Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk due to underweight compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose on body weight in underweight schizophrenia inpatients. The study population consisted of 5 male and 11 female subjects aged 63.0 ± 10.9 years. The subjects had ingested 3.0 g/day 4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose for 6 months. BMI increased significantly, from 20.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2 to 22.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2, and this was accompanied by a significant increase in Bifidobacterium in the fecal microbiota, which increased from 16.1 ± 12.6% to 21.5 ± 13.9%. Although 4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose appears to have no significant effects on nutritional indicators such as serum albumin, it may alleviate underweight in inpatients with schizophrenia. Body weight may be related to fecal microbiota composition.
Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic bacteria to pathogens poses a safety concern. Orally administered probiotics are exposed to stressful conditions during gastrointestinal transit. In this study, filter mating experiments were performed to investigate the potential role of exposure of Bifidobacterium isolatesto acid and bile stress on the transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299. No E. faecalis transconjugants were obtained after mating with either stressed or unstressed Bifidobacterium, thereby suggesting that tet(W) could not be transferred as a result of exposure to gastrointestinal stresses.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes dry skin and functional disruption of the skin barrier. AD is often accompanied by allergic inflammation. AD patients suffer from heavy itching, and their quality of life is severely affected. Some pharmaceuticals for AD have some side effects such as skin atrophy. So it is necessary to develop mild solutions such as food ingredients without side effects. There are various causes of AD. It is especially induced by immunological imbalances such as IFN-γ reduction. IFN-γ has an important role in regulating IgE, which can cause an allergy reaction. NC/Nga mice develop AD and IgE hyperproduction. In a previous study, we revealed that administration of polysaccharide from black currant (R. nigrum) has an effect on immunomodulation. It induces IFN-γ production from myeloid dendritic cells. We named this polysaccharide cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In this report, we studied the effect of administering CAPS on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Thirty NC/Nga mice that developed symptoms of atopic dermatitis were used. We divided them into three groups (control, CAPS administration 12 mg/kg/day, CAPS administration 60 mg/kg/day). For 4 weeks, we evaluated clinical score, serum IgE levels, gene expression of spleen, and skin pathology. We revealed that CAPS administration improves atopic dermatitis symptoms. We also found that CAPS administration suppresses IgE hyperproduction and induces IFN-γ gene transcription in the spleen. Finally, we confirmed that CAPS administration suppresses mast cell migration to epidermal skin. These results indicated that CAPS has an effect on AD.
An obesity-related prediabetic state is characterised by metabolic abnormalities such as post-glucose load hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia and consequently increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on metabolic abnormalities in obese prediabetic subjects in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Herein, 100 obese subjects (body mass index ≥25), who had moderate post-load hyperglycaemia (1-hr post-load plasma glucose (PG) levels ≥180 mg/dl during the oral glucose tolerance test), consumed LcS-fermented milk or placebo milk daily for 8 weeks. The post-load PG and fasting blood markers were evaluated. Although post-load PG levels were not significantly different between the groups, 1-hr post-load PG, glycoalbumin, and HbA1c levels decreased at 8 weeks compared with the baseline levels only in the LcS group (p=0.036, p=0.002, and p=0.006, respectively). The reduction in glycoalbumin levels was statistically significantly greater in the LcS group than in the placebo group (p=0.030). Stratified analyses revealed significantly improved 1-hr post-load PG and glycoalbumin levels in the LcS group compared with the placebo group among subjects with severe glucose intolerance (2-hr post-load PG levels higher than the median at baseline; p=0.036 and p=0.034, respectively). In terms of lipidic outcomes, total, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the LcS group than in the placebo group (p=0.023, p=0.022, and p=0.008, respectively). These findings suggest that LcS may favourably affect metabolic abnormalities in obese prediabetic subjects, though the effects on glycaemic control may be limited.
It has been demonstrated that an immune-modulating enteral formula enriched with whey peptides and fermented milk (IMF) had anti-inflammatory effects in some experimental models when it was administered before the induction of inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the IMF administration after the onset of systemic inflammation and investigated whether the IMF could improve the remote organ injuries in an acute pancreatitis (AP) model. Mice were fasted for 12 hours and then fed a choline-deficient and ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE diet) for 24 hours to induce pancreatitis. In experiment 1, the diet was replaced with a control enteral formula, and mice were sacrificed at 24-hour intervals for 96 hours. In experiment 2, mice were randomized into control and IMF groups and received the control formula or the IMF respectively for 72 hr or 96 hr. In experiment 1, pancreatitis was induced by the CDE diet, and inflammatory mediators were elevated for several days. Remote organ injuries such as splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and elevation of the hepatic enzymes developed. A significant strong positive correlation was observed between plasma MCP-1 and hepatic enzymes. In experiment 2, the IMF significantly improved splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and the elevation of hepatic enzymes. Plasma MCP-1 levels were significantly lower in the IMF group than in the control group. Nutrition management with the IMF may be useful for alleviating remote organ injuries after AP.