In a sustainable society, it is necessary to develop systems that produce enough food and energy while also preserving the environment. Both agricultural production for food generation and photovoltaics for renewable energy production require large, open fields. In this research study, we investigate the feasibility of combining food and energy production into a single field by examining the effects of installing photovoltaic equipment above land used for farming. We grew komatsuna, kabu, mizuna, and spinach underneath photovoltaic equipment, and investigated the influence of shading from the photovoltaic equipment on plant growth and yields during winter cultivation. As expected, both the amount of solar radiation and the air and soil temperature were lower under the photovoltaics than those under the open field. The growth rate of komatsuna, kabu, and mizuna were slower. However, yields and qualities sufficient to meet market demands remained possible with extension of the cultivation periods. Therefore, although temperature and solar radiation are reduced under the photovoltaic equipment in winter, it is nevertheless possible to produce vegetables in the farmland, providing a novel opportunity to realize an integrated agricultural system with parallel production of food and energy.
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