The purpose of the paper is to study the differences in cell death mechanism of MGC-803 induced by “dextran-magnetic layered double hydroxide-fluorouracil” (DMF) drug delivery system and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), respectively. The inhibitory effect on the proliferation was detected via CCK-8. The morphology of cell death was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intracellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cytosolic Free Ca (Ca2+) level were detected via some methods. The result showed that DMF had more obvious effect in suppressing proliferation compared with 5-Fu, and changed cell death pattern of 5-Fu from apoptosis to oncosis. The ATP decrease, MMP loss, Ca2+ increase, the activation of UCP-2 and caplain-1 were significant after DMF exposure. However, DMF did not result in ROS accumulation. DMF could involve in activation of porimin, and the cascade reaction of caspase-3, 7, 9, 12 and PARP through western blot. DMF showed a stronger injury on nuclear membrane in the cascade reaction of caspase-6, caspase-8 and lamin-A. DMF triggered rapid depletion of ATP, which was consistent with the phenotype of oncosis. Endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis might not be the main cause of cell swelling. DMF could induce strong endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) effect, there might be some signaling pathways related with ERS during the process of oncosis. The calpain system might not be a key factor for structural damage in oncosis induced by DMF. DMF could induce the caspases cascade reactions similar to apoptosis, but inflicted a more strong damage on nuclear membrane and PARP.
To study the role of asarinin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and its treatment mechanism on dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. Before the onset of arthritis, asarinin were given orally to CIA mouse. Macroscopic scoring and micrometer caliper measurement were used to assess arthritis. The occurrence of cartilage destruction and bone erosion were assessed by histology of knee. Sandwich ELISA and PCR were used to assess the level of cytokines in hindpaw and arthritic joint. The CD11c MicroBeads were employed to isolate CD11c+ cells from the spleen. Quantitative PCR was used to determine DCs surface molecules of spleen. Macroscopic score and the frequency of arthritis were inhibited by asarinin. Swelling of hindpaws, inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovium, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion were delayed with asarinin. Asarinin treatment suppressed the expression of Th1 cytokines and increased the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-10), TGF-β and Foxp3 in the synovium and hindpaw, however T-bet mRNA levels in synovium decreased. Lower expression of TLR9 and NF-kB were found in DCs after asarinin treatment. There was no difference in the expression of ICAM-1, OX40-L, and 4-1BBL in spleen DCs between the asarinin group and model control group. Asarinin can treat CIA. TLR9/NF-κB pathway may be involved in the asarinin treatment of CIA by skewing the balance of Th1/Th2/Treg to a Th2 type.
No nationwide study on polypharmacy in palliative care among Japanese community pharmacies has yet been conducted. We conducted an online questionnaire survey for community pharmacist members of The Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences regarding their contributions to cancer patients who regularly used six or more drugs, including opioids, in service during the two-month period from October to November 2017. Of 579 community pharmacists, 83 responded to the survey (14.3%). Among them, 47.0% and 27.7% of respondents replied that more than 40% of opioid-using and non-using cancer patients were prescribed six or more regular medications, respectively. The proportion of patients with polypharmacy was marginally higher among opioid-using than non-using patients. Additionally, 31.3% and 22.9% of respondents replied that a low or moderate rate of opioid-using and non-using patients with polypharmacy received inappropriate prescriptions, respectively, including “unnecessary medications”, “adverse drug reactions” and “duplication of pharmacological effect”. The proportion of patients who received inappropriate prescriptions was significantly higher among opioid-using than non-using patients. Furthermore, 37.3% and 19.3% of respondents replied that pharmacist’s recommendations contributed to drug reduction in opioid-using and non-using patients with polypharmacy who received inappropriate prescriptions, respectively. The responders with higher confidence in palliative care showed more success rate for reducing inappropriate medications. Our findings suggest that opioid use can be associated with an increased risk of polypharmacy in cancer patients, and that recommendations by a population of community pharmacists can reduce inappropriate medications and improve adverse drug reactions in both opioid-using and non-using cancer patients with polypharmacy.
Cancer is the leading cause of death and there is a particularly pressing need to develop effective treatments for breast and prostate cancer. In the current study, we show the inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid derivatives, including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, 1), on the growth of breast and prostate cancer cells. Among the compounds examined, 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid decyl ester (6) showed the most potent inhibition of cancer cell growth by the induction of apoptosis. Compound 6 could be a new anti-cancer agent for use against breast and prostate cancer.
The effect of seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) on immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic responses were investigated using rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells were first treated with or without SeMet, sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl IgE and stimulated with the antigen dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin, before the measurement of degranulation, calcium mobilization, mRNA expression and protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The antigen-induced β-hexosaminidase release, a degranulation marker, was significantly inhibited by SeMet treatment. SeMet also significantly suppressed antigen-induced calcium mobilization. Antigen-induced increases in the mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α were both significantly attenuated by SeMet treatment. In addition, SeMet significantly suppressed antigen-induced phosphorylation of Syk, Akt, and MAPKs. These results demonstrate that SeMet suppresses antigen-induced degranulation, and mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α, and inhibits antigen-induced mobilization of calcium and activation of Syk, Akt, and MAPKs. Our study provides valuable information that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.
Triptolide has been indicated potent anti-cancer effect involving multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved DNA-binding protein taking part in breast cancer development. The therapeutic effect of triptolide on HMGB1 has not been reported. Thus, our study aims to clarify the role of HMGB1 in triptolide-induced anti-growth effect on breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that triptolide significantly suppressed growth of breast cancer cells by inhibition of cell viability, clonogenic ability. Further studies evidenced that triptolide treatment not only inhibited HMGB1 mRNA expression, but also decreased supernatant level of HMGB1 in vitro. In line with these observations, exogenous recombinant HMGB1 promoted cell proliferation of breast cancer, and triptolide reversed the rHMGB1-promoted proliferative effect. As well, triptolide enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of EP (HMGB1 inhibitor). Furthermore, downstream correlation factors (TLR4 and phosphorylated-NF-κB p65) of HMGB1 were significantly decreased in vitro after triptolide treatment. Consistantly, we confirmed that tumor growth was significantly inhibited after triptolide treatment In vivo. Meanwhile, immunohistochemical analyses showed that triptolide treatment significantly decreased the level of cytoplasmic HMGB1 and TLR4 expression , whereas the expression of NF-κB p65 was relatively higher in cytoplasm, and conversely lower in nucleus as compared to the control group. Collectively, these results demonstrate that triptolide suppresses the growth of breast cancer cells via reduction of HMGB1 expression in vitro and in vivo, which may provide new insights into the treament of breast cancer.
Alamandine is a new member of the angiotensin family. Here, we studied the mRNA and protein expression of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) ACE2 (in the chronic phase of a rat model of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension (2KIC) , and the effects of 2-week alamandine infusion on blood pressure, cardiac indices, and ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in the hearts. The rats were subjected to to sham-operation or placement of plexiglass clips around the left renal artery. Alamandine, at a dose of 600 µg/kg/day, was administered for two weeks via an osmotic mini-pump. At 18 weeks, after induction of hypertension, blood pressure and cardiac indices of contractility were measured using a Powerlab Physiograph system. The ACE2 mRNA and protein levels were determined using real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In the hypertensive rats, alamandine caused a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (P<0.001) and, left ventricular systolic pressure (P<0.001) and increase in the maximum rate of pressure change in the left ventricle (dP/dt (max)) (P<0.05). Also, the ACE2 mRNA expression in the heart increased in the hypertensive rats compared to the normotensive rats (P<0.05), and alamandine restored this to normal values, although these changes were only seen at the mRNA and not the protein level. Histological analysis of cardiac tissue confirmed that alamandine decreased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in 2KIC hypertensive rats. Our results indicate that alamandine, which acts as a depressor arm of the renin-angiotensin system, could be developed for treating hypertension.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide, and it is ranked first in the United States and Europe. Since prostate cancer is slow-growing, active surveillance for low-risk cancer has been increasingly supported by various guidelines.Most prostate cancers reactivate telomerase to circumvent the replicative senescence caused by the end replication problem; therefore, telomerase inhibition is potentially useful for the suppression of prostate cancer progression during this active surveillance or for the prevention of cancer recurrence after conventional therapies. In this study, we demonstrated that the perylene derivatives, PM2 and PIPER, could suppress hTERT expression and telomerase activity in the short-term treatment of LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Long-term treatment with subcytotoxic doses of these compounds in both prostate cancer cells showed telomere shortening and a significant increase in senescent cells. Although the acute cytotoxicity of PM2 was about 30 times higher than that of PIPER in both prostate cancer cells, the cellular uptake of both compounds was comparable as determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.
The present study aims to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with oxaliplatin on the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the related mechanism. In this study, MTT assay was applied to examine the proliferation rate of hepatocellular carcinoma cell SMMC-7721 with different treatment. Flow cytometry was performed to examine apoptosis rate of hepatocellular carcinoma cells with different treatment. Immunofluorescence and western blot methods were used to evaluate the expressions of PCNA and cyclin D1 in different groups. We found that ginsenoside Rg3, oxaliplatin or ginsenoside Rg3+oxaliplatin significantly suppressed the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of SMMC-7721. Meanwhile, ginsenoside Rg3, oxaliplatin or ginsenoside Rg3+oxaliplatin also significantly inhibited the expressions of PCNA and cyclin D1. Moreover, compared with ginsenoside Rg3 group and oxaliplatin group, the effect of ginsenoside Rg3+oxaliplatin was more remarkable. Taken together, cells treated with oxaliplatin+ ginsenoside enhanced the anti-tumor effect and may inhibit the proliferation and promoted apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating the expression of PCNA and cyclin D1.
Previous studies implicated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in renal fibrosis and found that curcumin could suppress the expression of mTOR. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin against chronic renal failure (CRF) in a rat model induced by 5/6 nephrectomy through inhibition of mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. A total of 70 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups: a sham group, a CRF group, and five treatment groups. Except for the sham rats, all rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy to induce CRF. The 5/6 nephrectomized rats received treatment with curcumin vehicle, everolimus vehicle, curcumin, everolimus, or the combination of curcumin and everolimus. Everolimus, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was used as a positive control. At the end of treatment, blood biochemical indexes, proteinuria and the kidney index were detected. Moreover, histological change was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. The blood biochemical indexes, proteinuria, and kidney index were increased in the CRF group as compared to the sham group, which was accompanied by marked activation of the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. However, curcumin, as well as everolimus, restored or ameliorated these changes. These results indicate that activation of the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway plays an important role in the occurrence and development of CRF, and that curcumin has renoprotective effects by blocking activation of this pathway.
The goal of the present study focused on the adverse reaction of contrast medium (CM) via the induction of inflammatory molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ultravist-induced MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression was markedly increased in IL-4-pretreated HUVECs in a time- and dose-dependent manner and was paralleled by concomitant production of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 proteins. MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression by Ultravist in combination with IL-4 was mediated by the Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) signaling pathway. IL-4-pretreated Ultravist-stimulated HUVECs showed greatly increased migration and adhesion of THP-1 cells. Cell migration was decreased by treatment of CCR2 antagonist, and cell adhesion was also decreased by VCAM-1 blocking antibody. Furthermore, when tested in vivo under similar conditions, MCP-1 protein was significantly increased in Ultravist combined with IL-4-injected mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that MCP-1 blocking may be crucial in preventing the endothelial dysfunction induced by contrast medium in patients with inflammatory disease and atherosclerosis.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combined use of BH4 and nebivolol on cardiac diastolic dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Twelve-week-old male SHRs were treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), nebivolol, or a combination of both. Left ventricle function was evaluated, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production [including dihydroethidium (DHE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)], NO synthase (NOS) activity and the level of nitric oxide (NO) in myocardial tissue were determined. The expression levels of endothelial NOS (eNOS), phospholamban (PLN), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a), β3-adrenoceptor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and protein kinase G (PKG) were assayed. Treatment with BH4, nebivolol, or both reversed the noninvasive indexes of diastolic function, including E/E′ and E′/A′, and the invasive indexes, including tau, -dP/dtmin, -dP/dtmin/LVSP, and LVEDP in SHRs. mRNA and protein expression levels of eNOS dimer, phosphorylated PLN, SERCA2a, cGMP, and PKG in the myocardium of treated SHRs were significantly up-regulated compared with those in control rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression levels of 3-NT and DHE were reduced in all treated groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Notably, combined use of BH4 and nebivolol had better cardioprotective effects than monotherapies. BH4 or nebivolol has a protective effect on diastolic dysfunction in SHRs, and BH4 combined with nebivolol may exert a synergistically cardioprotective effect through activation of β3-adrenoceptor and the NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway.
This article has been retracted by the Editorial Committee of The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan because it contains scientific misconduct. Although the data published in this article were generated in part by the first author, the authors violated authorship and sponsorship protocol.