Ponatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor marketed in 2016, is a key drug used for treating chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This study aimed to develop a simple method for determining plasma ponatinib concentration. The analysis required extraction of a 400-μL sample of plasma and precipitation of proteins using an Oasis HLB cartridge. Ponatinib and bosutinib, which is used as an internal standard, were separated by HPLC using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.037 mol/L KH2PO4 (pH 4.5) (39:61, v/v) on a Capcell Pack C18 MG II (250 mm × 4.6 mm) monitored at 250 nm, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This assay method was then used for determining plasma ponatinib concentration in a 42-year-old man treated with ponatinib at 15 mg/day. The calibration curve was found to be linear for the plasma concentration range of 5–250 ng/mL with a regression coefficient (r2) of 0.9999. The coefficients of intra-day and inter-day validation under these concentrations were 2.1–6.0% and 4.5–8.0%, respectively. The assay accuracy was -1.5–9.0%, and the recovery was greater than 86%. The plasma concentration of the patient at 2.5 and 3 h after 15 mg ponatinib administration was 43.6 ng/mL and 49.3 ng/mL, respectively. This method of HPLC equipped with UV detection for determining plasma ponatinib concentration has several advantages, such as simplicity and applicability to routine therapeutic drug monitoring at hospital laboratories.
Maintaining a certain level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is essential for limiting injury to the liver. Exogenous H2S exerts protective effects against this injury, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Liver injury was induced in Wistar rats undergoing hepatic I/R for 30 min, followed by a 3-h reperfusion. Administration of GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor) significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury and was reflected by reduced inflammatory cytokine production and cell apoptosis, the levels of which were elevated by I/R, while DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE]) aggravated liver injury. Delivery of GYY4137 significantly elevated the plasma levels of H2S and upregulated the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21), leading to the activation of the Akt pathway, in rat livers subjected to I/R. To further investigate the protective mechanisms of H2S during liver I/R injury, we established a cell model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) by incubating Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells under hypoxia for 4 h followed by normoxia for 10 h. The regulatory effect of miR-21 on the Akt pathway by downregulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was validated by luciferase assays. Incubation of NaHS (sodium hydrosulfide), an H2S donor, increased the expression of miR-21, attenuated the reduced cell viability and the increased apoptosis by H/R, in BRL cells. Anti-miR-21 abolished the protective effects of NaHS by inactivating the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the present results indicate the activation of the Akt pathway regulated by miR-21 participates in the protective effects of H2S against I/R-induced liver injury.
Despite the relatively high prevalence of migraine or headache, the pathophysiological mechanisms triggering headache-associated peripheral hypersensitivities, are unknown. Since nitric oxide (NO) is well known as a causative factor in the pathogenesis of migraine or migraine-associated hypersensitivities, a mouse model has been established using systemic administration of the NO donor, nitroglycerin (NTG). Here we tried to investigate the time course development of facial or hindpaw hypersensitivity after repetitive NTG injection. NTG (10 mg/kg) was administrated to mice every other day for nine days. Two hours post-injection, NTG produced acute mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in the hind paws. By contrast, cold allodynia, but not mechanical hypersensitivity, occurred in the facial region. Moreover, this hindpaws mechanical hypersensitivity and the facial cold allodynia was progressive and long-lasting. We subsequently examined whether the depletion of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPAs) with resiniferatoxin (RTX, 0.02 mg/kg) altered these peripheral hypersensitivities in NTG-treated mice. RTX pretreatment did not affect the NTG-induced mechanical allodynia in the hind paws nor the cold allodynia in the facial region, but it did inhibit the development of hind paw heat hyperalgesia. Similarly, NTG injection produced significant hindpaw mechanical allodynia or facial cold allodynia, but not heat hyperalgesia in transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. These findings demonstrate that different peripheral hypersensitivities develop in the face versus hindpaw regions in a mouse model of repetitive NTG-induced migraine, and that these hindpaw mechanical hypersensitivity and facial cold allodynia are not mediated by the activation of CSPAs.
As a traditional herbal medicine, the fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L. (FP) have been widely used for the treatment of various skin diseases for hundred years. Recently, the emerging FP-induced toxic effects, especially hepatotoxicity, in clinic are getting the public’s attention. However, its exact toxic components and mechanisms underlying remain unclear. Bavachin, one of flavonoids in FP, has been documented as a hepatotoxic substance, and the present study aimed to determine the toxicity caused by bavachin and the possible toxic mechanisms involved using HepG2 cells. Our results showed that bavachin could significantly inhibited cell proliferation and trigger the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in a dose dependent manner. Downregulating ER stress using tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) obvious attenuated Bavachin-triggerd cell apoptosis. Then, siRNA knock-down of Mitofusion 2 (Mfn2) resulted in a remarkable aggravation of ER stress through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt). Additionally, suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ROS Scavenger (NAC) also reduced Bavachin-induced ER stress. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Bavachin-induced ER stress caused cell apoptosis by Mfn2-Akt pathway, and that ROS may participate upstream in this mechanism. Here, we not only provide a new understanding of ROS/Mfn2/Akt pathway in Bavachin-induced cytotoxicity via the ER stress, but also identify a new specific intervention to prevent FP-induced hepatotoxicity in the future.
NSAIDs are likely to be used concomitantly with acyclovir or valacyclovir in clinical practice, but the study on the safety of such combinations was seldom reported. The objective of the study was to investigate reports of acute kidney injury(AKI) events associated with the concomitant use of oral acyclovir or valacyclovir with an NSAID by using the United States Food and Drug Administration(FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database between January 2004 and June 2012.The frequency of AKI events in patients while simultaneously taking either acyclovir or valacyclovir and an NSAID was compared using the Chi-square test. The effect of concomitant use of acyclovir or valacyclovir and individual NSAIDs on AKI was analyzed by the reporting odds ratio (ROR).The results showed that AKI was reported as the adverse event in 8.6% of the 10,923 patients taking valacyclovir compared with 8.7% of the 2,556 patients taking acyclovir (p=NS).However, AKI was significantly more frequently reported in patients simultaneously taking valacyclovir and an NSAID(19.4%)than in patients simultaneously taking acyclovir and an NSAID(10.5%)(p<0.01). The results also suggested that increased risk of AKI was likely associated with the concomitant use of valacyclovir and some NSAIDs such as loxoprofen, diclofenac, etodolac, ketorolac, piroxicam or lornoxicam.The case series from the AERS indicated that compared with acyclovir, valacyclovir is more likely to be affected by NSAIDs, and the concomitant use of valacyclovir with some NSAIDs might be associated with increased risk of AKI. The drug interactions with this speciﬁc combination of medications are worth exploring further.
We explored the effects of chondroitin sulfate on knee osteoarthritis in a one-year, randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison study. Patients with painful, Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2–3, osteoarthritis of the knee were treated with oral chondroitin sulfate at a dose of either 260 mg/day (low-dose group, control group) or 1,560 mg/day (high-dose group). Symptoms were evaluated by the Lequesne’s index and visual analog scale for pain. We made subgroup analyses according to background symptom severity (Lequesne’s index ≥8 or <8) in 73 patients. Serum level of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and hyaluronic acid were also determined. In the subgroup with severe symptoms (Lequesne’s index ≥8), the chondroitin sulfate dose of 1,560 mg/day improved pain faster after 6 and 9 months’ therapy. However, no dose-related effects were found on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein or hyaluronic acid levels. Chondroitin sulfate also had good tolerability. We conclude that chondroitin sulfate is useful for pain control in knee osteoarthritis.
Human serum albumin (HSA) has two major ligand-binding sites, sites I and II, and hydrolyzes compounds at both sites. Although the hydrolytic interaction of ester-type drugs with other drugs by HSA has been reported, there are only a few studies concerning the effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the hydrolysis of ester-type drugs by HSA. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol (2 vol%; 345 mM) on the hydrolysis of aspirin, p-nitrophenyl acetate, and olmesartan medoxomil, which are ester-type drugs, with 4 different lots of HSA preparations. The hydrolysis activities of HSA toward aspirin, p-nitrophenyl acetate, and olmesartan medoxomil were measured from the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (kobs) of salicylic acid, p-nitrophenol, and olmesartan, respectively, which are the HSA-hydrolyzed products. Ethanol inhibited hydrolysis of aspirin by HSA containing low levels of fatty acids, but not by fatty acid-free HSA. Ethanol inhibited hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by both fatty acid-free HSA and HSA containing low levels of fatty acids. In contrast, the hydrolysis of olmesartan medoxomil by HSA was insignificantly inhibited by ethanol, but inhibited not only by warfarin and indomethacin but also by naproxen, which are site I binding drugs and a site II binding drug, respectively. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of ethanol on the hydrolysis of ester-type drugs by HSA differs between site I binding drugs and site II binding drugs.
The mechanism of 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone on lowing urate level is still unknown. Here we investigated the effects of 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone on urate levels, xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (XOD/XDH) activities in hypoxanthine-induced hyperuricemic mice, as well as the effects of 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone on the mRNA expression levels and content of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPS), phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRPPAT) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT). Our results demonstrated that 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg) reduced the uric acid levels in serum of the hyperuricemic mice in dose- and time-dependent manners. The activities of XOD/XDH in serum and liver were also significantly inhibited by 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone; In addition, 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone decreased the mRNA expression of HGPRT in brain and content of PRPS and PRPPAT in liver. These findings demonstrated that 3,5,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone suppresses uric acid production by affecting the critical enzymes, XOD/XDH, PRPS, PRPPAT and HGPRT in purine nucleotide metabolism.
Chelerythrine (CHE) is a type of benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in many herbs and is also the main alkaloid constituent of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. It has been proven to have various activities including antitumor, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic effects. We have previously demonstrated that CHE can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the effect of CHE on the metastasis of HCC and its related molecular mechanisms have yet to be validated. In this study, we investigated the effects of Chelerythrine on the migration and invasion of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B. MTT, wounding healing, transwell migration and invasion assays and cytoskeleton staining demonstrated that CHE could inhibit the migration and invasion of Hep3B cells in a dose-dependent manner with change of cell structure. RNA interference studies made a knockdown of MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2/9 respectively in Hep3B cells. And the results of wounding healing and transwell invasion assay with the treatment of siRNA investigated that MMP-2/9 are positively associated with Hep3B cell metastasis. The results of ELISA, Western blotting and qRT-PCR showed that CHE suppressed the expression of MMP-2/9 at both mRNA and protein levels. CHE also exhibited an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mTOR, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38. In summary, on Hep3B cells, CHE could change the cell cytoskeletal structures through reducing the expression of p-FAK and inhibit the metastasis of Hep3B cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2/9 mainly through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Alternative plasticizers have become more popular due to health concerns about phthalate esters. We demonstrated that phthalate esters enhanced skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in mouse contact hypersensitivity models. Alternative plasticizers have not been well studied as to their effect on the immune system. We previously found that diisopropyl adipate (DIPA), an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid ester, enhanced skin sensitization to FITC. Sebacate esters are also widely used as alternative plasticizers. Here we tested diisopropyl sebacate (DIPS), which has the same alcohol with an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid of longer chain, using BALB/c mice. The results showed that DIPS facilitated skin sensitization to FITC and increased FITC-presenting dendritic cell trafficking from the skin to draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, DIPS activated transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). The latter feature has been commonly observed for phthalate esters and DIPA, which have adjuvant effects. In summary, the adjuvant effect of a sebacate ester was demonstrated in a mouse model.
This article has been retracted by the Editorial Committee of The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan because it contains scientific misconduct. Although the data published in this article were generated in part by the first author, the authors violated authorship and sponsorship protocol.