GPR120 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by long-chain fatty acids. In our previous study, GPR120 expression was detected in gonadotrophs of the mouse anterior pituitary gland. It is well known that the function of anterior pituitary cells is largely under the influence of circulating sex steroids. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the modulatory roles of the ovarian hormones, estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P), on the expression levels of GPR120 mRNA in mouse pituitary glands. GPR120 mRNA expression levels in the pituitary gland were increased after ovariectomy or P treatment, and were decreased after the administration of E2. Simultaneous injection of E2 and P interfered with the action of E2 on GPR120 mRNA expression. The GnRH antagonist, Cetrotide, did not inhibit the increase in GPR120 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) animals. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that more than 95.4% of GPR120 immunoreactive cells colocalized with the luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) in the anterior pituitary gland of intact, ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol-primed OVX (OVX+E2), or progesterone-primed OVX (OVX+P) animals. Furthermore, GPR120 mRNA expression levels were not significantly different in the pituitary gland of females throughout the ovarian cycle. It is suggested that low levels of P may mask the inhibitory effect of estradiol on the synthesis of GPR120 in the estrous stage in intact animals. These results demonstrate that ovarian hormones may directly regulate GPR120 expression in the reproductive cycle at the pituitary level.
Hormonal alterations with aging contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Androgens mediate their effects predominantly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily. By androgen treatment, AR is recruited to specific genomic loci dependent on tissue specific pioneer factors to regulate target gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the epigenetic modulation by AR-associated histone modifiers and the roles of non-coding RNAs in AR signaling. Androgens are male sex hormone to induce differentiation of the male reproductive system required for the establishment of adult sexual function. As shown by several reports using AR knockout mouse models, androgens also have anabolic functions in several tissues such as bone, muscle and central nervous systems. Notably, AR has a central role in prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy for cancer patients and decline of serum androgen with aging promote several diseases associated with aging and quality of life of older men such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia and dementia. Thus, androgen replacement therapy for treating late onset hypogonadism (LOH) or new epigenetic regulators have the potential to overcome the symptoms caused by the low androgen, although adverse effects for cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Given the increasing longevity and consequent rise of age-related diseases and prostate cancer patients, a more understanding of the AR actions in male health remains a high research priority.
Canagliflozin has a robust inhibitory effect on sodium glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 and a mild inhibitory effect on SGLT1. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of canagliflozin on circulating active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomly divided into a control group (n =15) and a canagliflozin-treated group (n =15). After hospitalization, the canagliflozin-treated group took 100 mg/day canagliflozin for the entire study, and after 3 days both groups took 20 mg/day teneligliptin for an additional 3 days. In a meal test, canagliflozin significantly decreased the area under curve (AUC) (0-120 min) for plasma glucose (PG) after 3 days when compared with that at baseline, and addition of teneligliptin to the canagliflozin-treated group further decreased it. A significant decrease in the AUC (0-120 min) for serum insulin by canagliflozin was obtained, but the addition of teneligliptin elevated the AUC, and thus abolished the significant difference from baseline. A significant increase in the AUC (0-120 min) of plasma active GLP-1 by canagliflozin-treatment compared with that at baseline was observed, and the addition of teneligliptin resulted in a further increase. However, canagliflozin-treatment did not change the AUC (0-120 min) of plasma active glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). In conclusions, canagliflozin-administration before meals decreased PG and serum insulin, and increased plasma active GLP-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Canagliflozin did not greatly influence plasma active GIP levels.
To investigate whether sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), tofogliflozin or ipragliflozin, achieve optimal glycemic variability, when used together with insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Glargine 300). Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 2 groups. For the first group: After admission, tofogliflozin 20 mg was administered; Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were titrated using an algorithm and stabilized at 80 mg/dL level with Glargine 300 for 5 days; Next, glucose levels were continuously monitored for 2 days using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Tofogliflozin was then washed out over 5 days; Subsequently, ipragliflozin 50 mg was administered; FPG levels were titrated using the same algorithm and stabilized at 80 mg/dL level with Glargine 300 for 5 days; Next, glucose levels were continuously monitored for 2 days using CGM. For the second group, ipragliflozin was administered prior to tofogliflozin, and the same regimen was maintained. Glargine 300 and SGLT2i were administered at 8:00 AM. Data collected on the second day of measurement (mean amplitude of glycemic excursion [MAGE], average daily risk range [ADRR]; on all days of measurement) were analyzed. Area over the glucose curve (<70 mg/dL; 0:00 to 6:00, 24-h), M value, standard deviation, MAGE, ADRR, and mean glucose levels (24-h, 8:00 to 24:00) were significantly lower in patients on tofogliflozin than in those on ipragliflozin. Tofogliflozin, which reduces glycemic variability by preventing nocturnal hypoglycemia and decreasing postprandial glucose levels, is an ideal SGLT2i when used together with Glargine 300 during basal insulin therapy.
This study set out to compare structural and invasive characteristics of sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in age-matched groups of children and adolescents of Japan and Ukraine to provide detailed histopathological analysis of tumors from different geographical areas with different iodine intake. A total of 348 (160 Japanese and 188 Ukrainian) PTCs from patients without radiation history were analyzed initially as a combined pediatric group and then subdivided into childhood (aged ≤14 years) and adolescent (aged from 15 to ≤18 years) age series. On multivariate comparison, the Japanese pediatric PTC was characterized by a higher sex ratio (p=1.504E-4), and a higher frequency of microcarcinoma (p=0.039), papillary dominant growth pattern (p=0.024), focal oxyphilic cell metaplasia (p=7.644E-6), intrathyroid spread (p=0.010), lymphatic/vascular invasion (p=0.01) and regional lymph node metastases (p=3.540E-6). In the Ukrainian group, multifocal (p=0.004) and non-encapsulated tumors with the solid-trabecular growth pattern (p=0.05) were more frequent. Childhood Japanese PTCs differed from Ukrainian PTCs by more pronounced invasive properties such as lymphatic/vascular invasion and nodal disease, but did not differ by the dominant growth pattern. In adolescents, the differences were detected not only for lymph node metastases, but also for a higher frequency of the papillary dominant pattern in Japanese PTC. Overall, significantly higher frequencies of oxyphilic cell metaplasia and more pronounced invasive features observed in the Japanese PTC in both age-matched series represent the major differences between the tumors from two geographical areas.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is characterized by genetic alterations of the fibroblasts. However, PTC-DTF is extremely rare, and the reports on such cases have been sporadic. Immunohistochemical staining using the antibody for beta-catenin is useful in diagnosing the variant. This report aims to describe the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in 14 cases of PTC-DTF and to clarify the diagnostic significance of the variant. The patients included 9 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 49.3 years. PTCs with focal DTF components and with extensive DTF components included 7 cases each. No significant differences were noted in terms of age, gender, and serum thyroglobulin levels between extensive and focal DTF cases. On aspiration cytology, 12 cases were reported as suspicious for malignancy or malignant, and schwannoma or fibroma was suggested in 1 case each. The DTF components were histologically classified into 4 types, namely, central (4 cases), peripheral (1 case), mixed (7 cases), and diffuse type (2 cases). The stromal components were consistent with those of DTF. Immunohistochemically, fibroblasts in the DTF components showed nuclear and cytoplasmic expression for beta-catenin in 12 cases. The features are observed even in cases in which stromal components focally exist. Neither carcinoma cells nor the fibroblasts with Ki-67 labeling index >5% were found in all cases. We agree that PTC with nodular fasciitis-like stroma should be renamed to PTC-DTF.
Diabetes-associated male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments are both common clinical complications with limited therapeutic options; hence it seriously affects the quality of life of the patients, in particular, the patients of reproductive age. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) has long being believed to maintain and to promote reproductive functions in the traditional medical practice in China. The current study was to investigate if LBP may contribute to recovery of male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments in diabetic individuals. The effects of LBP on sexual behaviors and histological changes of testis were studied in the type-1 diabetes male mice induced by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After oral administration of LBP (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg), sildenafil citrate (SC, 5 mg/kg) or saline for 62 consecutive days, the typical abnormal changes in the sperm parameters, in relative weight of reproductive organs and in morphology of testis were observed in diabetic mice. LBP treatment of the diabetic mice considerably reversed those changes and Johnsen’s testicular score, serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) level were also increased to different degrees. Moreover, our data have also shown that a marked improvement in sexual behavior and fertility level after administration of LBP (40 mg/kg) compared to the diabetic group. These results suggested that LBP can exert functional recovery of male sexual dysfunction and fertility damages induced by diabetes in male mice, which is likely to be mediated through regulating the hypothalamus- pituitary-gonadal axis endocrine activity.
The aim of this study was to explore a new classification way in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on complications and comorbidities using Latent Class Analysis, moreover, finding out the factors associated with different latent classes and making specific suggestions. In this study, 5,500 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from ten hospitals in Tianjin, China were selected, and the response rate was 96.2%. Latent Class Analysis was used to cluster patients. After compared the baseline characteristics, multinomial logistic regression was applied. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into four classes. In the univariate analysis, all variables were significant (p<0.05). According to multinomial logistic regression, we found longer duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes, older age, obesity and central obesity, female menopause, living in a suburb, having a higher 2hPG at diagnosis, smoking and drinking were associated with the prevalence of complications and comorbidities. In conclusion, LCA was shown to be an effective method for grouping patients with T2DM, which presented a nuanced approach to data reduction. Further research using LCA may be especially useful to investigate causal relationships between complications and the significant factors identified in our study.
Although mutations in ACAN, FGFR3, NPR2, and SHOX typically lead to skeletal dysplasia, and mutations in GHRHR, GH1, GHR, STAT5B, IGF1, IGFALS, and IGF1R usually underlie hormonal defects of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis, such mutations have also been identified in patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Of these, SHOX abnormalities are known to account for a certain percentage of ISS cases, whereas the frequency of mutations in the other 10 genes in ISS cohorts remains unknown. Here, we performed next-generation sequencing-based mutation screening of the 10 genes in 86 unrelated Japanese ISS patients without SHOX abnormalities. We searched for rare protein-altering variants. The functional significance of the identified variants was assessed by in silico analyses. Consequently, we identified 18 heterozygous rare variants in 19 patients, including four probable damaging variants in ACAN, six pathogenicity-unknown variants in FGFR3, GHRHR, GHR, and IGFALS, and eight possible benign variants. Pathogenic variants in NPR2, GH1, and IGF1 were absent from our cohort. Unlike previously reported patients with ACAN mutations, our four patients with ACAN variants manifested non-specific short stature with age-appropriate or mildly delayed bone ages, and had parents of normal stature. These results indicate that ACAN mutations can underlie ISS without characteristic skeletal features, and that such mutations are possibly associated with de novo occurrence or low penetrance. In addition, our data imply that mutations in FGFR3, NPR2, and GH-IGF1 axis genes play only limited roles in the etiology of ISS.
It is generally believed that the detection of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) is superior to that of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) for the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. However, limited data are available on the comparison of TgAb and TPOAb prevalence as a diagnostic measurement for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis using sensitive immunoassays. We herein used five different current immunoassay kits (A-E) to compare the prevalence of TgAb and TPOAb in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (n = 70), Graves’ disease (n = 70), painless thyroiditis (n = 50), and healthy control subjects (n = 100). In patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, positive TgAb was significantly more frequent than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (mean ± SD of the four kits: 98.6 ± 1.7 vs 81.4 ± 2.0%). In patients with Graves’ disease, TgAb prevalence was almost equivalent to that of TPOAb in five kits. Patients with painless thyroiditis exhibited positive TgAb significantly more frequently than positive TPOAb in kits A-D (73.5 ± 4.1 vs 33.0 ± 3.4%). The prevalence of TgAb alone was significantly higher than that of TPOAb alone in both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis in kits A-D. In kit E, TgAb and TPOAb prevalence did not differ significantly for any disease, and TgAb distribution was different from other kits. In conclusion, the prevalence of TgAb was higher than that of TPOAb in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis using commercially available kits. We suggest that TgAb immunoassay is the first choice of screening test for thyroid autoimmune abnormalities in Japan.
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome often associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-producing tumors such as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) affecting the bone and soft tissue. We experienced a patient with progressive bone and muscle pain due to FGF23-related TIO. Venous sampling had strongly suggested the anterior skull base as a source of FGF23, which led to the discovery of a small tumor in the ethmoid sinus extending intracranially. Radical surgical resection confirmed the histological diagnosis of PMTMCT with FGF23 immunopositivity and achieved durable tumor control with complete resolution of symptoms. We serially measured serum FGF23 level before, during and after surgery and analyzed the data to determine the half-life of FGF23. Serum FGF23 level sharply declined as early as 20 minutes after en bloc tumor resection and completely normalized after surgery. The half-life of FGF23 was calculated to be approximately 18.5 minutes using single phase exponential decay model as well as semilog transformation formula. Serial measurements of serum FGF23 level can potentially declare “complete” resection of a FGF23-producing tumor and total cure of TIO; in this regard, development of its intraoperative measurement would be helpful in the management of this endocrine tumor.
The FreeStyle Libre Flash Glucose Monitoring System (FGM), which can continuously measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid glucose (FGM-ISFG), has been in clinical use worldwide. However, it is not clear how accurately FGM-ISFG reflects plasma glucose concentration (PG). In the present study, we examined the clinical utility of FGM by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In eight healthy volunteers (3 males; mean age, 41.8 y) wearing FGM sensors for 14 days, OGTT was performed during days 1-7 and days 8-14, and then both FGM-ISFG and PG were compared. Parkes error grid analysis indicated that all of 65 FGM-ISFG values were within Zone A (no effect on clinical action) and Zone B (little or no effect on clinical outcome). However, in OGTT, the mean FGM-ISFG was higher than the mean actual PG at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after loading (155.5 vs. 139.2 mg/dL, 166.2 vs. 139.2 mg/dL, 149.5 vs. 138.2 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.05). Moreover, the area under the curve of FGM-ISFG was also significantly larger than that of PG (17,626.2 vs. 15,195.0 min·mg/dL; p<0.05). In four of eight subjects, FGM-ISFG tended to be higher than PG in both OGTTs, and the greatest difference between the two values was 58 mg/dL. FGM is useful for glycemic control, whereas it is not appropriate to change therapeutic regimens based on the judgment of nocturnal hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia by FGM-ISFG. Careful attention is required for proper application of FGM.
The aim of this study was to determine the effective waist circumference (WC) reduction rate in avoiding the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in <55 years and ≥55 years Japanese men with abdominal obesity. The study subjects were 795 men with WC ≥85 cm, fasting plasma glucose <126 mg/dL, 2-hr plasma glucose on 75 g of oral glucose tolerance test <200 mg/dL, and HbA1c 5.6-6.4 % (38-40 mmol/mol) at baseline who underwent general health checkups more than twice between April 2007 and May 2015. They were divided into 5 groups based on the change in WC during the observation period (WC gain group, and four groups stratified according the rate of WC loss). The subjects were also divided into the <55 years and ≥55 years (at baseline) subgroups. The cumulative incidence rate of T2DM was analyzed and compared among the groups. The cumulative incidence rates of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.45 %) in all age, of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.60 %) and second largest WC loss quartile (3.44-5.59 %) in the <55 years subgroup, and of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.37 %) in the ≥55 years subgroup were significantly lower than that of the gain group (p<0.001, p=0.009, 0.012, and 0.012, respectively). WC reduction rate of at least about 3 % in the younger (<55 years) and at least about 5 % in the older (≥55 years) non-diabetic Japanese men with abdominal obesity can effectively reduce the chance of development of T2DM.
The mechanism of pituitary tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly inherited syndrome caused by a defective mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism involved in the development of various tumors at an early age. In this case study, we showed the occurrence of pituitary tumors associated with Lynch syndrome for the first time and performed genetic and immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the genetic aberrations that might be related to the tumorigenesis and proliferation. A 68-year-old female patient with Lynch syndrome due to mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene mutation suffered from hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), hypercortisolism and a rapidly progressive pituitary tumor. We performed genetic analysis by whole genome sequencing with genomic DNA of the pituitary tumor and peripheral blood leukocytes, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of MMR proteins. Genetic analysis revealed that the tumor had homozygous gene mutation of MEN1 associated with pituitary tumorigenesis and mutS homolog 6 (MSH6) gene. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that MLH1 and MSH6 immunoexpression were negative. We reveal for the first time that MMR abnormality could cause somatic mutation of MEN1 and pituitary tumor occurrence is associated with Lynch syndrome. We suggest that the identified gene mutations, especially those of MSH6 and MLH1 genes, may be involved in the pathogenesis and proliferation of pituitary tumor. The knowledge obtained from our case study is important to elucidate the pathogenesis and proliferation mechanisms of pituitary tumors.
Octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analog, has been used for treating hypoglycemia caused by congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). However, octreotide has not been evaluated in clinical trials and has not been approved in any developed country. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of octreotide for diazoxide-unresponsive CHI through a combination of a single-arm, open-label clinical trial (SCORCH study) and an observational study to collect data on the clinical course of patients treated off-label in Japan (SCORCH registry). In the SCORCH study, 5 patients were stabilized (blood glucose > 45 mg/dL) by hypertonic glucose infusion, and treated by continuous subcutaneous octreotide infusion at a dose of 5-25 μg/kg/day. Continuous blood glucose monitoring was performed between -24 and +48 hours. In 3 patients, a clinically meaningful rise in blood glucose was achieved and therapy was continued. The glucose infusion was gradually decreased and stopped after 5, 11, and 174 days, respectively. In one case, remission of CHI was reached after 606 days and octreotide was discontinued. The SCORCH registry included 19 diazoxide-unresponsive patients treated by subcutaneous octreotide, by continuous infusion or multiple daily injections. Of the 17 patients treated with hypertonic glucose infusion, the infusion rate was reduced after 4 weeks to less than 50% in 11 patients (64.7%) and stopped in 9 (52.9%). During the combined observation period of 695.4 patient-months in both studies, no severe adverse events related to octreotide were observed. In conclusion, subcutaneous octreotide injection was effective and well tolerated in the majority of patients with diazoxide-unresponsive CHI.
The potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone is metabolized to the weak androgen 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol) by the enzyme aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C14 (Akr1c14) in rodents. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the regulation of Akr1c14 expression during the ovulatory process in rat ovaries. Northern blot analysis revealed that treatment of immature rats with equine chorionic gonadotropin resulted in lowered Akr1c14 expression, whereas subsequent treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increased ovarian Akr1c14 expression within 3 h. In situ hybridization analysis showed that Akr1c14 mRNA was localized in granulosa cells of growing follicles before hCG treatment, but it was also expressed in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles after hCG treatment. Akr1c14 protein expression increased after 6 h of hCG treatment and was sustained at high levels until 12 h. The levels of 3α-diol in preovulatory follicles isolated from ovaries in vivo were fluctuated by hCG treatment; decreased at 6 h and increased at 9 h. Human CG-induced Akr1c14 expression was suppressed by treatment with the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486, but not with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the induction of Akr1c14 by hCG in granulosa cells of rat preovulatory follicles that was regulated by progesterone receptor antagonist.
The aims of this report were to clarify the diagnostic significance of ultrasound (US), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and flow cytometry for primary thyroid lymphoma, and to establish a preoperative diagnostic algorithm of primary thyroid lymphoma. We retrospectively examined US, FNAC, and flow cytometry in 43 patients with benign lymphoproliferative lesions and 32 patients with primary thyroid lymphoma, who underwent US, FNAC, and flow cytometry at Kuma Hospital between May 2012 and December 2015. Primary thyroid lymphomas included 27 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, 4 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 follicular lymphoma. Flow cytometry had the highest specificity (88.4%) and sensitivity (75.0%). The specificity of US was the lowest (32.6%). Both the positive predictive value (90.5%) and negative predictive value (94.7%) were the highest for FNAC. A scoring system was defined as follows: US, low suspicion 0, intermediate suspicion 1, and high suspicion 2; FNAC, benign 0, undetermined 1, malignant 2; and flow cytometry, 0.33< κ/λ ratio <3 0, κ/λ ratio ≤0.33 2, and κ/λ ratio ≥3 2. We propose that a score ≥4 indicates the need for thyroid resection for primary thyroid lymphoma. In such a situation, the case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which was aggressive, was not excluded. Approximately one-fifth of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas may be overlooked, but the patients could be followed up with because of an indolent course.
We report three cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma as a novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. A 15-year-old female, a 19-year-old male, and a 21-year-old male presented with primary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the patients had associated tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the carcinomas showed invasive growth. Histologically, the carcinoma cells showed a trabecular pattern with thin vascular stroma, and were characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with perinuclear clearing, a prominent cell border, a wrinkled nuclear membrane, and binucleation, which are all features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and PAX8, and negative for CD10, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Vascular invasion was visible in all cases, but distant metastasis was not detected during follow-up. The original pathological diagnoses of the three cases were widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oxyphilic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thus, the cases were similar to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex as they were characterized by histologic findings consistent with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, occurrence in an adolescent or young adult, and favorable prognosis regardless of the presence of vascular invasion and an infiltrating growth pattern resembling poorly differentiated carcinoma. The etiopathogenesis also seemed to suggest the presence of the tuberous sclerosis complex genetic abnormality.
Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.
Neutral ceramidase (NCDase) is a class of ceramidases, a key enzyme in ceramide degradation. Recently, it was observed that NCDase activity was suppressed by saturated fatty acids to increase ceramide content in rat muscle. However, little is known about its changes in activity and roles in palmitate (Palm)-induced lipotoxicity in pancreatic β cells. Here, we demonstrated that Palm treatment significantly down-regulated NCDase activity, mRNA and protein levels in rat INS-1 cells. In addition, Palm caused a significant accumulation of ceramide, while SPH level remained unchanged, suggesting that inhibition of NCDase activity led to no change of SPH level after treatment with Palm for 24 h. Furthermore, NCDase overexpression significantly reduced Palm-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Conversely, NCDase siRNA knockdown markedly exacerbated Palm-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, Palm treatment suppressed the activity of NCDase and down-regulated its mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, NCDase inhibition was involved in Palm-induced apoptosis by blocking ceramide degradation in INS-1 cells.
C1qTNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1) is independently associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between CTRP1 and insulin resistance is still not established. This study aimed to explore the role of CTRP1 under the situation of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Plasma CTRP1 level was investigated in type 2 diabetic subjects (n = 35) and non-diabetic subjects (n = 35). The relationship between CTRP1 and phosphorylation of multi insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine (Ser) sites was further explored. Our data showed that Plasma CTRP1 was higher and negative correlation with insulin resistance in diabetic subjects (r = -0.283, p = 0.018). Glucose utilisation test revealed that the glucose utilisation rate of mature adipocytes was improved by CTRP1 in the presence of insulin. CTRP1 was not only related to IRS-1 protein, but also negatively correlated with IRS-1 Ser1101 phosphorylation (r = -0.398, p = 0.031). Furthermore, Phosphorylation levels of IRS-1 Ser1101 were significantly lower after incubation with 40 ng/mL CTRP1 in mature adipocytes than those with no intervention (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between CTRP1 and other IRS-1 serine sites (Ser302, Ser307, Ser612, Ser636/639, and Ser789). Collectively, our results suggested that CTRP1 might improve insulin resistance by reducing the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser1101, induced in the situation of insulin resistance as a feedback adipokine.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition that occurs either as an isolated disorder or as a component of congenital malformation syndromes. SOX2 is a causative gene of syndromic HH characterized by anophthalmia, microphthalmia, or coloboma and other neurological defects such as epilepsy. To date, the causal relationship between SOX2 abnormalities and non-syndromic HH remains speculative. Here, we identified a nonsense mutation of SOX2 in a male patient clinically diagnosed with non-syndromic HH. The patient had epilepsy but no additional clinical features. Ophthalmological examination revealed no abnormalities except for decreased thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Audiometry showed mild sensorineural hearing impairment of both ears. Hormonal evaluation suggested isolated gonadotropin deficiency. Next-generation sequencing-based mutation screening of 13 major causative genes for HH identified a p.Lys35∗ mutation in SOX2 and excluded pathogenic mutations in other tested genes. The p.Lys35∗ mutation appeared to encode a non-functioning SOX2 protein that lacks 283 of 317 amino acids. The SOX2 mutation was absent in the maternal DNA sample, while a paternal sample was unavailable for sequence analysis. These results expand the clinical consequences of SOX2 haploinsufficiency to include non-syndromic HH. Systematic mutation screening using a next-generation sequencer and detailed evaluation of nonspecific ocular/neurological features may help identify SOX2 mutation-positive individuals among HH patients.
Although advanced thyroid carcinoma patients who cannot be cured by conventional therapy have lacked effective treatment, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors have recently become available. Phase 3 trials of lenvatinib showed a median time to objective response of 2 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-3.5) months, demonstrating that shrinks tumors rapidly. The phenomenon of immediate tumor shrink is known as early tumor shrinkage (ETS) which is related to clinical outcome in other malignancies. However, precisely when within 8 weeks lenvatinib starts to affect tumors remains unclear. In tumors near the carotid arteries, trachea, or esophagus, a rapid therapeutic effect can induce fistula formation or arterial bleeding. To prevent such treatment-emergent serious adverse events (SAE), early imaging evaluation seems to be very important. In this study, the point in time when lenvatinib started to shrink tumors was retrospectively investigated. The subjects were 16 patients who started lenvatinib administration between May and August 2015. Tumor size was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scans frequently within the first 8 weeks according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. Initial tumor response was defined as ≥ 10% tumor reduction. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level was monitored in 8 differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) without TgAb patients. At the first evaluation, 13 patients (83.3 %) showed tumor reduction and that decreased with time. Thirteen patients (83.3 %) showed >10 % tumor reduction within 8 weeks. In all DTC patients, serum Tg level was markedly decreased. In conclusion, lenvatinib immediately shrinks tumors, the so-called ETS phenomenon. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to fistula formation from the early phase.
It is well documented that estrogen is predominant inducer of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in a variety of cell types. However, the effect of progesterone (P) remains to be elusive. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effect of P and combined effect of P and 17β-estradiol (E2) on HGF expression and production in 3T3-L1 fibroblastic preadipocytes and mature adipocytes, as a model of stromal cells. Northern blot analysis showed that hgf mRNA expressed in preadipocytes was notably higher than that of mature adipocytes, and increased by treatment of preadipocytes with E2 or 10 nM P, but not with 1,000 nM P. The E2-induced hgf mRNA expression was enhanced by 10 nM P, but suppressed by 1,000 nM P. Western blot analysis revealed that biological active forms of HGF protein was found in the preadipocyte culture medium, while the lesser amount of HGF precursor protein was detected in the mature adipocyte culture medium. The amounts of HGF were changed dependently on the hgf mRNA expression levels. These results indicate that HGF production is intricately regulated by E2 and P at the transcriptional levels in 3T3-L1 cells, and may explain the changes in the HGF production during the mammary gland development, especially decrease in HGF expression during pregnancy when P concentration is high.
The low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is one of the commonly used initial tests for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS). However, there are two loading dose regimens (0.5-mg and 1-mg), which may cause some confusion in daily practice in Japan; furthermore, there are no reports regarding whether 0.5-mg DST is a better loading dose for detecting adrenal subclinical CS (SCS) based on the plasma dexamethasone (DEX) levels. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to develop a novel assay to measure DEX by using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and (b) to compare between the 0.5-mg and 1-mg DST for SCS diagnosis based on the DEX levels. The study retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutive subjects hospitalized for diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma but who did not exhibit an overt CS phenotype; eight (15.4%) patients were affected with adrenal SCS. Inter-individual variability of DEX levels after the DST was high, but intra-individual variability was low. DEX levels after 1-mg loading in each patient was around two times higher than those after 0.5-mg loading (ρ = 0.853 and p < 0.001). There were 45 (86.5%) and 17 (32.7%) subjects with DEX levels ≤2.2 ng/mL after the 0.5-mg and 1-mg DST, respectively (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (93.3%) of 30 subjects and four (21.1%) of 19 subjects with detectable ACTH levels after the 0.5-mg and 1.0-mg DST, respectively, did not exhibit DEX levels >2.2 ng/mL. These results clearly indicate that the 1-mg DST is superior to 0.5-mg loading for the diagnosis of adrenal SCS.
Mutations in DUOXA2, encoding dual oxidase maturation factor 2, is a rare genetic cause of congenital hypothyroidism. Only four biallelic DUOXA2 mutation carriers have been described to date. This study was conducted to report the clinical and genetic findings of a DUOXA2 mutation-carrying family, and to review the previously reported cases. The proband was a 4-year-old girl, who was diagnosed as having congenital hypothyroidism in the frame of newborn screening. She had a high serum TSH level (138 mU/L) and a low free T4 level (0.4 ng/dL). Ultrasonography revealed goiter. She was immediately treated with levothyroxine. At age 3 years, reevaluation of her thyroid function showed a slightly elevated serum TSH level (11.0 mU/L) with normal free T4 level. Screening of the eleven congenital hypothyroidism-related genes demonstrated a previously reported nonsense DUOXA2 mutation (p.Tyr138*) in the homozygous state. Unexpectedly, we also found that the elder brother of the proband, who had no significant past medical history, had the identical homozygous mutation. Using expression experiments with HEK293 cells, we confirmed that p.Tyr138* was a loss-of-function mutation. In the literature, clinical courses of three patients were described, showing characteristic age-dependent improvement of the thyroid function. In conclusion, The proband showed comparable clinical phenotype to previously reported cases, while her brother was unaffected. The phenotypic spectrum of DUOXA2 mutations could be broader than currently accepted.
According to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC), cyst fluid only (CFO) cases are classified in the non-diagnostic category. To date, no large study focusing on CFO has been conducted. To reassess the diagnostic significance of CFO, we compared CFO nodules with non-diagnostic nodules excluding CFO (ND-other). We reviewed the conventional thyroid smears of 715 CFO and 766 ND-other nodules. We compared the timing of and findings at re-aspiration, the histology of resected specimens, and the proportion of malignant nodules between the two groups. Re-aspiration was performed in 9.0% of CFO and 23.8% of ND-other cases. In 12.5% of CFO and 49.4% of ND-other cases, the interval between the first and second aspirations was <3 months. Despite this, there were no cases in which cytological interpretation was complicated by the first aspiration. Overall, 77 CFO nodules (10.8%) were surgically resected; 14 were malignant. In all cases in which re-aspiration cytology revealed malignancy, the initial ultrasound interpretation was a high or intermediate suspicion pattern. The proportion of malignancies subsequently diagnosed in nodules initially classified as CFO and ND-other was 2.0% and 5.6%, respectively (p<0.01). As CFO and ND-other thyroid nodules have different clinical management and malignancy rates, we would like to assert that CFO and ND-other nodules should be separated, and that the former should be considered diagnostic. In terms of clinical management, we recommend that only CFO cases with concerning features on ultrasound undergo re-aspiration.
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