Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
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Displaying 1-30 of 30 articles from this issue
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Focus on issue: Valvular Heart Disease
Original Articles
TAVR
  • Hideki Kitahara, Hiraku Kumamaru, Shun Kohsaka, Daichi Yamashita, Tomo ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 439-447
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 27, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Limited data are available for clinical outcomes in patients who underwent urgent or emergency transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study investigated in-hospital and 1-year outcomes and explored prognostic covariates in urgent/emergency TAVI using nationwide registry data.

    Methods and Results: Among 26,775 patients who underwent TAVI between August 2013 and December 2019, 25,495 with 1-year follow-up information were analyzed in this study. Baseline and procedural characteristics, as well as clinical adverse events, were compared between the urgent/emergency and elective TAVI groups. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 1 year after TAVI. Multivariable Cox regression models were constructed to identify independent predictors after urgent or emergency TAVI. Urgent or emergency TAVI was performed in 578 (2.3%) patients. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was significantly higher in the urgent/emergency than elective TAVI group (13.3% vs. 6.0%; P<0.001). Device success rate was comparable between the 2 groups. All-cause death-free survival within 1 year was lower in the urgent/emergency than elective TAVI group (77.2% vs. 92.2%; log rank P<0.001). Malignancy, albumin and creatinine concentrations, ejection fraction, and mean pressure gradient were associated with 1-year mortality in the urgent/emergency TAVI group.

    Conclusions: Despite higher surgical risk and more comorbidities, the procedure was successfully performed in patients undergoing urgent/emergency TAVI, although it should be noted that prognosis was worse than for elective TAVI.

  • Tetsuro Shimura, Masanori Yamamoto
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 448-450
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 11, 2023
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  • Marjolein C. de Jongh, Hikaru Tsuruta, Kentaro Hayashida, Hiromu Hase, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 451-459
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 09, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: This study investigated the impact and predictive factors of concomitant significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and evaluated the roles of right ventricle (RV) function and the etiology of TR in the clinical outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    Methods and Results: We assessed grading of TR severity, TR etiology, and RV function in pre- and post-TAVI transthoracic echocardiograms for 678 patients at Keio University School of Medicine. TR etiology was divided into 3 groups: primary TR, ventricular functional TR (FTR), and atrial FTR. The primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular death. At baseline, moderate or greater TR was found in 55 (8%) patients and, after adjustment for comorbidities, was associated with increased all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19−3.77; P=0.011) and cardiovascular death (HR 2.29; 95% CI 1.06−4.99; P=0.036). RV dysfunction (RVD) also remained an independent predictor of cardiovascular death (HR 2.06; 95% CI 1.03−4.14; P=0.042). Among the TR etiology groups, patients with ventricular FTR had the lowest survival rate (P<0.001). Patients with persistent RVD after TAVI had a higher risk of cardiovascular death than those with a normal or recovered RV function (P<0.001).

    Conclusions: The etiology of TR and RV function play an important role in predicting outcomes in concomitant TR patients undergoing TAVI.

  • Hirokuni Akahori
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 460-461
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 16, 2023
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  • Yoichi Sugiyama, Noriaki Moriyama, Hirokazu Miyashita, Hiroaki Yokoyam ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 462-471
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 28, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment for severe aortic stenosis (AS), but despite estimates of life expectancy after TAVI being essential in heart team discussion, these data are scarce. Therefore, the current study sought to assess long-term survival and its trends in relation to chronological age, surgical risk, and treatment period.

    Methods and Results: We included 2,414 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI for severe symptomatic AS between 2008 and 2021 at 2 international centers. For the analysis, long-term survival was evaluated according to age, surgical risk, and treatment period categorized into 3 groups, respectively. The longest follow-up was 13.5 years. Overall survival was 67.6% at 5 years and 26.9% at 10 years. Younger patients, lower surgical risk, and later treatment period showed better survival (log-rank P<0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, age <75years, lower surgical risk, and later time period were significantly associated with better survival. The incidence of paravalvular leakage ≥moderate, red blood cell transfusion, and acute kidney injury were independently associated with increasing risk of 5-year death.

    Conclusions: In a real-world registry, survival was substantial following TAVI, especially in younger and lower surgical-risk patients, with improving outcomes over time. This should be considered in heart team discussions of life-long management for AS patients after TAVI.

  • Hiroki Ikenaga, Shinya Takahashi, Yukiko Nakano
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 472-474
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 13, 2023
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  • Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Masanori Yamamoto, Yuya Adachi, Ryo Yamaguchi, Aki ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 475-482
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 18, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Whether nerve block improves the quality of conscious sedation (CS) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unclear. This study investigated whether fascia iliaca block (FIB) reduced the remifentanil requirement and relieved pain in CS for TAVI.

    Methods and Results: This prospective study randomized 72 patients scheduled for elective TAVI under CS into 2 groups, with (FIB) and without (control) FIB (n=36 in each group). The sedation targeted a Bispectral Index <90 with a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale of −2 to −1. Dexmedetomidine (0.7 µg/kg, i.v.) combined with remifentanil (0.03 µg/kg/min, i.v.) and propofol (0.3 mg/kg/h, i.v.) was used to commence sedation. FIB using 30 mL of 0.185% ropivacaine was implemented 2 min before TAVI. Patient sedation was maintained with dexmedetomidine (0.4 µg/kg/h, i.v.) supplemented with remifentanil (0–0.02 µg/kg/min, i.v.). Remifentanil (20 µg, i.v.) was used as a rescue dose for intraprocedural pain. Compared with the control group, FIB reduced the both the total (median [interquartile range] 83.0 [65.0–98.0] vs. 34.5 [26.0/45.8)] µg; P<0.001) and continuous (25.3 [20.9/31.5] vs. 9.5 [6.8/12.5] ng/kg/min; P<0.001) doses of remifentanil administered.

    Conclusions: FIB reduced the remifentanil requirement and relieved pain in patients undergoing TAVI with CS. Therefore, FIB improved the quality of CS in TAVI.

  • Yasumi Maze, Toshiya Tokui, Takahiro Narukawa, Masahiko Murakami, Dais ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 483-491
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 28, 2023
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    Background: Few studies have compared the Barthel Index (BI) score and postoperative outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We aimed to examine the relationship between the BI score and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent TAVR and SAVR.

    Methods and Results: The study included patients who underwent SAVR between January 2014 and December 2022 (n=293) and patients who underwent TAVR between January 2016 and December 2022 (n=312). We examined the risk factors for long-term mortality in the 2 groups. The mean (±SD) preoperative BI score was 88.7±18.0 in the TAVR group and 95.8±12.3 in the SAVR group. The home discharge rate was significantly lower in the SAVR than TAVR group. The BI score at discharge was significantly higher in the SAVR than in TAVR group (86.2 vs. 80.2; P<0.001). Significant risk factors for long-term mortality in the TAVR group were sex (P<0.001) and preoperative hemoglobin level (P=0.008), whereas those in the SAVR group were preoperative albumin level (P=0.04) and postoperative BI score (P=0.02). The cut-off point of the postoperative BI score determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 60.0.

    Conclusions: The BI score at discharge was a significant risk factor for long-term mortality in the SAVR group, with a cut-off value of 60.0.

  • Manami Takahashi, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Satomi Yashima, Noriko Suzuki-Eguc ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 492-500
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2023
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    Background: Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) on magnetic resonance imaging can predict prognosis after aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). However, the usefulness of ECV on computed tomography (CT) for patients who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is unclear, so we investigated whether ECV analysis on CT is associated with clinical outcomes in TAVR candidates.

    Methods and Results: We analyzed 127 patients with severe AS who underwent preoperative CT for TAVR. We evaluated the utility of ECV analysis on single-energy CT for predicting patient prognosis after TAVR. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) after TAVR. 15 patients (12%) had composite outcomes: 4 deaths and 11 hospitalizations due to HF. In multivariate survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model, atrial fibrillation (AF) (hazard ratio (HR), 7.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57–24.03; P<0.001), history of congestive HF (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.49–16.2; P=0.009) and ECV ≥32.6% on CT (HR, 6.96; 95% CI, 1.92–25.12; P=0.003) were independent predictors of composite outcomes. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the higher ECV group (≥32.6%) had a significantly greater number of composite outcomes than the lower ECV group (P<0.001).

    Conclusions: ECV on CT is an independent predictor of prognosis after TAVR.

  • Satoru Sasaki, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Takayoshi Toba, Ryo Takeshige, Yusuk ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: TAVR
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 501-509
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 07, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Fractional flow reserve-computed tomography (FFRCT) has not been validated in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for coronary artery disease due to theoretical difficulties in using nitroglycerin for such patients.

    Methods and Results: In this single-center study, we prospectively enrolled 21 patients (34 vessels) and performed pre-TAVR FFRCTwithout nitroglycerin, pre-TAVR invasive instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) measurements, and post-TAVR FFR measurements using a pressure wire. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of pre-TAVR FFRCT≤0.80 to predict post-TAVR invasive FFR ≤0.80 were 82%, 83%, 82%, 71%, and 90%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an optimal cutoff of 0.78 for pre-TAVR FFRCTto indicate post-TAVR FFR ≤0.80, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84, and the counterpart cutoff of pre-TAVR iFR was 0.89 with an AUC of 0.86.

    Conclusions: FFRCTwithout nitroglycerin could be a useful non-invasive imaging modality for assessing the severity of coronary artery lesions in patients with severe AS.

M-TEER
  • Shingo Kuwata, Masaki Izumo, Taishi Okuno, Noriko Shiokawa, Yukio Sato ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: M-TEER
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 510-516
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: July 13, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Renal congestion is a potential prognostic factor in patients with heart failure and recently, assessment has become possible with intrarenal Doppler ultrasonography (IRD). The association between renal congestion assessed by IRD and outcomes after mitral transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) is unknown, so we aimed to clarify renal congestion and its prognostic implications in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) who underwent TEER using MitraClip system.

    Methods and Results: Patients with secondary MR who underwent TEER and were assessed for intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) by IRD were classified according to their IRVF pattern as continuous or discontinuous. Of the 105 patients included, 78 patients (74%) formed the continuous group and 27 (26%) were the discontinuous group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significant prognostic power of the IRVF pattern for predicting the composite outcome of all-cause death and heart failure rehospitalization (log-rank P=0.0257). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the composite endpoint was independently associated with the discontinuous IRVF pattern (hazard ratio, 3.240; 95% confidence interval, 1.300–8.076; P=0.012) adjusted using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    Conclusions: IRVF patterns strongly correlated with clinical outcomes without changes in renal function. Thus, they may be useful for risk stratification after mitral TEER for patients with secondary MR.

  • Shohei Kikuchi, Yoshihiro Seo
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 517-518
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: August 10, 2023
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  • Hiroshi Tsunamoto, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Akiko Masumoto, Yasuyo Taniguchi ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: M-TEER
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 519-527
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
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    Background: We investigated the efficacy of left ventricular (LV) myocardial damage by native T1mapping obtained with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for patients undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER).

    Methods and Results: We studied 40 symptomatic non-ischemic heart failure (HF) patients and ventricular functional mitral regurgitation (VFMR) undergoing TEER. LV myocardial damage was defined as the native T1Z-score, which was converted from native T1values obtained with CMR. The primary endpoint was defined as HF rehospitalization or cardiovascular death over 12 months after TEER. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the native T1Z-score was the only independent parameter associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 3.40; 95% confidential interval 1.51–7.67), and that patients with native T1Z-scores <2.41 experienced significantly fewer cardiovascular events than those with native T1Z-scores ≥2.41 (P=0.001). Moreover, the combination of a native T1Z-score <2.41 and more severe VFMR (effective regurgitant orifice area [EROA] ≥0.30 cm2) was associated with fewer cardiovascular events than a native T1Z-score ≥2.41 and less severe VFMR (EROA <0.30 cm2; P=0.002).

    Conclusions: Assessment of baseline LV myocardial damage based on native T1Z-scores obtained with CMR without gadolinium-based contrast media is a valuable additional parameter for better management of HF patients and VFMR following TEER.

  • Seitaro Oda
    Article type: EDITORIAL
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 528-530
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024
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  • Taishi Okuno, Masaki Izumo, Noriko Shiokawa, Shingo Kuwata, Yuki Ishib ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: M-TEER
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 531-538
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 25, 2023
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    Background: The MitraClip G4 system is a new iteration of the transcatheter edge-to-edge repair system. We assessed the impact of the G4 system on routine practice and outcomes in secondary mitral regurgitation (2°MR).

    Methods and Results: Consecutive patients with 2°MR treated with either the MitraClip G2 (n=89) or G4 (n=63) system between 2018 and 2021 were included. Baseline characteristics, procedures, and outcomes were compared. Inverse probability of treatment weighting and Cox regression were used to adjust for baseline differences. Baseline characteristics were similar, except for a lower surgical risk in the G4 group (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality ≥8: 38.1% vs. 56.2%; P=0.03). In the G4 group, more patients had short (≤2 mm) coaptation length (83.7% vs. 54.0%; P<0.001) and fewer clips were used (17.5% vs. 36.0%; P=0.02). Acceptable MR reduction was observed in nearly all patients, with no difference between the G4 and G2 groups (100% vs. 97.8%, respectively; P=0.51). The G4 group had fewer patients with high transmitral gradients (>5mmHg; 3.3% vs. 13.6%; P=0.03). At 1 year, there was no significant difference between groups in the composite endpoint (death or heart failure rehospitalization) after baseline adjustment (10.5% vs. 20.2%; hazard ratio 0.39; 95% confidence interval 0.11–1.32; P=0.13).

    Conclusions: The G4 system achieved comparable device outcomes to the early-generation G2, despite treating more challenging 2°MR with fewer clips.

  • Teruhiko Imamura, Michikazu Nakai, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Yoko Sumita, Mis ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: M-TEER
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 539-548
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Background: The introduction of transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for moderate-to-severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) utilizing the MitraClip system became reimbursed and clinically accessible in Japan in April 2018. This study presents the 2-year clinical outcomes of all consecutively treated patients who underwent MitraClip implantation in Japan and were prospectively enrolled in the Japanese Circulation Society-oriented J-MITRA registry.

    Methods and Results: Analysis encompassed 2,739 consecutive patients enrolled in the J-MITRA registry with informed consent (mean age: 78.3±9.6 years, 1,550 males, STS risk score 11.7±8.9), comprising 1,999 cases of functional MR, 644 of degenerative MR and 96 in a mixed group (DMR and FMR). The acute procedure success rate was 88.9%. After MitraClip implantation, >80% exhibited an MR grade ≤2+ and the trend was sustained over the 2 years. Within this observation period, the mortality rate was 19.3% and the rate of heart failure readmissions was 20.6%. The primary composite endpoint, inclusive of cardiovascular death and heart failure readmission, was significantly higher in patients with functional MR than in with degenerative MR (32.0% vs. 17.5%, P<0.001).

    Conclusions: The 2-year clinical outcomes after MitraClip implantation were deduced from comprehensive data within an all-Japan registry.

Surgery
  • Taisuke Nakayama, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Fumiaki Shikata, Masaki Ushijim ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Surgery
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 549-558
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 28, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: This study analyzed the safety and performance of the Perceval valve for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients at 1 year after undergoing aortic stenosis (AS) treatment, and its effect on significant declines in the platelet count during the immediate postoperative period.

    Methods and Results: Data were collected retrospectively for the initial 121 patients (median age 77 years; 47.1% females) who underwent Perceval sutureless AVR between May 2019 and July 2022. Implantation was successful in all (100%), with median cross-clamp and CPB times of 59 and 100 min, respectively. Postoperative thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50×103/μL) was noted in 80 (66.1%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed advanced age (>80 years), preoperative low platelet count (<200×103/μL), and a sternotomy approach as significant risk factors for postoperative thrombocytopenia. One (0.8%) patient died within 30 days after the procedure. The 2-year site-reported event rate was 14% (n=17) for all-cause mortality, 0.8% (n=1) for cardiac mortality, 4.1% (n=5) for stroke, and 1.7% (n=2) for endocarditis and valve-related reoperation; there were no instances of paravalvular leakage or structural valve deterioration.

    Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia was common after Perceval sutureless AVR, although its impact was not significant. Although Perceval sutureless AVR was found to be a safe and effective option, preoperative assessment of potential bleeding should be performed and the Perceval valve should not be used for patients with a high bleeding risk.

  • Yi Yen, Kuo-Chun Hung, Yi-Hsin Chan, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Yu-Ting Che ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Surgery
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 559-567
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Studies of the influence of smaller body type on the severity of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after small-sized surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) are few, but the issue is particularly relevant for Asian patients.

    Methods and Results: 695 patients who underwent SAVR with bioprosthetic valves had their hemodynamic valve performance analyzed at 3 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after operation, and clinical outcomes were assessed. The patients were stratified into 3 valve size groups: 19/21, 23, and 25/27 mm. A smaller valve was associated with higher mean pressure gradients at the 4 time points after operation (P trend <0.05). However, the 3 valve size groups demonstrated no significant differences in the risk of clinical events. At none of the time points did patients with projected PPM show increased mean pressure gradients (P>0.05), whereas patients with measured PPM did (P<0.05). Compared with patients with projected PPM, those with measured PPM demonstrated higher rates of infective endocarditis readmission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–10.39) and a higher risk of composite outcomes (aHR 1.45, 95% CI 0.95–2.22, P=0.087).

    Conclusions: Relative to those receiving larger valves, patients receiving small bioprosthetic valves had poorer hemodynamic performance but did not demonstrate differences in clinical events in long-term follow-up.

  • Hsiu-An Lee, Feng-Cheng Chang, Jih-Kai Yeh, Ying-Chang Tung, Victor Ch ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Surgery
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 568-578
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 27, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Background: When mitral valve (MV) surgery is indicated, repair is preferred over replacement; however, this preference is not supported by evidence from clinical trials. Furthermore, the benefits of MV repair may not be universal for all etiologies of MV disease.

    Methods and Results: This study identified a total of 18,428 patients who underwent MV repair (n=4,817) or MV replacement (n=13,611) during 2001–2018 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. These patients were classified into 4 etiologies: infective endocarditis (IE, n=2,678), rheumatic heart disease (RHD, n=4,524), ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR, n=3,893), and degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR, n=7,333). After propensity matching, all-cause mortality during follow-up was lower among patients receiving MV repair than among patients receiving MV replacement in the IE, IMR, and DMR groups (hazard ratio [HR]=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55–0.93; HR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73–0.92; and HR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64–0.84, respectively). However, in the RHD group, the MV reoperation rate was higher after MV repair than after MV replacement (subdistribution HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.02–3.55).

    Conclusions: In comparison with MV replacement, MV repair was associated with a lower late mortality in patients with IE, IMR, and DMR, and a higher risk of reoperation in patients with RHD.

  • Feng-Cheng Chang, Chun-Yu Chen, Yi-Hsin Chan, Yu-Ting Cheng, Chia-Pin ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Surgery
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 579-588
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 24, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Mitral valve (MV) disease is the most common form of valvular heart disease. Findings that indicate women have a higher risk for unfavorable outcomes than men remain controversial. This study aimed to determine the sex-based differences in epidemiological distributions and outcomes of surgery for MV disease.

    Methods and Results: Overall, 18,572 patients (45.3% women) who underwent MV surgery between 2001 and 2018 were included. Outcomes included in-hospital death and all-cause mortality during follow up. Subgroup analysis was conducted across different etiologies, including infective endocarditis (IE), degenerative, ischemic, and rheumatic mitral pathology. The overall MV repair rate was lower in women than in men (20.5% vs. 30.6%). After matching, 6,362 pairs (woman : man=1 : 1) of patients were analyzed. Women had a slightly higher risk for in-hospital death than men (10.8% vs. 9.8%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.24; P=0.075). Women tended to have a higher incidence of de novo dialysis (9.8% vs. 8.6%; P=0.022) and longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 7.1 days; P<0.001). Women with IE had poorer in-hospital outcomes than men; however, there were no sex differences in terms of all-cause mortality.

    Conclusions: Sex-based differences of MV intervention still persist. Although long-term outcomes were comparable between sexes, women, especially those with IE, had worse perioperative outcomes than men.

  • Takanori Tsujimoto, Takeo Tedoriya, Yasushi Yamauchi, Yutaka Okita, Ke ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Surgery
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 589-596
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 08, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Background: Three-dimensional aortic root evaluation using virtual reality (VR) techniques for valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) preparation has not yet been implemented, so we demonstrated VR computed tomography (VR-CT) and assessed its utility for VSARR.

    Methods and Results: We enrolled 72 patients who underwent multidetector CT before elective VSARR for annuloaortic ectasia with tricuspid aortic valve. The geometries of their aortic roots were measured with a VR-CT workstation. The mean values of geometric height (GH), free margin length (FML), and commissural height (CH) were 17.2±2.4 mm, 36.0±5.2 mm, and 24.0±4.3 mm, respectively. The right coronary/noncoronary CH was significantly greater than the left coronary/right coronary and left coronary/noncoronary CH. The left coronary cusp had the shortest FML, intercommissural distances (ICD), and smallest central angle. Although the right coronary cusp had the largest values for FML, ICD, and central angle, the right coronary cusp had the lowest GH and EH. The VR-CT measurements strongly correlated with intraoperative alternatives, especially with mean GH (R2=0.75) and left coronary/noncoronary CH (R2=0.79). Furthermore, mean GH was observed to be significantly different among the selected graft size groups; therefore, the preoperative mean GH could play a significant role in graft sizing.

    Conclusions: VR-CT evaluation allows a thorough understanding of aortic root anatomy, which could facilitate VSAAR.

Population Science
  • Ramazan Duz, Salih Cibuk
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 597-605
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2023
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    Background: This study examined whether the severity of mitral valve stenosis (MVS) is associated with oxidative stress (OS) markers in the blood, and other hematological and clinicodemographic parameters.

    Methods and Results: This prospective study was conducted between March and May 2022. Seventy-five patients with newly diagnosed MVS (25 mild, 25 moderate, 25 severe) were included. Mild, moderate, and severe MVS was defined as MV area >2, 1.5–2, and <1.5 cm2, respectively. Various OS markers and laboratory parameters were determined in venous blood samples. For predictive analyses, 2 different analyses were performed to detect patients with severe MVS and those with moderate or severe (moderate/severe) MVS. Age (P=0.388) and sex (P=0.372) distribution were similar in the 3 groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that a high white blood cell (WBC) count (P=0.023) and high malondialdehyde (P=0.010), superoxide dismutase (SOD; P=0.008), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP; P=0.007) levels were independently associated with severe MVS. A low platelet count (P=0.030) and high malondialdehyde (P=0.018), SOD (P=0.008), and AOPP (P=0.001) levels were independently associated with having moderate/severe MVS. The best discriminatory factors for severe MVS were SOD (cut-off >315.5 ng/mL) and glutathione (cut-off >4.7 μmol/L).

    Conclusions: MVS severity seems to be affected by oxidant markers (malondialdehyde and AOPP), antioxidant enzymes (SOD), and inflammation-related cells (WBC and platelets). Future studies are needed to examine these relationships in larger populations.

  • Fumi Yokohama, Yoichi Takaya, Keishi Ichikawa, Rie Nakayama, Takashi M ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Population Science
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 606-611
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2023
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Background: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) frequently have concomitant aortic regurgitation (AR), but the association between aortic valvular calcification (AVC) and the severity of AR remains unclear.

    Methods and Results: We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe AS who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) within 1 month. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of concomitant AR. The association between AVC and the severity of concomitant AR was assessed in patients with severe AS. The study population consisted of 95 patients: 43 men and 52 women with a mean age of 82±7 years. Of the 95 patients with severe AS, 27 had no or trivial AR, 53 had mild AR, and 15 had moderate AR. The AVC score (AVCS) and AVC volume (AVCV) significantly increased as the severity of concomitant AR increased (P=0.014 for both), and similar findings were obtained for the AVCS and AVCV indexes (P=0.004 for both).

    Conclusions: The severity of AR correlated with AVCS and AVCV measured by MDCT in patients with severe AS. AVC may cause concomitant AR, leading to worsening of disease condition.

Images in Cardiovascular Medicine
2023 JCS Report
  • Tetsuya Matoba, Yasuhiro Nakano, Shunsuke Katsuki, Tomomi Ide, Shouji ...
    Article type: 2023 JCS REPORT
    2024 Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 615-619
    Published: March 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 07, 2024
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    The 87thAnnual Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society (JCS2023) was held in March 2023 in Fukuoka, Japan, marking the first in-person gathering after the COVID-19 pandemic. With the theme of “New Challenge With Next Generation” the conference emphasized the development of future cardiovascular leaders and technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). Notable sessions included the Mikamo Lecture on heart failure and the Mashimo Lecture on AI in medicine. Various hands-on sessions and participatory events were well received, promoting learning and networking. Post-event surveys showed high satisfaction among participants, with positive feedback on face-to-face interactions and the overall experience. JCS2023, attended by 17,852 participants, concluded successfully, marking a significant milestone in post-pandemic meetings, and advancing cardiovascular medicine.

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