Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-50 of 104 articles from this issue
  • Yuta Kobayashi, Toshiyuki Nagai, Kiwamu Kamiya, Satonori Tsuneta, Yasu ...
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0910
    Published: April 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material
  • Ayumi Date
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0245
    Published: April 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Chengchen Hu, Jamie Francisco, Dominic P. Del Re, Junichi Sadoshima
    Article type: REVIEW
    Article ID: CJ-24-0171
    Published: April 19, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 19, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway plays a pivotal role in governing a variety of biological processes. Heart failure (HF) is a major global health problem with a significant risk of mortality. This review provides a contemporary understanding of the Hippo pathway in regulating different cell types during HF. Through a systematic analysis of each component’s regulatory mechanisms within the Hippo pathway, we elucidate their specific effects on cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in response to various cardiac injuries. Insights gleaned from both in vitro and in vivo studies highlight the therapeutic promise of targeting the Hippo pathway to address cardiovascular diseases, particularly HF.

  • Takashi Muramatsu, Yoshinobu Onuma, Patrick W. Serruys
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0219
    Published: April 18, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 18, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Takashi Hiruma, Atsuko Nakayama, Junko Sakamoto, Kentaro Hori, Mamoru ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0668
    Published: April 17, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 17, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Reduced exercise capacity is a prognostic indicator of adverse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in this population. This study aimed to clarify the efficacy of comprehensive CR in patients with AMI and reduced exercise capacity.

    Methods and Results: This cohort study included 610 patients with AMI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were compared between patients who participated in comprehensive outpatient CR for 150 days (CR group; n=430) and those who did not (non-CR group; n=180). During the mean (±SD) follow-up period of 6.1±4.0 years, the CR group exhibited a lower incidence of MACE (log-rank P=0.002). Multivariable analysis revealed that Killip classification, diuretics at discharge, and participation in comprehensive CR were independently associated with MACE. The CR group was further divided into 2 groups, namely reduced exercise capacity (% predicted peak V̇O2<80%; n=241) and preserved exercise capacity (≥80%; n=147), based on the initial cardiopulmonary exercise test. Despite distinct exercise capacities, the incidence of MACE was comparable and physical parameters improved similarly after comprehensive CR in both groups.

    Conclusions: Comprehensive CR in patients with AMI effectively reduced the incidence of MACE regardless of initial exercise capacity. Cardiologists should actively encourage patients with low exercise capacity to participate in comprehensive CR.

  • Haifen Huang, Bin Peng, Qingyong Chen, Yi Wang, Ren Li
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0769
    Published: April 16, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 16, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Foam cell formation is an important step for atherosclerosis (AS) progression. We investigated the mechanism by which the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) regulates foam cell formation during AS progression.

    Methods and Results: An in vivo AS model was created by feeding ApoE−/−mice a high-fat diet. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated macrophages were used as a cellular AS model. Interactions between NEAT1, miR-17-5p, itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (ITCH) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) were analyzed. NEAT1 and ITCH were highly expressed in clinical samples collected from 10 AS patients and in ox-LDL-treated macrophages, whereas expression of both miR-17-5p and LKB1 was low. ITCH knockdown inhibited ox-LDL-induced lipid accumulation and LDL uptake in macrophages. Mechanistically speakingly, ITCH promoted LDL uptake and lipid accumulation in macrophages by mediating LKB1 ubiquitination degradation. NEAT1 knockdown reduced LDL uptake and lipid accumulation in macrophages and AS progression in vivo. NEAT1 promoted ITCH expression in macrophages by acting as a sponge for miR-17-5p. Inhibition of miR-17-5p facilitated ox-LDL-induced increase in LDL uptake and lipid accumulation in macrophages, which was reversed by NEAT1/ITCH knockdown.

    Conclusions:NEAT1 accelerated foam cell formation during AS progression through the miR-17-5p/ITCH/LKB1 axis.

  • Kohei Hachiro, Noriyuki Takashima, Tomoaki Suzuki
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0081
    Published: April 13, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 13, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: We determined the left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDs) cut-off value for risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in Japanese asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic valve regurgitation (AR), and investigated the effect of left ventricular dilation on long-term postoperative outcomes.

    Methods and Results: The 168 patients who underwent surgical AVR for AR at Shiga University of Medical Science between January 2002 and December 2022 were included in this study. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the cut-off value of preoperative LVDs for the incidence of MACCE was 42.8 mm (area under the curve 0.616). Postoperative outcomes were compared between patients with preoperative LVDs >42.8 mm (n=77) and those with preoperative LVDs ≤42.8 mm (n=91) using propensity score matching. The 10-year estimated rates of freedom from MACCE in those with LVDs >42.8 and ≤42.8 mm were 59.9% and 85.7%, respectively; the curves differed significantly (P=0.004). In multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, preoperative LVDs >42.8 mm was an independent predictor of MACCE (hazard ratio 2.485; 95% confidence interval 1.239–4.984; P=0.010).

    Conclusions: Preoperative LVDs >42.8 mm is associated with an increased risk of MACCE in Japanese patients undergoing AVR for AR.

  • Yoshinari Enomoto, Takanori Ikeda, Keijiro Nakamura, Mahito Noro, Kaor ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0801
    Published: April 12, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Despite an increased incidence of chronic heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD), the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is much lower in Japan than in Western countries. The HF Indication and SCD Prevention Trial Japan (HINODE) prospectively assessed the mortality rate, appropriately treated ventricular arrhythmias (VA), and HF in Japanese patients with a higher risk of HF.

    Methods and Results: HINODE consisted of ICD, CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D), pacing, and non-device treatment cohorts. This subanalysis evaluated the impact of the implantation of high-voltage devices (HVD; ICD and CRT-D) in 171 Japanese patients. We compared all-cause mortality, VA, and HF events between elderly (age >70 years at study enrollment) and non-elderly HVD recipients. The estimated survival rate through 24 months in the HVD cohort was 85.8% (97.5% lower control limit 77.6%). The risk of all-cause mortality was increased for the elderly vs. non-elderly (hazard ratio [HR] 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–7.91; P=0.039), but did not differ after excluding ICD patients with CRT-D indication (HR 2.32; 95% CI 0.79–6.78; P=0.11). There were no differences in VA and HF event-free rates between elderly and non-elderly HVD recipients (P=0.73 and P=0.55, respectively).

    Conclusions: Although elderly patients may have a higher risk of mortality in general, the benefit of HVD therapy in this group is comparable to that in non-elderly patients.

  • Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Takeshi Tada, Hideaki Suzuki, Yuji Nishimoto, Kenj ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0827
    Published: April 02, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 02, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: This study investigated whether the chronic use of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) reduces all-cause mortality and the rate of urgent rehospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF).

    Methods and Results: This multicenter prospective observational study enrolled patients hospitalized for HF in Japan between 2019 and 2020 who were treated either with or without ASV therapy. Of 845 patients, 110 (13%) received chronic ASV at hospital discharge. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death and urgent rehospitalization for HF, and was observed in 272 patients over a 1-year follow-up. Following 1:3 sequential propensity score matching, 384 patients were included in the subsequent analysis. The median time to the primary outcome was significantly shorter in the ASV than in non-ASV group (19.7 vs. 34.4 weeks; P=0.013). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the all-cause mortality event-free rate between the 2 groups.

    Conclusions: Chronic use of ASV did not impact all-cause mortality in patients experiencing recurrent admissions for HF.

  • Naoki Fujimura, Hideaki Obara, Kentaro Matsubara, Naoki Toya, Naoko Is ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0135
    Published: April 12, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Despite the widespread use of PROPATEN®, a bioactive heparin-bonded expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, in bypass surgery, there are only a few reports of long-term results. We evaluated the long-term results of PROPATEN®use for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass (AKFPB).

    Methods and Results: After PROPATEN®-based AKFPB, patients were prospectively registered at 20 Japanese institutions between July 2014 and October 2017 to evaluate long-term results. During the median follow-up of 76 months (interquartile range 36–88 months) for 120 limbs (in 113 patients; mean [±SD] age 72.7±8.1 years; 66.7% male; ankle-brachial index [ABI] 0.45±0.27; lesion length 26.2±5.7 cm; chronic limb-threatening ischemia in 45 limbs), there were 8 major amputations; however, clinical improvement was sustained (mean [±SD] ABI 0.87±0.23) and the Rutherford classification grade improved in 105 (87.5%) limbs at the latest follow-up. At 8 years, the primary patency, freedom from target-lesion revascularization, secondary patency, survival, and amputation-free survival, as estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, were 66.3±4.8%, 71.5±4.4%, 86.5±3.4%, 53.1±5.0%, and 47.4±5.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: This multicenter prospective registry-based analysis showed sustained excellent clinical improvement and secondary patency for up to 8 years following PROPATEN®-based AKFPB. PROPATEN®constitutes a durable and good revascularization option for complex superficial femoral artery lesions, especially when endovascular treatment is inappropriate or an adequate venous conduit is unavailable.

  • Toshihisa Anzai
    Article type: MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
    Article ID: CJ-66-0224
    Published: April 12, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Chang Hoon Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Hyun Kuk Kim, Min Chul Kim, Ju Han Kim, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0129
    Published: April 11, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the prognostic implications of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    Methods and Results: Of 13,104 patients in the nationwide Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health, 3,083 patients with NSTEMI who underwent PCI were included in the present study. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 3 years, a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction, unplanned repeat revascularization, and admission for heart failure. NT-proBNP was measured at the time of initial presentation for the management of NSTEMI, and patients were divided into a low (<700 pg/mL; n=1,813) and high (≥700 pg/mL; n=1,270) NT-proBNP group. The high NT-proBNP group had a significantly higher risk of MACE, driven primarily by a higher risk of cardiac death or admission for heart failure. These results were consistent after confounder adjustment by propensity score matching and inverse probability weighting analysis.

    Conclusions: In patients with NSTEMI who underwent PCI, an initial elevated NT-proBNP concentration was associated with higher risk of MACE at 3 years, driven primarily by higher risks of cardiac death or admission for heart failure. These results suggest that the initial NT-proBNP concentration may have a clinically significant prognostic value in NSTEMI patients undergoing PCI.

  • Yusuke Yanagino, Satoshi Kainuma, Tatsuya Nisii, Naonori Kawamoto, Nao ...
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0912
    Published: April 09, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material
  • Yuya Tanabe, Ryohei Ono, Hirotoshi Kato, Ken Kato, Takatsugu Kajiyama, ...
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0119
    Published: April 06, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Takashi Nishimura, Yasutaka Hirata, Takayuki Ise, Hiroyuki Iwano, Hiro ...
    Article type: JCS GUIDELINES
    Article ID: CJ-23-0698
    Published: April 05, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 05, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Toshiaki Isogai, Nobuaki Michihata, Akira Okada, Kojiro Morita, Hiroki ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0770
    Published: April 05, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 05, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Kampo, a Japanese herbal medicine, is approved for the treatment of various symptoms/conditions under national medical insurance coverage in Japan. However, the contemporary nationwide status of Kampo use among patients with acute cardiovascular diseases remains unknown.

    Methods and Results: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we retrospectively identified 2,547,559 patients hospitalized for acute cardiovascular disease (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or aortic dissection) at 1,798 hospitals during the fiscal years 2010–2021. Kampo medicines were used in 227,008 (8.9%) patients, with a 3-fold increase from 2010 (4.3%) to 2021 (12.4%), regardless of age, sex, disease severity, and primary diagnosis. The top 5 medicines used were Daikenchuto (29.4%), Yokukansan (26.1%), Shakuyakukanzoto (15.8%), Rikkunshito (7.3%), and Goreisan (5.5%). From 2010 to 2021, Kampo medicines were initiated earlier during hospitalization (from a median of Day 7 to Day 3), and were used on a greater proportion of hospital days (median 16.7% vs. 21.4%). However, the percentage of patients continuing Kampo medicines after discharge declined from 57.9% in 2010 to 39.4% in 2021, indicating their temporary use. The frequency of Kampo use varied across hospitals, with the median percentage of patients prescribed Kampo medications increasing from 7.7% in 2010 to 11.5% in 2021.

    Conclusions: This nationwide study demonstrates increasing Kampo use in the management of acute cardiovascular diseases, warranting further pharmacoepidemiological studies on its effectiveness.

  • Yuta Suzuki, Hidehiro Kaneko, Akira Okada, Jin Komuro, Atsushi Mizuno, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0039
    Published: April 04, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In patients with hypertension, unawareness of the disease often results in poor blood pressure control and increases the risk of CVD. However, data in nationwide surveys regarding the proportion of unaware individuals and the implications of such on their clinical outcomes are lacking. We aimed to clarify the association between unawareness of being prescribed antihypertensive medications among individuals taking antihypertensive medications and the subsequent risk of developing CVD.

    Methods and Results: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from the JMDC Claims Database, including 313,715 individuals with hypertension treated with antihypertensive medications (median age 56 years). The primary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Overall, 19,607 (6.2%) individuals were unaware of being prescribed antihypertensive medications. During the follow-up period, 33,976 composite CVD endpoints were documented. Despite their youth, minimal comorbidities, and the achievement of better BP control with a reduced number of antihypertensive prescriptions, unawareness of being prescribed antihypertensive medications was associated with a greater risk of developing composite CVD. Hazard ratios of unawareness of being prescribed antihypertensive medications were 1.16 for myocardial infarction, 1.25 for angina pectoris, 1.15 for stroke, 1.36 for heart failure, and 1.28 for atrial fibrillation. The results were similar in several sensitivity analyses, including the analysis after excluding individuals with dementia.

    Conclusions: Among individuals taking antihypertensive medications, assessing the awareness of being prescribed antihypertensive medications may help identify those at high risk for CVD-related events.

  • Masaru Ishida, Ryutaro Shimada, Fumiaki Takahashi, Masanobu Niiyama, T ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0091
    Published: April 04, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 04, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The safety and feasibility of using 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) followed by P2Y12inhibitor monotherapy for patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with thin-strut biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) in daily clinical practice remain uncertain.

    Methods and Results: The REIWA region-wide registry is a prospective study conducted in 1 PCI center and 9 local hospitals in northern Japan. A total of 1,202 patients who successfully underwent final PCI using BP-DES (Synergy: n=400; Ultimaster: n=401; Orsiro: n=401), were enrolled in the registry, and received 1-month DAPT followed by P2Y12inhibitor (prasugrel 3.75 mg/day or clopidogrel 75 mg/day) monotherapy. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular and bleeding events at 12 months, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis (ST), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding. Based on the results of a previous study, we set the performance goal at 5.0%. Over the 1-year follow-up, the primary endpoint occurred in 3.08% of patients, which was lower than the predefined performance goal (Pnon-inferiority<0.0001). Notably, definite ST occurred in only 1 patient (0.08%) within 1 year (at 258 days). No differences were observed in the primary endpoint between stent types.

    Conclusions: The REIWA region-wide registry suggests that 1-month DAPT followed by P2Y12inhibitor monotherapy is safe and feasible for Japanese patients with BP-DES.

  • Itaru Hosaka, Takeshi Uzuka, Riko Umeta, Kyousuke Miki, Akihiko Sasaki
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0152
    Published: March 30, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 30, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material
  • Satoshi Akagi
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0195
    Published: March 30, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 30, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Shingo Kato, Takeshi Kitai, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Mai Azuma, Kazuki Fuku ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0729
    Published: March 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: This prospective multicenter study assessed the prevalence of myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

    Methods and Results: We prospectively screened 505 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease from 7 hospitals in Japan. Of these patients, 31 (mean [±SD] age 63.5±10.4 years, 23 [74%] male) suspected of myocardial injury, based on elevated serum troponin or B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations either upon admission or 3 months after discharge, underwent CMR 3 months after discharge. The primary endpoint was the presence of myocardial injury, defined by any of the following: (1) contrast enhancement in the left or right ventricle myocardium on late gadolinium enhancement CMR; (2) left or right ventricular dysfunction (defined as <50% and <45%, respectively); and (3) pericardial thickening on contrast enhancement. The mean (±SD) duration between diagnosis and CMR was 117±16 days. The primary endpoint was observed in 13 of 31 individuals (42%), with 8 (26%) satisfying the modified Lake Louise Criteria for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis.

    Conclusions: This study revealed a high incidence of myocardial injury identified by CMR in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 and abnormal findings for cardiac biomarkers.

  • Masatsune Ogura
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0186
    Published: March 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Yuta Ozaki, Yusuke Uemura, Akihito Tanaka, Shogo Yamaguchi, Takashi Ok ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0060
    Published: March 28, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 28, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker for renal injury. However, the association between urinary NGAL concentrations and renal and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD undergoing PCI has not been elucidated. This study investigated the clinical impact of urinary NGAL concentrations on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-dialysis CKD undergoing PCI.

    Methods and Results: We enrolled 124 patients with non-dialysis CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) undergoing elective PCI. Patients were divided into low and high NGAL groups based on the median urinary NGAL concentration measured the day before PCI. Patients were monitored for renal and cardiovascular events during the 2-year follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the incidence of renal and cardiovascular events was higher in the high than low NGAL group (log-rank P<0.001 and P=0.032, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that urinary NGAL was an independent risk factor for renal (hazard ratio [HR] 4.790; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.537–14.924; P=0.007) and cardiovascular (HR 2.938; 95% CI 1.034–8.347; P=0.043) events.

    Conclusions: Urinary NGAL could be a novel and informative biomarker for predicting subsequent renal and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD undergoing elective PCI.

  • Yasuharu Takeda
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0159
    Published: March 26, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 26, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Soichiro Kobayashi, Takeshi Takamura, Tomoko Tada, Hokuto Yamagishi, S ...
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0168
    Published: March 26, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 26, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Kazutaka Nogi, Shungo Hikoso
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0187
    Published: March 26, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 26, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Hirochika Yamasaki, Hidekazu Kondo, Tomoaki Shiroo, Naohiro Iwata, Ter ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0948
    Published: March 22, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: The prevalence of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains unclear. We explored the efficacy of computed tomography-based myocardial extracellular volume (CT-ECV) combined with red flags for the early screening of concealed ATTR-CM in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation.

    Methods and Results: Patients referred for AF ablation at Oita University Hospital were prescreened using the red-flag signs defined by echocardiographic or electrocardiographic findings, medical history, symptoms, and blood biochemical findings. Myocardial CT-ECV was quantified in red flag-positive patients using routine pre-AF ablation planning cardiac CT with the addition of delayed-phase cardiac CT scans. Patients with high (>35%) ECV were evaluated using technetium pyrophosphate (99 mTc-PYP) scintigraphy. A cardiac biopsy was performed during the planned AF ablation procedure if 99 mTc-PYP scintigraphy was positive. Between June 2022 and June 2023, 342 patients were referred for AF ablation. Sixty-seven (19.6%) patients had at least one of the red-flag signs. Myocardial CT-ECV was evaluated in 57 patients because of contraindications to contrast media, revealing that 16 patients had high CT-ECV. Of these, 6 patients showed a positive 99 mTc-PYP study, and 6 patients were subsequently diagnosed with wild-type ATTR-CM via cardiac biopsy and genetic testing.

    Conclusions: CT-ECV combined with red flags could contribute to the systematic early screening of concealed ATTR-CM in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation.

  • Naoya Kataoka, Teruhiko Imamura
    Article type: LETTER TO THE EDITOR
    Article ID: CJ-23-0888
    Published: March 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Jihoon Kim, Sung-Ji Park, Dong Seop Jeong
    Article type: AUTHOR’S REPLY
    Article ID: CJ-24-0117
    Published: March 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Koji Matsuo, Kei Yoneki, Kikka Kobayashi, Daiki Onoda, Kazuhiro Mibu, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0925
    Published: March 19, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 19, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Low muscle mass in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is associated with poor prognosis; however, this is based on a single baseline measurement, with little information on changes in muscle mass during hospitalization and their clinical implications. This study investigated the relationship between changes in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) on ultrasound and the prognosis of patients with AHF.

    Methods and Results: This is a retrospective evaluation of 284 AHF patients (mean [±SD] age 79.1±11.9 years; 116 female). RFCSA assessments at admission (pre-RFCSA), ∆RFCSA (i.e., the percentage change in RFCSA from admission to 2 weeks), and composite prognosis (all-cause death and heart failure-related readmission) within 1 year were determined. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their median pre-RFCSA and ∆RFCSA after sex stratification: Group A, higher pre-RFCSA/better ∆RFCSA; Group B, higher pre-RFCSA/worse ∆RFCSA; Group C, lower pre-RFCSA/better ∆RFCSA; Group D, lower pre-RFCSA/worse ∆RFCSA. In the Cox regression analysis, with Group A as the reference, the cumulative event rate of Group C (hazard ratio [HR] 3.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–16.09; P=0.124) did not differ significantly; however, the cumulative event rates of Group B (HR 7.93; 95% CI 1.99–31.60; P=0.003) and Group D (HR 9.24; 95% CI 2.57–33.26; P<0.001) were significantly higher.

    Conclusions: ∆RFCSA during hospitalization is useful for risk assessment of prognosis in patients with AHF.

  • Kensuke Yokoi, Tomonori Katsuki, Takanori Yamaguchi, Toyokazu Otsubo, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0892
    Published: March 16, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 16, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis (PVS) is a serious complication of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. The objective of this study was to describe interventional treatments for PVS after AF ablation and long-term outcomes in Japanese patients.

    Methods and Results: This multicenter retrospective observational study enrolled 30 patients (26 [87%] male; median age 55 years) with 56 severe PVS lesions from 43 PV interventional procedures. Twenty-seven (90%) patients had symptomatic PVS and 19 (63%) had a history of a single AF ablation. Of the 56 lesions, 41 (73%) were de novo lesions and 15 (27%) were retreated. Thirty-three (59%) lesions were treated with bare metal stents, 14 (25%) were treated with plain balloons, and 9 (16%) were treated with drug-coated balloons. All lesions were successfully treated without any systemic embolic event. Over a median follow-up of 584 days (interquartile range 265–1,165 days), restenosis rates at 1 and 2 years were 35% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed devices <7 mm in diameter (hazard ratio [HR] 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–6.0; P=0.040) and totally occluded lesions (HR 3.33; 95% CI 1.21–9.15; P=0.020) were independent risk factors for restenosis.

    Conclusions: All PVS lesions were successfully enlarged by the PV intervention; however, restenosis developed in approximately half the lesions within 2 years.

  • Ichiro Mizushima, Noriyasu Morikage, Eisaku Ito, Fuminori Kasashima, Y ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-24-0026
    Published: March 16, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 16, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: In 2018, diagnostic criteria were introduced for IgG4-related periaortitis/periarteritis and retroperitoneal fibrosis (PA/RPF). This study assessed the existing criteria and formulated an improved version.

    Methods and Results: Between August 2022 and January 2023, we retrospectively analyzed 110 Japanese patients diagnosed with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) involving cardiovascular and/or retroperitoneal manifestations, along with 73 non-IgG4-RD patients (“mimickers”) identified by experts. Patients were stratified into derivation (n=88) and validation (n=95) groups. Classification as IgG4-RD or non-IgG4-RD was based on the 2018 diagnostic criteria and various revised versions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using experts’ diagnosis as the gold standard for the diagnosis of true IgG4-RD and mimickers. In the derivation group, the 2018 criteria showed 58.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The revised version, incorporating “radiologic findings of pericarditis”, “eosinophilic infiltration or lymphoid follicles”, and “probable diagnosis of extra-PA/-RPF lesions”, improved sensitivity to 69.8% while maintaining 100% specificity. In the validation group, the original and revised criteria had sensitivities of 68.4% and 77.2%, respectively, and specificities of 97.4% and 94.7%, respectively.

    Conclusions: Proposed 2023 revised IgG4-related cardiovascular/retroperitoneal disease criteria show significantly enhanced sensitivity while preserving high specificity, achieved through the inclusion of new items in radiologic, pathological, and extra-cardiovascular/retroperitoneal organ categories.

  • Wataru Fujimoto, Susumu Odajima, Hiroshi Okamoto, Masamichi Iwasaki, M ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0930
    Published: February 17, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 17, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Early detection and intervention for preclinical heart failure (HF) are crucial for restraining the potential increase in patients with HF. Thus, we designed and conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to confirm the efficacy of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for the early detection of preclinical HF in a primary care setting.

    Methods and Results: We investigated 477 patients with no prior diagnosis of HF who were under the care of general practitioners. These patients were categorized into 4 groups based on BNP concentrations: Category 1, 0 pg/mL≤BNP≤35 pg/mL; Category 2, 35 pg/mL<BNP≤100 pg/mL; Category 3, 100 pg/mL<BNP≤200 pg/mL; and Category 4, BNP >200 pg/mL. There was a marked and statistically significant increase in the prevalence of preclinical HF with increasing BNP categories: 19.9%, 57.9%, 87.5%, and 96.0% in Categories 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Compared with Category 1, the odds ratio of preclinical HF in Categories 2, 3, and 4 was determined to be 5.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.57–8.67), 23.70 (95% CI 8.91–63.11), and 171.77 (95% CI 10.31–2,861.93), respectively.

    Conclusions: Measuring BNP is a valuable tool for the early detection of preclinical HF in primary care settings. Proactive testing in patients at high risk of HF could play a crucial role in addressing the impending HF pandemic.

  • Zhanqi Feng, Lingjie Zhang, Meiying Cheng, Zitao Zhu, Honglei Shang, L ...
    Article type: IMAGES IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0684
    Published: March 14, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 14, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material
  • Akira Fujiyoshi, Shun Kohsaka, Jun Hata, Mitsuhiko Hara, Hisashi Kai, ...
    Article type: JCS GUIDELINES
    Article ID: CJ-23-0285
    Published: March 13, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 13, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Masato Nakamura, Nobuaki Suzuki, Kenshi Fujii, Jungo Furuya, Tomohiro ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0877
    Published: March 13, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 13, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The 1-year clinical outcomes of the Absorb GT1 Japan post-market surveillance (PMS) suggested that an appropriate intracoronary imaging-guided bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation technique may reduce the risk of target lesion failure (TLF) and scaffold thrombosis (ST) associated with the Absorb GT1 BVS. The long-term outcomes through 5 years are now available.

    Methods and Results: This study enrolled 135 consecutive patients (n=139 lesions) with ischemic heart disease in whom percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the Absorb GT1 BVS was attempted. Adequate lesion preparation, imaging-guided appropriate sizing, and high-pressure post-dilatation using a non-compliant balloon were strongly encouraged. All patients had at least 1 Absorb GT1 successfully implanted at the index procedure. Intracoronary imaging was performed in all patients (optical coherence tomography: 127/139 [91.4%] lesions) and adherence to the implantation technique recommendations was excellent: predilatation, 100% (139/139) lesions; post-dilatation, 98.6% (137/139) lesions; mean (±SD) post-dilatation pressure, 18.8±3.5 atm. At 5 years, the follow-up rate was 87.4% (118/135). No definite/probable ST was reported through 5 years. The cumulative TLF rate was 5.1% (6/118), including 2 cardiac deaths, 1 target vessel-attributable myocardial infarction, and 3 ischemia-driven target lesion revascularizations.

    Conclusions: Appropriate intracoronary imaging-guided BVS implantation, including the proactive use of pre- and post-balloon dilatation during implantation may be beneficial, reducing the risk of TLF and ST through 5 years.

  • Kyu-Yong Ko, Iksung Cho, Dae-Young Kim, Hee Jeong Lee, Kyungeun Ha, Se ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0552
    Published: March 12, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 12, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV) is a standard treatment for severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (RMS). However, the prognostic significance of the change in mitral valve area (∆MVA) during PMV is not fully understood.

    Methods and Results: This study analyzed data from the Multicenter mitrAl STEnosis with Rheumatic etiology (MASTER) registry, which included 3,140 patients with severe RMS. We focused on patients with severe RMS undergoing their first PMV. Changes in echocardiographic parameters, including MVA quantified before and after PMV, and composite outcomes, including mitral valve reintervention, heart failure admission, stroke, and all-cause death, were evaluated. An optimal result was defined as a postprocedural MVA ≥1.5 cm2without mitral regurgitation greater than Grade II. Of the 308 patients included in the study, those with optimal results and ∆MVA >0.5 cm² had a better prognosis (log-rank P<0.001). Patients who achieved optimal results but with ∆MVA ≤0.5 cm² had a greater risk of composite outcomes than those with optimal outcomes and ∆MVA >0.5 cm² (nested Cox regression analysis, hazard ratio 2.27; 95% confidence interval 1.09–4.73; P=0.028).

    Conclusions: Achieving an increase in ∆MVA of >0.5 cm2was found to be correlated with improved outcomes. This suggests that, in addition to achieving traditional optimal results, targeting an increase in ∆MVA of >0.5 cm2could be a beneficial objective in PMV treatment for RMS.

  • Ryuki Chatani, Yugo Yamashita, Takeshi Morimoto, Nao Muraoka, Wataru S ...
    Article type: LATE BREAKING CLINICAL TRIAL (JCS 2024)
    Article ID: CJ-24-0004
    Published: March 08, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Patients with appropriately selected low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) can be treated at home, although it has been controversial whether applies to patients with cancer, who are considered not to be at low risk.

    Methods and Results: The current predetermined companion report from the ONCO PE trial evaluated the 3-month clinical outcomes of patients with home treatment and those with in-hospital treatment. The ONCO PE trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial among 32 institutions in Japan investigating the optimal duration of rivaroxaban treatment in cancer-associated PE patients with a score of 1 using the simplified version of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI). Among 178 study patients, there were 66 (37%) in the home treatment group and 112 (63%) in the in-hospital treatment group. The primary endpoint of a composite of PE-related death, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding occurred in 3 patients (4.6% [0.0–9.6%]) in the home treatment group and in 2 patients (1.8% [0.0–4.3%]) in the in-hospital treatment group. In the home treatment group, there were no cases of PE-related death or recurrent VTE, but major bleeding occurred in 3 patients (4.6% [0.0–9.6%]), and 2 patients (3.0% [0.0–7.2%]) required hospitalization due to bleeding events.

    Conclusions: Active cancer patients with PE of sPESI score=1 could be potential candidates for home treatment.

  • Keiko Inoue, Tomoko Machino-Ohtsuka, Yoko Nakazawa, Noriko Iida, Rumi ...
    Article type: LATE BREAKING CLINICAL TRIAL (JCS 2024)
    Article ID: CJ-24-0065
    Published: March 08, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether early cardiac biomarker alterations and echocardiographic parameters, including left atrial (LA) strain, can predict anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) and thus develop a predictive risk score.

    Methods and Results: The AIC registry is a prospective, observational cohort study designed to gather serial echocardiographic and biomarker data before and after anthracycline chemotherapy. Cardiotoxicity was defined as a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥10 percentage points from baseline and <55%. In total, 383 patients (93% women; median age, 57 [46–66] years) completed the 2-year follow-up; 42 (11.0%) patients developed cardiotoxicity (median time to onset, 292 [175–440] days). Increases in cardiac troponin T (TnT) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and relative reductions in the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) and LA reservoir strain [LASr] at 3 months after anthracycline administration were independently associated with subsequent cardiotoxicity. A risk score containing 2 clinical variables (smoking and prior cardiovascular disease), 2 cardiac biomarkers at 3 months (TnT ≥0.019 ng/mL and BNP ≥31.1 pg/mL), 2 echocardiographic variables at 3 months (relative declines in LV GLS [≥6.5%], and LASr [≥7.5%]) was generated.

    Conclusions: Early decline in LASr was independently associated with subsequent cardiotoxicity. The AIC risk score may provide useful prognostication in patients receiving anthracyclines.

  • Feng Sheng, Alex Y. Wang, Kazumasa Miyawaki, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Nobuhi ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0814
    Published: March 01, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Real-world utilization data for evolocumab, the first proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor to be introduced in Japan in 2016, to date are limited. This study aimed to clarify the current real-world patient user profiles of evolocumab based on large-scale health claims data.

    Methods and Results: This retrospective database study examined patients from a health administrative database (MDV database) who initiated evolocumab between April 2016 (baseline) and November 2021. Characteristics and clinical profiles of this patient population are described. In all, 4,022 patients were included in the final analysis. Most evolocumab prescriptions occurred in the outpatient setting (3,170; 78.82%), and 940 patients (23.37%) had a recent diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. Common recent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events at baseline included myocardial infarction (1,633; 40.60%), unstable angina (561; 13.95%), and ischemic stroke (408; 10.14%). Comorbidity diseases included hypertension (2,504; 62.26%), heart failure (1,750; 43.51%), diabetes (1,199; 29.81%), and chronic kidney disease (297; 7.38%). Among the lipid-lowering regimens concomitant with evolocumab, ezetimibe+statin was used most frequently (1,281; 31.85%), followed by no concomitant lipid-lowering regimen (1,190; 29.59%), statin (950; 23.62%), and ezetimibe (601; 14.94%). The median evolocumab treatment duration for all patients was 260 days (interquartile range 57–575 days).

    Conclusions: This study provides real-world insights into evolocumab utilization in Japan for optimizing patient care and adherence to guideline-based therapies to better address hypercholesterolemia in Japan.

  • Hiroaki Kawano, Satoshi Ikeda, Koshiro Kanaoka, Shuntaro Sato, Ryo Eto ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0914
    Published: March 01, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a hyperinflammatory shock associated with cardiac dysfunction and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, there are no reports on using MIS criteria, such as multisystemic inflammation (MSI) in fulminant myocarditis, without SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigated the differences in clinical characteristics and course between patients with fulminant lymphocytic myocarditis (FLM) plus MSI and those without MSI.

    Methods and Results: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 273 patients with FLM registered in the JROAD-DPC database between April 2014 and March 2017. We evaluated the presence of MSI using criteria modified from previously reported MIS criteria and compared the characteristics and risk of mortality or heart transplantation between FLM patients with MSI and without MSI. Of the 273 patients with FLM, 107 (39%) were diagnosed with MSI. The MSI group was younger (44 vs. 57 years; P<0.0001) and had more females (50% vs. 36%; P=0.0236), a higher incidence of pericardial effusion (58% vs. 40%; P=0.0073), and a lower 90-day mortality rate (19% vs. 33%; P=0.0185) than the non-MSI group. The risk of mortality at 90 days was lower in FLM patients aged <50 years with MSI aged <50 years than in those without MSI (P=0.0463).

    Conclusions: These results suggest that MSI may influence the prognosis of FLM, especially in patients aged <50 years.

  • Koichi Akutsu, Hideaki Yoshino, Tomoki Shimokawa, Hitoshi Ogino, Takas ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0636
    Published: February 28, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Epidemiological data on ruptured aortic aneurysms from large-scale studies are scarce. The aims of this study were to: clarify the clinical course of ruptured aortic aneurysms; identify aneurysm site-specific therapies and outcomes; and determine the clinical course of patients receiving conservative therapy.

    Methods and Results: Using the Tokyo Acute Aortic Super Network database, we retrospectively analyzed 544 patients (mean [±SD] age 78±10 years; 70% male) with ruptured non-dissecting aortic aneurysms (AAs) after excluding those with impending rupture. Patient characteristics, status on admission, therapeutic strategy, and outcomes were evaluated. Shock or pulselessness on admission were observed in 45% of all patients. Conservative therapy, endovascular therapy (EVT), and open surgery (OS) accounted for 32%, 23%, and 42% of cases, respectively, with corresponding mortality rates of 93%, 30%, and 29%. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 50%. The prevalence of pulselessness was highest (48%) in the ruptured ascending AA group, and in-hospital mortality was the highest (70%) in the ruptured thoracoabdominal AA group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated in-hospital mortality was positively associated with pulselessness (odds ratio [OR] 10.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.09–25.07), and negatively associated with invasive therapy (EVT and OS; OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.06–0.20).

    Conclusions: The outcomes of ruptured AAs remain poor; emergency invasive therapy is essential to save lives, although it remains challenging to reduce the risk of death.

  • Satoshi Ishii, Masaru Hatano, Shun Minatsuki, Kazutoshi Hirose, Akihit ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0790
    Published: February 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 23, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Background: Whether comprehensive risk assessment predicts post-referral outcome in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) referred for lung transplantation (LT) in Japan is unknown.

    Methods and Results: We retrospectively analyzed 52 PAH patients referred for LT. Risk status at referral was assessed using 3- and 4-strata models from the 2022 European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society guidelines. The 3-strata model intermediate-risk group was further divided into 2 groups based on the median proportion of low-risk variables (modified risk assessment [MRA]). The primary outcome was post-referral mortality. During follow-up, 9 patients died and 13 patients underwent LT. There was no survival difference among 3-strata model groups. The 4-strata model classified 33, 16, and 3 patients as low intermediate, high intermediate, and high risk, respectively. The 4-strata model identified high-risk patients with a 1-year survival rate of 33%, but did not discriminate survival between the intermediate-risk groups. The MRA classified 15, 28, 8, and 1 patients as low, low intermediate, high intermediate, and high risk, respectively. High intermediate- or high-risk patients had worse survival (P<0.001), with 1- and 3-year survival rates of 64% and 34%, respectively. MRA high intermediate- or high-risk classification was associated with mortality (hazard ratio 12.780; 95% confidence interval 2.583–63.221; P=0.002).

    Conclusions: Patients classified as high intermediate or high risk by the MRA after treatment should be referred for LT.

  • Megumi Kawashima, Takashi Hisamatsu, Akiko Harada, Aya Kadota, Keiko K ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0725
    Published: February 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 20, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Deviations of hemoglobin from normal levels may be a factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, conclusive evidence is lacking. In addition, preclinical conditions may influence hemoglobin concentrations, but studies focusing on reverse causation are limited. Thus, we examined the relationship between hemoglobin concentrations and CVD mortality risk, considering reverse causation.

    Methods and Results: In a prospective cohort representative of the general Japanese population (1990–2015), we studied 7,217 individuals (mean age 52.3 years; 4,219 women) without clinical CVD at baseline. Participants were categorized into sex-specific hemoglobin quintiles (Q1–Q5) and data were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for possible confounders. During a 25-year follow-up, 272 men and 334 women died from CVD. Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD mortality across sex-specific quintiles, using Q3 as the reference, were significantly higher for Q1 (1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.82) and Q5 (1.49; 95% CI 1.14–1.96), and remained significant after excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up to consider reverse causation (1.35 [95% CI 1.02–1.79] and 1.45 [95% CI 1.09–1.94], respectively). A similar U-shaped association was seen between transferrin saturation levels and CVD mortality, but after excluding deaths within the first 5 years the association was significant only for Q1.

    Conclusions: Low and high hemoglobin concentrations were associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality.

  • Masaomi Kimura
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0041
    Published: February 16, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 16, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Shigetoyo Kogaki
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    Article ID: CJ-24-0043
    Published: February 15, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
  • Ling Kuo, Guan-Jie Wang, Shih-Ling Chang, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Fa-Po Chung, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0808
    Published: February 14, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 14, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: The aim of this study was to build an auto-segmented artificial intelligence model of the atria and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) on computed tomography (CT) images, and examine the prognostic significance of auto-quantified left atrium (LA) and EAT volumes for AF.

    Methods and Results: This retrospective study included 334 patients with AF who were referred for catheter ablation (CA) between 2015 and 2017. Atria and EAT volumes were auto-quantified using a pre-trained 3-dimensional (3D) U-Net model from pre-ablation CT images. After adjusting for factors associated with AF, Cox regression analysis was used to examine predictors of AF recurrence. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 56±11 years; 251 (75%) were men, and 79 (24%) had non-paroxysmal AF. Over 2 years of follow-up, 139 (42%) patients experienced recurrence. Diabetes, non-paroxysmal AF, non-pulmonary vein triggers, mitral line ablation, and larger LA, right atrium, and EAT volume indices were linked to increased hazards of AF recurrence. After multivariate adjustment, non-paroxysmal AF (hazard ratio [HR] 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–0.8; P=0.003) and larger LA-EAT volume index (HR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0–1.2; P=0.009) remained independent predictors of AF recurrence.

    Conclusions: LA-EAT volume measured using the auto-quantified 3D U-Net model is feasible for predicting AF recurrence after CA, regardless of AF type.

  • Chia-Yi Chin, Chun-An Chen, Chun-Min Fu, Jui-Yu Hsu, Hsin-Chia Lin, Sh ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0891
    Published: February 08, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Complications arising from transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSD) in children, such as residual shunts and aortic regurgitation (AR), have been observed. However, the associated risk factors remain unclear. This study identified risk factors linked with residual shunts and AR following transcatheter closure of pmVSD in children aged 2–12 years.

    Methods and Results: The medical records of 63 children with pmVSD and a pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio <2.0 who underwent transcatheter closure between 2011 and 2018 were analyzed with a minimum 3-year follow-up. The success rate of transcatheter closure was 98.4%, with no emergency surgery, permanent high-degree atrioventricular block, or mortality. Defects ≥4.5 mm had significantly higher odds of persistent residual shunt (odds ratio [OR] 6.85; P=0.03). The use of an oversize device (≥1.5 mm) showed a trend towards reducing residual shunts (OR 0.23; P=0.06). Age <4 years (OR 27.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33–321.68) and perimembranous outlet-type VSD (OR 11.94, 95% CI 1.10–129.81) were independent risk factors for AR progression after closure.

    Conclusions: Careful attention is crucial for pmVSDs ≥4.5 mm to prevent persistent residual shunts in transcatheter closure. Assessing AR risk, particularly in children aged <4 years, is essential while considering the benefits of pmVSD closure.

  • Hye Won Kwon, Mi Kyoung Song, Sang Yun Lee, Gi Beom Kim, Jae Gun Kwak, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0752
    Published: February 06, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 06, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: Coronary artery complications (CACs) in patients who undergoing prosthetic pulmonary valve implantation for congenital heart disease can lead to fetal outcomes. However, the incidence of and risk factors for CACs in these patients remain unknown.

    Methods and Results: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent cardiac computed tomography or invasive coronary angiography after prosthetic pulmonary valve implantation at Seoul National University Hospital from June 1986 to May 2021. Among 341 patients, 25 (7.3%) were identified with CACs, and 2 of them died. Among the patients with CACs, congenital coronary anomalies and an interarterial course of the coronary artery were identified in 11 (44%) and 18 (72%) patients, respectively. Interarterial and intramural courses of the coronary artery were associated with a 4.4- and 10.6-fold increased risk of CACs, respectively. Among patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, the aortic root was rotated further clockwise in patients with coronary artery compression compared to those without it (mean [±SD] 128.0±19.9° vs. 113.5±23.7°; P=0.024). The cut-off rotation angle of the aorta for predicting the occurrence of coronary artery compression was 133°.

    Conclusions: Perioperative coronary artery evaluation and prevention of CACs are required in patients undergoing prosthetic pulmonary valve implantation, particularly in those with coronary artery anomalies or severe clockwise rotation of the aortic root.

  • Akira Kasagawa, Ikutaro Nakajima, Yui Nakayama, Daisuke Togashi, Kenic ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Article ID: CJ-23-0229
    Published: February 02, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Background: High shock impedance is associated with conversion failure among patients with subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICD). Currently, there is no preoperative assessment method for predicting high shock impedance. This study examined the efficacy of chest computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative evaluation tool to assess the shock impedance of S-ICDs.

    Methods and Results: The amount of adipose tissue adjacent to the device and anteroposterior diameter at the basal heart region were measured preoperatively using chest CT. We examined the correlation between these measurements and shock impedance at the conversion test. We enrolled 43 patients with S-ICDs (mean [±SD] age 54±15 years; body mass index 23±4 kg/m2; PRAETORIAN score 30–270 points; amount of adipose tissue 1,250±716 cm3), who underwent intraoperative conversion tests by inducing ventricular fibrillation, which was terminated with a 65-J shock. A sufficient concordance correlation coefficient was observed between the shock impedance and the amount of adipose tissue (r=0.616, P<0.01) and anteroposterior diameter (r=0.645, P<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, the amount of adipose tissue (β=0.439, P=0.009) and anteroposterior diameter (β=0.344, P=0.038) were identified as independent predictive factors of shock impedance.

    Conclusions: The preoperative CT-measured amount of adipose tissue and basal heart anteroposterior diameter are independent predictors of shock impedance. These parameters may be more accurate in identifying higher shock impedance in patients with S-ICDs.

feedback
Top