Skin inflammation is caused by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines in response to an external stimulus, such as radiation, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism of γ-irradiation-induced IL-6 production mediated by P2Y11 receptors in epidermal cells. After irradiation of HaCaT cells derived from human epidermal keratinocytes with 5 Gy of γ-rays (137Cs : 0.78 Gy/min), IL-6 production was unchanged at 24 h after γ-irradiation, but was increased at 48 h. IL-6 mRNA was increased at 30 h, and IL-6 production was increased at 33 h after irradiation. The production of IL-6 was sustained at least for 4 days after irradiation. P2Y11 receptor antagonist NF157 inhibited IL-6 production in irradiated cells. Treatment with ATP, a ligand of P2Y11 receptor caused IL-6 production within 24 h. ATP-induced IL-6 production was also suppressed by NF157. Extracellular ATP level was increased after irradiation. The p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling was involved in the production of IL-6 at the downstream of P2Y11 receptor activation. In addition, the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase, and DNA repair foci were not disappeared at 48 h after γ-irradiation. The protein level of histone methylation enzyme G9a, which inhibits IL-6 production, was decreased after γ-irradiation. In conclusion, we suggest that γ-irradiation induces sustained IL6 production in HaCaT cells from 33 h after irradiation, which is mediated through P2Y11 receptor-p38 MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway and G9a degradation. This is a novel mechanism of cytokine production in γ-irradiated cells.
Pure oxycodone injection became increasingly necessary after oral oxycodone was launched in Japan in 2003. However, trials clarifying the efficacy and safety of injection are rare. Therefore, a multicenter open study on injection was designed and carried out in 2010, resulting in the launch of injection therapy in 2012. As published domestic case reports on efficacy already show widespread prescription, this study aimed to provide useful information for cancer pain relief in Japan and other countries. Our oxycodone injection study consisted of two trials, one of intravenous (S#9131) and the other of subcutaneous (S#9132) administration. The minimum required number of enrolled patients suffering cancer pain was determined to be 70 in S#9131 and 20 in S#9132. These studies had the same dose-titration protocol as the main endpoint, i.e. pain relief rate (PRR) defined as the rate of achieving adequate pain control (APC), as in prior oral oxycodone trials in Japan. In S#9131, PRR was 81.4% (95% confidence interval: 70.3%-89.7%), therefore, the null hypothesis of PRR < 70% was rejected using the binominal one-sided test (p=0.0217). In S#9132, PRR was 73.7% also surpassing 70%. Safety was also assessed in the same way as in prior trials. The majority of adverse effects were moderate or mild and recovered with no sequelae. As shown above, the injection was considered to be effective and safe in cancer pain treatment. The details of these trials, particularly the dose-titration protocol for achieving APC and route switching information, are expected to enhance injection convenience for prescribers.
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects, is rapidly cleared from the body (approximately 98%) by urinary excretion by 24 h after oral treatment in humans. PBA was almost entirely excreted to urine as phenylacetyl glutamine (PAGln). However, no data describe the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln on mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cavity cells, and explore the potential mechanism underlying this effect.
PAGln was added to mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated by concanavalin A, or mouse peritoneal cavity cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. After 72 h of culture, levels of inflammatory cytokines in culture supernatants were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, and levels of inflammatory proteins were assessed by western blotting.
PAGln significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokine (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) production, decrease of cell number in the spleen cell, and suppressed the expression of inflammatory proteins (nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase). These results suggest that PAGln possesses anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of T cell activation and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. This study of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PAGln provides useful information about its potential for therapeutic applications.
Ge-132 is a synthetic organic germanium that is used as a dietary supplement. The antioxidant activity of Ge-132 on cultured mammalian cells was investigated in this study.First, Ge-132 cytotoxicity on mammalian cultured cells was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Ge-132 had no cytotoxic effect on three different cell lines. Second, the cell proliferative effect of Ge-132 was determined by measuring ATP content of whole cells and counting them. Ge-132 treatment of CHO-K1 and SH-SY5Y cells promoted cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, antioxidant activity of Ge-132 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carbonylated proteins. Pre-incubation of CHO-K1 and SH-SY5Y cells with Ge-132 suppressed intracellular ROS production and carbonylated protein levels induced by hydrogen peroxide.Our results suggest that Ge-132 has antioxidant activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of ligustrazine, an extract from Chinese herb, on ketamine requirement for hypnosis and analgesia in mice. In the hypnotic response study, mice were randomly allocated to receive saline or ligustrazine at 10 mg·kg–1, 20 mg·kg–1, 40 mg·kg–1, 80 mg·kg–1 or 160 mg·kg–1 by intraperitoneal injection. Ketamine was administrated 15 min after ligustrazine injection. The hypnotic response was determined by assessing loss of the righting reflex (LORR) after ketamine injection. The dose of ketamine was determined by modified Dixon’s up-and-down method in each group. In the analgesia study, different doses of ligustrazine were administrated 15 min before 50 mg·kg–1 ketamine injection. The analgesia effects (pain threshold) were determined by heat radiation-induced tail-flick latency and evaluated before ligustrazine administration or 5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min after ketamine administration. The 50% effective dose (ED50) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for hypnosis induced by ketamine was 54.1 (44.8, 65.3) mg·kg–1. Ligustrazine dose-dependently decreased the ED50 for ketamine to induce hypnosis, which was [31.6 (26.2, 38.1)] mg·kg–1 with the addition of 80 mg·kg–1 ligustrazine and [27.7 (22.6, 33.7)] mg·kg–1 with the addition of 160 mg·kg–1 ligustrazine, respectively (p < 0.05). Ligustrazine at 160 mg·kg–1 also increased pain threshold in the presence of ketamine. Ligustrazine enhanced the hypnotic effect of ketamine in a dose-dependent manner. Ligustrazine at a large dose also increased the analgesic effect of ketamine.
Differentiated HepaRG cells maintain liver-specific functions such as drug-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, the feasibility of HepaRG cells as a human hepatocyte model for in vitro toxicity assessment was examined using selected hepatotoxic compounds. First, basal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase [UGT], and sulfotransferases [SULT]) were measured in HepaRG, human hepatocytes, and HepG2 cells. Enzyme activities in differentiated HepaRG cells were comparable to those in human hepatocytes and much higher than those in HepG2 cells, except for SULT activity. Second, we examined the cytotoxicity of hepatotoxic compounds, acetaminophen (APAP), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), cyclophosphamide (CPA), tamoxifen (TAM), and troglitazone (TGZ) in HepaRG cells and human hepatocytes. AFB1- and CPA-induced cytotoxicities against HepaRG cells were comparable to those against human hepatocytes. Furthermore, the cytotoxicities of these compounds were inhibited by 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a broad CYP inhibitor, in both cells and were likely mediated by metabolic activation by CYP. Finally, toxicogenomics analysis of HepG2 and HepaRG cells after exposure to AFB1 and CPA revealed that numerous p53-related genes were upregulated and the expression of these genes was greater in HepaRG than in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that gene expression profiles of HepaRG cells were affected more considerably by the toxic mechanisms of AFB1 and CPA than the profiles of HepG2 cells were. Therefore, our investigation shows that HepaRG cells could be useful human hepatic cellular models for toxicity studies.
Studies indicate that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released from activated platelets in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) induces 5-HT2A receptor-mediated graft spasm. We previously reported that 5-HT-induced constriction of human endothelium-denuded saphenous vein (SV) was significantly augmented in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in patients without DM (non-DM), without changes in the levels of the membrane-bound 5-HT2A receptor of their smooth muscle cells. Although the internal thoracic artery (ITA) is the key graft conduit for CABG, the effect of DM on the ITA graft spasm is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of DM on 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and the level of membrane-bound 5-HT2A receptor in ITA grafts. 5-HT-induced constriction of the isolated human endothelial-denuded ITA was significantly higher in patients with DM than in patients without DM. In addition, the level of the 5-HT2A receptor in the membrane fraction of human ITA smooth muscle cells was significantly higher in patients with DM than in those without DM. These results demonstrate that DM is a risk factor for CABG in both venous and arterial conduits, and that it differentially affects the level of the membrane-bound 5-HT2A receptor in the venous and arterial smooth muscle cells.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, scaly and raised plaques. Thus far, T-cell infiltration is one of the most prominent pathogenic triggers, however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying psoriasis have not been clearly established. Sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid regulator modulating a variety of immune cell trafficking via interactions with its cognate receptors, S1P1-5. Activation of S1P signaling has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue for psoriasis treatment. Here, we test a newly developed selective S1P1 agonist, Syl930, in four different psoriasis animal models. Our data reveals that oral administration of Syl930 can induce strong anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. Specifically, Syl930 decreases the pathological thickening of back skin induced by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), inhibits the proliferation of basal cells in a vaginal epithelium model and increases the granular layer scales in a mouse tail assay. Moreover, Syl930 can ameliorate the parakeratosis and acanthosis as well as improve granular layer composition and decrease the thickening of epidermis in a propranolol-induced guinea pig psoriasis model. Therefore, we demonstrate that Syl930 is a promising candidate for psoriasis therapy in clinical.
Neck and shoulder stiffness is a typical subjective symptom in developed countries. This stiffness is caused by factors such as muscle tension and poor blood flow, leading to reduce work efficiency and diminish quality of life. NKCP®, a natto-derived dietary food supplement whose main component is bacillopeptidase F, has antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, and blood viscosity-lowering effects. Here, we investigated the effect of NKCP® on neck and shoulder stiffness in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover study.
Thirty subjects with neck and shoulder stiffness were randomly divided into 2 groups and ingested 250 mg of NKCP® or placebo daily for 4 weeks. Headache score significantly improved in the NKCP® group compared to the placebo group. Moreover, NKCP® significantly improved the score of visual analogue scale for neck and shoulder stiffness and pain, reduced muscle stiffness of the neck, and increased the skin surface temperature of neck and shoulders, compared to before ingestion. No adverse effects were observed during this study.These results suggest that NKCP® may alleviate headaches and chronic neck and shoulder stiffness and pain.
The Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ) root has been used as a sedative or analgesic to treat neurological symptoms and pain in traditional Korean medicine. Here, we investigate the potential effects of NJ on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reveal the molecular mechanism through which NJ exerts its effects. The neuroprotective effect of the NJ root ethanol extract against β amyloid (Aβ) toxicity was examined in vitro using a cell culture system and in vivo using a Drosophila AD model. The NJ extract and chlorogenic acid, a major component of NJ, inhibited Aβ-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, the NJ extract rescued the neurological phenotypes of the Aβ42-expressing flies (decreased survival and pupariation rate and a locomotor defect) and suppressed Aβ42-induced cell death in the brain. We also found that NJ extract intake reduced glial cell number, reactive oxygen species level, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and nitric oxide level in Aβ42-expressing flies, without affecting Aβ accumulation. These data suggest that the neuroprotective activity of NJ might be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its inhibitory action against ERK signaling; thus, NJ is a promising medicinal plant for the development of AD treatment.
The discovery of the chimeric tyrosine kinase breakpoint cluster region kinase-Abelson kinase (BCR-ABL)-targeted drug imatinib conceptually changed the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, some CML patients show drug resistance to imatinib. To address this issue, some artificial heterocyclic compounds have been identified as BCR-ABL inhibitors. Here we examined whether plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid gypsogenin and/or their derivatives show inhibitory activity against BCR-ABL. Among the three derivatives, benzyl 3-hydroxy-23-oxoolean-12-en-28-oate (1c) was found to be the most effective anticancer agent on the CML cell line K562, with an IC50 value of 9.3 µM. In contrast, the IC50 against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 276.0 µM, showing better selectivity than imatinib. Compound 1c had in vitro inhibitory activity against Abelson kinase 1 (ABL1) (IC50=8.7 μM), the kinase component of BCR-ABL. In addition, compound 1c showed a different inhibitory profile against eight kinases compared with imatinib. The interaction between ATP binding site of ABL and 1c was examined by molecular docking study, and the binding mode was different from imatinib and newer generation inhibitors. Furthermore, 1c suppresses signaling downstream of BCR-ABL. This study suggests the possibility that plant extracts may be a source for CML treatment and offer a strategy to overcome drug resistance to known BCR-ABL inhibitors.
Abstract—High level apoptosis induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) evokes serious damage because of the loss and dysfunction of motor neurons. Our previous studies showed that inhibition of autophagy evokes the activation of apoptosis. Interestingly, Baicalein, a medicine with anti-apoptosis activity that is derived from the roots of herb Scutellaria baicalensis, largely induces autophagy by activing PI3K. In this study, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal injection of Baicalein on autophagy and apoptosis in SCI mice and evaluated the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. We demonstrated that Baicalein promoted the functional recovery of motor neurons at 7 days after SCI. In addition, Baicalein enhanced neuronal autophagy and the autophagy-related factor PI3K, while inhibiting the p62 protein. Baicalein treatment decreased neuronal apoptosis at 7 days after SCI. Moreover, when inhibiting autophagy, apoptosis was upgraded by Baicalein treatment after injury. Thus, Baicalein attenuated SCI by inducing autophagy to reduce apoptosis in neurons potentially via activing PI3K.
Detection of anomalous cells such as cancer cells from normal blood cells has the potential to contribute greatly to cancer diagnosis and therapy. Conventional methods for the detection of cancer cells are usually tedious and cumbersome. Herein, we report on the use of a particle size analyzer for the convenient size-based differentiation of cancer cells from normal cells. Measurements made using a particle size analyzer revealed that size parameters for cancer cells are significantly greater (e.g., inner diameter and width) than the corresponding values for normal cells (white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes and splenocytes), with no significant difference in shape parameters (e.g., circularity and convexity). The inner diameter of many cancer cell lines is greater than 10 μm, in contrast to normal cells. For the detection of WBC having similar size to that of cancer cells, we developed a PC software “Cancer Cell Finder” that differentiates them from cancer cells based on brightness inflection points on a cell surface. Furthermore, the aforementioned method was validated for cancer cell/clusters detection in spiked mouse blood samples (a B16 melanoma mouse xenograft model) and circulating tumor cell cluster-like particles in the cat and dog (diagnosed with cancer) blood samples. These results provide insights into the possible applicability of the use of a particle size analyzer in conjunction with PC software for the convenient detection of cancer cells in experimental and clinical samples for theranostics.
This article has been retracted by the Editorial Committee of The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan because it contains scientific misconduct. Although the data published in this article were generated in part by the first author, the authors violated authorship and sponsorship protocol.