. HPLC analysis revealed that RB1 primarily contained xylose, while RB2 contained less glucose and lacked other sugar derivatives. RB1 proved effective in stimulating the growth of L. casei and L. plantarum, surpassing even inulin (a commercial prebiotic). Furthermore, it demonstrated a high potential for inhibiting the growth of pathogenic B. cereus and E. coli, comparable to inulin. In contrast, RB2 exhibited lower inhibitory capacity against B. cereus and E. coli.

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  • Yang PING, Jianing LIU, Huilin WANG, Yan WANG, Hongbin QIU, Yu ZHANG
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: 2023-068
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 21, 2024
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    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a specific autoimmune disease related to genetic and autoimmune factors. Recent studies have found that the intestinal flora is one of the important environmental factors in the development of T1D. The gut microbiota is the largest microbiota in the human body and has a significant impact on material and energy metabolism. Related studies have found that the intestinal floras of T1D patients are unbalanced. Compared with normal patients, the abundance of beneficial bacteria is reduced, and various pathogenic bacteria are significantly increased, affecting the occurrence and development of diabetes. Medicinal and food homologous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a multicomponent, multitarget, and biphasic regulatory effect. Its chemical composition can increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria, improve the diversity of the intestinal flora, reduce blood sugar, and achieve the purpose of preventing and treating T1D by regulating the intestinal flora and its metabolites. Therefore, based on a review of T1D, intestinal flora, and TCM derived from medicine and food, this review describes the relationship between T1D and the intestinal flora, as well as the research progress of TCM interventions for T1D through regulation of the intestinal flora. Medicine and food homologous TCM has certain advantages in treating diabetes and regulating the intestinal flora. It can be seen that there is still great research space and broad development prospects for the treatment of diabetes by regulating the intestinal flora with drug and food homologous TCM.

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  • Atsuko HOKKYO, Sayaka KAKIYAMA, Yuh SHIWA, Chiaki KAGA, Toshihide KOBA ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-062
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Interest is growing in the relationship of the microbiota and intestinal environment with health in companion animals. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), typical prebiotics, are expected to provide benefits in dogs. Previous studies of GOS in dogs have involved dogs with similar rearing conditions and diets, which may have biased the results. We conducted an open study of 26 healthy dogs kept in households with diverse rearing environments in order to evaluate how the intake of a GOS-containing syrup affects the intestinal microbiota and its metabolites. Each dog was fed 1.2–4.8 g of the GOS-containing syrup (GOS 0.5–2.0 g equivalent) for 8 weeks. Fecal microbiota, fecal concentrations of organic acids and putrefactive products, fecal odor, and serum uremic toxin concentrations were evaluated before intake (0 weeks), during the 8-week intake period (4 and 8 weeks), and 4 weeks after intake (12 weeks). The activity of N-benzoyl-DL-arginine peptidase in dental plaque, which may be associated with periodontal disease, was evaluated at 0 and 8 weeks. Continuous intake of GOS resulted in changes in fecal microbiota, with a particularly marked increase in the abundance of Megamonas, which produces propionic acid. Other findings included a significant increase in the fecal acetic, propionic, and n-butyric acid concentrations. Additionally, significant decreases in fecal odor, fecal phenol concentration, and serum indoxyl sulfate concentration. Intake of GOS was also associated with a significant decrease in N-benzoyl-DL-arginine peptidase activity in dental plaques. These results suggest that continuous intake of GOS may contribute to canine health.

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  • Ayaka MORI-ICHIOKA, Yosuke SUNADA, Takashi KOIKEDA, Hideo MATSUDA, Shi ...
    Article type: Full Paper
    Article ID: 2023-056
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum N793 (N793) is a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from corn. We previously showed that N793 increases the level of keratinocyte growth factor, which is required for hair growth, in the culture supernatant of human follicle dermal papilla cells. Additionally, an open-label, single-arm study reported that applying a lotion containing N793 to the scalp for 24 weeks improved hair density in men and women with thinning hair. The present study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study aimed at verifying the efficacy of N793 for thinning hair. A lotion containing N793, and a control lotion (placebo) were applied once daily for 24 weeks to 104 healthy Japanese men and women. Analysis of all participants revealed no difference in hair density between the N793 and placebo groups. However, an additional analysis limited to participants with relatively mild progression of thinning hair showed a significantly better hair density in the N793 group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that topical application of N793 improves thinning hair in men and women when the condition’s progression is relatively mild.

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