Regulating synaptic formation and transmission is critical for the physiology and pathology of psychiatric disorders. The adenosine A2A receptor subtype has attracted widespread attention as a key regulator of neuropsychiatric activity, neuroprotection and injury. In this study, we systematically investigated the regulatory effects of a novel A2A receptor agonist, PSB-0777, on the expression of synaptic proteins and AMPA receptors at the cellular level in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 30 minutes of high-dose PSB-0777 stimulation, the expression of Syn-1, PSD95, and AMPA receptors and the number of synapses were rapidly and significantly increased in rat primary cortical neurons compared with the control. Sustained elevation was found in the low and medium-dose groups after 24 hours and 3 days of treatment. In contrast, after stimulation with PSB-0777 for 3 consecutive days, the expression of Syn-1 was decreased, and PSD95, AMPA receptors and the number of synapses were no longer increased in the high-dose group. Our study focuses on the detailed and systematic regulation of synaptic proteins and AMPA receptors by an A2A receptor agonist, PSB-0777, which may result in both beneficial and detrimental effects on neurotransmission and neuroprotection and may contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders related to A2A receptors. These experimental data may contribute to understanding of the mechanisms for neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of A2A receptor agonists.
We retrospectively obtained data of patient background and pretreatment characteristics from medical records and identified the predictive factors of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with docetaxel alone or in combination with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab.
Patients were eligible for inclusion in the study if they were 20 years or older, diagnosed with NSCLC, and received docetaxel monotherapy alone or in combination with bevacizumab at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, between July 1, 2011, and March 31, 2018.
Eighty-one patients with recurrent or advanced NSCLC were included. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis with backward selection revealed that lower baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) scores of 1 and 2 (odds ratio [OR], 5.098; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.045–24.879, p=0.021) and baseline platelet count below 18.8 x 104/µL (OR, 3.861; 95% CI, 1.211–12.311, p=0.022) were significant factors influencing the FN occurrence rate.
Our results demonstrated that ECOG-PS 1–2 and lower baseline platelet count were significant risk factors of FN in patients with NSCLC receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Moreover, the combination of anti-VEGF antibodies and docetaxel might be associated with increased FN frequency. Despite the limitations of this study including its retrospective design, single-center site, and small sample size, baseline ECOG-PS score and platelet count may be regarded as important indices to identify patients for prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment before docetaxel-based chemotherapy.
Excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a hallmark feature of asthma. Intriguing, the activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) in ASMCs can relax ASMCs. However, there is a lack of potent TAS2R agonists that can be used in asthma therapies since those tested agonists cannot relax ASMCs at the dose below a few hundred micromolar. Considering that sanguinarine (SA) is a bitter substance often used in small doses for the treatment of asthma in folk medicine, the present study was to determine the rapid relaxation effect of SA on ASMCs and to reveal the underlying mechanisms associated with TAS2R signaling. Here, cell stiffness, traction force, calcium signaling, cAMP levels, and the mRNA expression were evaluated by using optical magnetic twisting cytometry, traction force microscopy, Fluo-4/AM labeling, ELISA, and qRT-PCR, respectively. We found that 0.5 μM SA immediately decreased cell stiffness and traction force, which is comparable with the effect of 5 μM isoproterenol. In addition, 0.5 μM SA immediately increased intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and decreased the mRNA expression of contractile proteins such as calponin and α-smooth muscle actin after the treatment for 24 h. Furthermore, SA-mediated decrease in cell stiffness/traction force and increase in [Ca2+]i were significantly blunted by inhibiting the TAS2Rs signaling. These findings establish the rapid relaxation effect of SA at low concentration (<1 μM) on cultured ASMCs depending on TAS2R signaling, indicating that SA might be developed as a useful bronchodilator in asthma therapy.
Inappropriately reduced doses (IRDs) of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are common in clinical practice. We performed a retrospective review using electronic medical records of St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital (a 1200-bed teaching hospital in Japan) to address the prevalence of IRDs and patient-related factors that result in IRDs. We also surveyed DOAC-treated patients who were hospitalized due to a stroke during the 5-year study period to analyze the association between stroke events and IRDs. We found that one in five patients who were newly prescribed a DOAC was treated with IRDs. Patients treated with edoxaban received the most IRDs (64%, 7/11), followed by those treated with dabigatran (50%, 1/2), apixaban (32%, 19/61), and rivaroxaban (27%, 12/44). Our analysis showed that the renal function (measured as serum creatinine and creatinine clearance values) and age are possible factors influencing dose reduction. The HAS-BLED score and antiplatelet use were not associated with IRD prescription. An analysis of the 5-year hospital records revealed 20 stroke cases despite ongoing treatments with DOACs, and IRDs were noted in three of these cases. In all three cases, the patients had been on an IRD of rivaroxaban. To prevent IRDs of DOACs, we suggest that a clinical protocol be incorporated into formularies to support the prescription process.
Latifolin, a natural flavonoid found in Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities in vitro. However, the anti-aging effects of latifolin are unknown. In this study, we selected a model in vitro system, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), to examine the protective effects of latifolin against senescence and the detailed molecular mechanisms involved. Latifolin reversed the senescence-like phenotypes of the oxidant-challenged model, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, cell proliferation, and the expression of senescence-related proteins, such as caveolin-1, ac-p53, p21Cip1/WAF1, p16Ink4α, pRb, and cyclinD1. We also found that latifolin induced the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the anti-senescence effect of latifolin was abrogated by SIRT1 inhibition. Latifolin also suppressed the activation of Akt and S6K1 and attenuated the increase in SA-β-gal activity after H2O2 exposure. Our results indicate that latifolin exerts protective effects against senescence in HDFs and that induction of SIRT1 and inhibition of the mTOR pathway are key mediators of its anti-aging effects.
In this study, we have developed a theranostic nanocarrier that can emit heat upon the exposure to ultrasound (US) irradiation as well as the generation of a contrast signal that can be detected with ultrasonography. The prepared acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) made with liquid perfluporopentane (PFPn) had an average size of 197.7 ± 3.6 nm in diameter and were stable in vitro for 60 min. US irradiation at 2 W.cm-2 induced phase change of NDs into bubbles in vitro. On the other hand, the intra-tumor injection of NDs in combination with US irradiation induced thermal emission in situ in B16BL6 melanoma tumor implanted into mice and the emission areas have mostly covered the tumor site. Also, the combination between NDs and US irradiation has inhibited the tumor growth. Under this condition, the heat shock protein (HSP70) in tumor was significantly upregulated after 6 h of the treatment of NDs with US. Thus, we have developed a therapeutic system with multiple theranostic modalities composed of acoustic NDs and US irradiation applicable to the tumor treatment on the external surface of the body.
Beta-asarone(β-Asarone), the major component of Acorus tatarinowii Rhizoma, has been proved to be muti-pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation, and which is effective in protecting the central nervous system. However, the effect of β-Asarone on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) injury is not yet clear. This study used a rat model with 45minutes occlusion and 24hours releasing of proximal segment of left anterior descending coronary artery. The effects of β-Asarone on cardiac histopathology, myocardial infarction size, levels of cardiac troponin T(cTNT) , myeloperoxidase(MPO) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β), protein expressions of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC), Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), caspase-1and Gasdermin D(GSDMSD) , and left ventricular performance were studied respectively. Our resultsshowed that administration of β-Asarone significantly improved the heart outcome after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in terms of less infarction size and lower serum cTNT concentration. Further, β-Asarone treatment evidently inhibited inflammatory response with less granulocyte infiltration, mild tissue edema and lower tissue MPO content, it also suppressed NLRP3 signal pathway and cardiac cell’s pyroptosis for less protein expressions of ASC and NLRP3, lower level cleavage activation of caspase-1and GSDMSD, and lower serum IL-1β concentration. Finally, β-Asarone treatment well preserved the left ventricular performance with higher ejection fraction and fractional shortening. The experimental results suggested that β-Asarone was protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, in which inhibition of inflammatory response and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated pyroptosis were supposed to play a vital role.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can effectively regulate immune cell functions and therefore are promising for the treatment of autoimmune disorders, such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recent research has shown that three-dimensional (3D) culture method have many advantages over conventional culture with respect to MSC secretion and immunogenicity. In this study, 2D and 3D cultured MSCs were used to evaluate cytokine secretion, extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression, immune regulatory activity, and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of ITP. MSCs cultured on scaffolds had higher expression levels of immune regulatory genes, such as IDO1, HLA-G, and PTGS2, and greater inhibitory activity against lymphocyte activation that those of 2D-MSCs. In addition, 3D-MSCs exhibited higher ECM expression and greater protection against interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced apoptosis. In a mouse study, ITP was induced by guinea pig anti-mouse platelet serum injections. Based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, serum levels of the suppressive cytokine IL-10 were higher and IFN-γ levels were lower after intravenous injection with 3D-MSCs and with 2D-MSCs. Additionally, 3D-MSCs improved the body weight, spleen index, and platelet index relative to those for 2D-MSCs. Bone marrow homing was also significantly enhanced in the 3D group. Therefore, the 3D culture of MSCs is an effective technique for the treatment of ITP.
Vancomycin (VAN) is an anti-microbial agent used to treat a number of bacterial infections, which has a high incidence of nephrotoxicity. We examined the pharmacokinetics of VAN retrospectively based on trough concentrations at large scale and identified pharmacokinetic differences between Japanese patients having solid malignancy and non-malignancy patients. Data were analyzed from 162 solid malignancy patients and 261 non-malignancy patients, including the patient’s background, VAN dose, and pharmacokinetics of VAN. We failed to detect differences in values for VAN clearance or shorter elimination half-lives between these two groups. In contrast, multiple regression analysis under adjusting for confounding factors by propensity score, showed that VAN clearance significantly increased in relation to solid malignancies in each stage. We conclude that VAN clearance in solid malignancy patients is increased and that the blood concentration of VAN becomes lower than expected. These results suggest that early monitoring of VAN levels in solid malignancy patients might be essential for maintaining desired effects without side-effects.
Glioblastoma comprises 54% of all the gliomas derived from glial cells and are lethally malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Glioma cells disrupt the blood–brain barrier, leading to access of circulating immune cells to the CNS. Blocking the interaction between programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) enhances T-cell responses against tumor cells, and inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is used as immunotherapy for cancer, including glioblastoma. Nitric oxide (NO) has multiple physiological roles, such as immune modulation and neural transmission in the CNS. Moreover, it has both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive functions. We examined the effects of NOC-18, an NO donor, on the expression of PD-L1 in A172 glioblastoma cells. NOC-18 increased PD-L1 expression in A172 glioblastoma cells. Moreover, this increase is regulated via the JNK pathway.
The neurodevelopmental toxicity of isoflurane has been proved by many studies, which makes it essential to explore the underline mechanisms and search for protective agents to attenuate its neurotoxcity. Accumulating evidence showed that L-theanine had neuroprotective effects on injured neurons and the developing brain. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-theanine could attenuate isoflurane-induced damage in neural stem cells and cognitive impairment in young mice, and to discuss the role of Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in this process. Multipotential neural stem cells (NSCs) and C57BL/6J mice were treated with either gas mixture, isoflurane, or L-theanine 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure, respectively. NSC viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. NSC proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunofluorescence and TUNEL assay, respectively. The levels of cleaved caspase-3 and p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in NSCs were tested by Western blotting. Cognitive function of mice was tested by Morris Water Maze at postnatal day (P) 30-35. The results indicated that isoflurane exposure inhibited NSC viability and proliferation, promoted NSC apoptosis as well as increased caspase-3 activation and down-regulated the expressions of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in NSCs, and that isoflurane exposure on neonatal mice would induce late cognitive impairment. Pretreatment with L-theanine could attenuate isoflurane-caused damage in NSCs and cognitive deficits in young mice. Addinonally, the protective effects of L-theanine on isoflurane-injured NSCs could be reversed by Akt inhibitor Triciribine. Our data showed that pretreatment with L-theanine eliminated the NSC damage and cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure, and that the neuroprotective effect of L-theanine was associated with the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
Cytisine N-methylene-(5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy)-isoflavone (CNF2) is a new compound isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Sophora alopecuroides. Preliminary pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated its activity in inhibiting breast cancer cell metastasis. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability, and tissue distribution of CNF2 in rats, and combined computer-aided technology to predict the druggability of CNF2. The binding site of CNF2 and the breast cancer target HER2 were examined with molecular docking technology. Next, ACD/Percepta software was used to predict the druggability of CNF2 based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). Finally, a simple and effective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CNF2 in rats. Prediction and experimental results show that compared with the positive control HER2 inhibitor SYR127063, CNF2 has a stronger binding affinity with HER2, suggesting that its efficacy is stronger; and the structure of CNF2 complies with the Lipinski's Rule of Five and has good drug-likeness. The residence time of CNF2 in rats is less than 4 hours, and the metabolic rate is relatively fast; But the absolute bioavailability of CNF2 in rats was 6.6%, mainly distributed in the stomach, intestine, and lung tissues, where the CNF2 contents were 401.20 μg/g, 144.01 μg/g, and 245.82 μg/g, respectively. This study constructed rapid screening and preliminary evaluation of active compounds, which provided important references for the development and further research of such compounds.
This article has been retracted by the Editorial Committee of The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan because it contains scientific misconduct. Although the data published in this article were generated in part by the first author, the authors violated authorship and sponsorship protocol.