Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Advance online publication
Showing 1-48 articles out of 48 articles from Advance online publication
  • Murat Dağdeviren, İhsan Ateş, Burak Furkan Demir, Emine Ergün, Canan Y ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0582
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 12, 2019
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    İt is known that there is a relationship between some diseases and blood groups. The objective of our study is to investigate how often ABO and Rh blood groups are seen in benign thyroid diseases, especially in autoimmune-mediated thyroid diseases, and hence whether there is an association between blood groups and thyroid diseases. A total of 958 patients who were followed due to any benign thyroid disease were included in the study. The study population comprised 958 patients, 550 with Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism, 160 with non-Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism, 103 with iatrogenic hypothyroidism, 93 with central hypothyroidism, and 28 with Graves’ and 24 with non-Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Of the patients, 47.1% belonged to the O blood group, 30% to the A blood group, 15.2% to the B blood group, and 7.7% to the AB blood group while 90% were Rh-positive. The ratio of those with the O blood group was determined to be significantly higher in the Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism group compared to the other disease groups. In the non-Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism group, however, the ratio of the AB blood group was statistically significantly higher. While autoimmune diseases were more common in those with the O blood group, they were significantly lower in the AB blood group (p < 0.001). In our study, we determined that the ratio of the O blood group was significantly higher among patients with hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. These findings imply that there might be a relation between O blood group and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

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  • Seiya Shimoda, Wakana Sakamoto, Ayaka Hokamura, Yasuto Matsuo, Taiji S ...
    Type: Rapid Communication
    Article ID: EJ19-0179
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To examine the efficacy and safety of once-daily insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) or once-daily second-generation basal insulin analogs (insulin degludec and insulin glargine 300 units/mL) in insulin-naïve Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes in routine clinical practice. A 12-week multicenter, open-label, randomized, pilot study was performed in 52 subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Subjects were randomized to once-daily IDegAsp (n = 26) or basal insulin (n = 26). The primary endpoint was percent change in HbA1c from baseline to week 12. Furthermore, it was analyzed post hoc in subgroups stratified by baseline HbA1c. During a follow-up period, percent change in HbA1c was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.161). Daily insulin doses and frequency of overall hypoglycemia were also similar in the two groups. In post hoc analyses, once-daily basal insulin was more effective than IDegAsp in subjects with HbA1c more than or equal to 8.5% (p < 0.05); however, in subjects with HbA1c less than 8.5%, once-daily IDegAsp showed a significant improvement in percent change in HbA1c at week 12, compared with basal insulin (p < 0.01). Although there was no apparent difference in the HbA1c-lowering effects between two groups, when compared in subjects with HbA1c less than 8.5%, once-daily IDegAsp showed a significant effect in comparison with once-daily basal insulin. These findings suggest that the baseline HbA1c level might provide the important information for choosing IDegAsp or basal insulin in patients insufficiently controlled with OADs. This trial was registered with UMIN (no. UMIN000035431).

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  • Merita Emini-Sadiku, Nikica Car, Luljeta Begolli, Kristina Blaslov, Ed ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0493
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 11, 2019
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    Several studies have demonstrated the decreased insulin resistance (IR) in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with glimepiride. Those suggest this might be associated with observed higher concentrations of adiponectin. We assessed if there is a difference in IR and metabolic syndrome components between glimepiride and glibenclamide treatment as well as adiponectin concentration in T2DM. Our research observed 20 T2DM patients treated with glibenclamid and 20 switched to glimepiride (n = 20) treatment for 24 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis were performed at the beginning and at the end of treatment while IR was accessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The glimepiride group revealed better glycaemic control compared to glibenclamide group. Moreover, the adiponectin concentration increased (23.9 ± 17.3 to 29.1 ± 12.2 ng/mL, p = 0.087) whereas it decreased in the glibenclamide group (34.3 ± 22.6 to 20.3 ± 11.3 ng/mL, p = 0.011) following 24 weeks of treatment. The serum adiponectin and HOMA-IR were inversely correlated within the group of glibenclamide (r = –0.667, p = 0.009). The present study demonstrates that glimepiride might have beneficial effect on IR compared to glibenclamide, as suggested. However, this observation needs further study investigation among other formulations of SU.

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  • Yasuko Shoji, Shinobu Ida, Tetsuya Niihori, Yoko Aoki, Nobuhiko Okamot ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0564
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 10, 2019
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    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple congenital malformations. Recent advances in molecular and genetic approaches have identified a number of responsible genes for NS, most of which are components of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, and genotype-phenotype correlation analyses have been extensively performed; however, analysis of Japanese NS patients is limited. Here, we evaluated clinical characteristics in genetically diagnosed NS patients and their relationships to genotypes. A total of 48 clinically diagnosed NS were included, and responsible mutations were identified in 39 patients (81.3%) with PTPN11 mutations being the most prevalent followed by SOS1 mutations. Cardiac anomalies including pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were most prevalent (87.2%), and the prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was greater in patients without PTPN11 mutations than in those with PTPN11 mutations. Short stature was the second-most prevalent (69.2%) characteristic, and present height SD score was significantly associated with height SD score at 1 year old. Patients with SOS1 mutations had greater present height SD score and better growth during infancy. These findings suggest the presence of a genotype-phenotype correlation in Japanese patients with NS, which enables us to use genetic information to predict the clinical course and may allow for genotype-based medical interventions.

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  • Yuki Yamauchi, Akinobu Nakamura, Kiyohiko Takahashi, Takahiro Takase, ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0136
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 10, 2019
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    We investigated the factors associated with fatty liver remission via treatment with ipragliflozin. The analysis was obtained from our multi-center prospective observational study, including 200 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The extent of fatty liver was estimated using a fatty liver index (FLI). Based on the FLI after the treatment with ipragliflozin, patients were classified into remission group (FLI < 30) and non-remission group (FLI ≥ 30). After treatment with ipragliflozin for 24 weeks, FLI significantly improved from 64.5 ± 21.6 to 51.9 ± 26.5 (p < 0.01). Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and FLI in the remission group were significantly lower compared with those of the non-remission group. Stepwise analysis showed that the baseline FLI (Odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.81–0.90, p < 0.01) was an independent factor associated with FLI remission. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the adequate cut-off value for the remission was 50. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 with the sensitivity and specificity 84.6% and 90.1% respectively. In conclusion, ipragliflozin ameliorated fatty liver. These results suggest that patients with fatty liver with a lower FLI are more likely to attain remission by the treatment with ipragliflozin.

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  • Lifeng Wang, Yuanyuan Wei, Chao Ning, Minfang Zhang, Ping Fan, Dongyu ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0467
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 09, 2019
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    Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function reduces obesity. Ellagic Acid (EA), located abundantly in plant extracts and fruits, has been shown to modulate formation and differentiation of adipocytes, although its role in the process of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has not been elucidated. In this study, fifty-six five-week old SD rats were randomly assigned to receive normal diet (ND, 10% lipids) or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% lipid) with or without various dosages of EA for 24 weeks. Our results showed that high fat diet intake triggered overweight, glucose intolerance and white adipocyte hypertrophy, the effects of which were mitigated by EA treatment. Meanwhile, EA supplementation reduced serum resistin levels, improved hepatic steatosis and serum lipid profile in DIO (high fat diet induced obesity) rats. Moreover, EA supplementation significantly decreased mRNA expression of Zfp423 and Aldh1a1, the key determinants of WAT plasticity. EA also increased mRNA expression of brown adipocyte markers including UCP1, PRDM16, Cidea, PGC1α, Ppar-α; beige markers including CD137and TMEM26; mitochondrial biogenesis markers including TFAM in inguinal WAT (iWAT) when compared to their counterparts. EA treatment significantly improved mitochondrial function, as measured by citrate synthase activity. More importantly, EA markedly elevated the expression of UCP1 in iWAT, which is a specific protein of brown adipocyte. In conclusion, our results provided evidence that EA improved obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in DIO rats via browning of iWAT through suppressing white adipocyte maintaining genes and promoting expression of key thermogenic genes. These findings suggest that EA could be a promising therapeutic avenue to treat metabolic diseases.

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  • Jun Suzuki, Tadashi Yamakawa, Mari Oba, Jo Nagakura, Erina Shigematsu, ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0309
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 04, 2019
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    The short-term efficacy and safety of insulin degludec U100 (IDeg) in patients with type 2 diabetes have not been reported widely. We compared insulin IDeg and insulin glargine U100 (IGla) for glycemic control and glucose variability in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. In an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 74 patients were randomly assigned to either the IDeg (36 patients) or IGla (38 patients) group and were administered with basal-bolus therapy during hospitalization. Following the start of the treatment, on day 11, glucose variability was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring. A fasting blood glucose level of 110 mg/dL and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level of 180 mg/dL throughout at least one day during the observation period were achieved in 31.3% (10/32) and 30.6% (11/36) of the patients in the IDeg and IGla groups, respectively. The 6-point self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles showed a significant difference between the two groups. On day 7, the intra-day variation was larger in the IDeg group than in the IGla group. The incidence of hypoglycemia or glucose variability was comparable in the two groups. This study suggests that short-term efficacy and safety of IDeg and IGla in patients with type 2 diabetes during the initial phase of basal-bolus therapy were comparable, and these results can help in deciding which treatment to opt for.

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  • Guangyu He, Zi Yan, Lin Sun, You Lv, Weiying Guo, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0014
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 04, 2019
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    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare, adult-onset progeroid syndrome. Classic WS is caused by WRN mutation and partial atypical WS (AWS) is caused by LMNA mutation. A 19-year-old female patient with irregular menstruation and hyperglycemia was admitted. Physical examination revealed characteristic faces of progeria, graying and thinning of the hair scalp, thinner and atrophic skin over the hands and feet, as well as lipoatrophy of the extremities, undeveloped breasts at Tanner stage 3, and short stature. The patient also suffered from severe insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Possible WS was considered and both WRN and LMNA genes were analyzed. A novel missense mutation p.L140Q (c.419T>A) in the LMNA gene was identified and confirmed the diagnosis of AWS. Her father was a carrier of the same mutation. We carried out therapy for lowering blood glucose and lipid and improving insulin resistance, et al. The fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and triglyceride level was improved after treatment for 9 days. Literature review of AWS was performed to identify characteristics of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is one of the clinical manifestations of WS and attention must give to the differential diagnosis. Gene analysis is critical in the diagnosis of WS. According to the literature, classic and atypical WS differ in incidence, pathogenic gene, and clinical manifestations. Characteristic dermatological pathology may be significantly more important for the initial identification of AWS. Early detection, appropriate treatments, and regular follow-up may improve prognosis and survival of WS patients.

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  • Jing Xue, Xiaorong Li, Ping Liu, Ke Li, Liping Sha, Xiaoli Yang, Lili ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0567
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 03, 2019
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    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents an endocrine disorder, which is closely related with gut microbiota. Inulin, a kind of probiotics, has been proven to alleviate gut microbiota dysbiosis. Metformin, a biguanide agent, shows beneficial effects on chronic metabolic diseases. Our objective was to assess the effects and associated mechanisms of inulin and metforin on attenuation of PCOS in mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), model group (MOD), inulin group (INU), metformin group (MET). The last three groups were fed 6 mg of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) per 100 g body weight and 60% high-fat diet to generate mice model. After 21 days of intervention, mice were euthanized and associated indications were investigated. Body weight (BW) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased, but estradiol (E2) levels were increased in INU or MET group, respectively. Ovary HE staining demonstrated that inulin or metformin ameliorated PCOS morphology. Inflammatory indicators from plasma and ovary including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A were decreased in INU or MET group. Moreover, IL-10 in ovary of INU or MET group was increased. Sequencing and analysis of gut microbiota showed that compared to MOD group, Bifidobacterium was increased, but Proteobacteria, Helicobacter and Parasutterella were decreased in INU group. Helicobacter was decreased in MET group. Correlation analysis showed that gut microbiota was correlated with inflammatory factors. Our results revealed that inulin and metformin alleviated PCOS via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota, which may contribute to potential clinical therapy for the disease.

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  • Mitsuru Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Mako Hisakado, Waka Yoshioka, Takumi Kudo ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0094
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 02, 2019
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    Previous reports by us and other investigators showed that among athyreotic patients on levothyroxine (LT4) following total thyroidectomy patients with normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had mildly low serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels, whereas patients with mildly suppressed serum TSH levels had normal serum FT3 levels and patients with strongly suppressed serum TSH had elevated serum FT3 levels. The objective of this study was to clarify which of these three patient groups are closer to their preoperative euthyroid condition based on reported subjective symptoms. We prospectively studied 148 consecutive euthyroid patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Symptoms reflecting thyroid function documented preoperatively and following 12 months of LT4 after thyroidectomy were compared. In 65 patients with strongly suppressed TSH levels significant changes in symptoms with tendencies towards thyrotoxicosis were seen with regards to heat and cold tolerance (p < 0.01), bowel movements (p < 0.05), and hand tremors (p < 0.05). In 33 patients with normal TSH levels, significant changes in symptoms with tendencies towards hypothyroidism were seen with regards to heat and cold tolerance (p < 0.05) and activity (p < 0.05). Lastly, in 50 patients with mildly suppressed TSH levels and FT3 levels equivalent to preoperative levels, all symptom items remained equivalent to their preoperative levels. Symptoms reflecting thyroid function in patients on LT4 following total thyroidectomy suggested that patients with mildly suppressed TSH levels were closest to a euthyroid status. These data provide useful findings regarding the management of patients following total thyroidectomy.

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  • Li-qin Li, Ming-yan Yao, Jian-xia Ma, Peng Xue, Yu-kun Li
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0016
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 27, 2019
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    We aimed to explore the use of the flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system in hospitalized newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and to evaluate a new combination therapy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with or without liraglutide. This was an open-label, randomized study that was conducted in 60 newly diagnosed T2DM patients. The patients were randomized to receive either CSII (n = 30) or CSII + liraglutide (n = 30). The FGM system was used to assess the glycemic control and glycemic variability (GV) indices for 2 weeks. Mean blood glucose concentration (MBG), estimated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and measures of GV, including the standard deviation of the mean glucose (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), interquartile range (IQR), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE), and mean of daily difference (MODD) were compared between the two groups. Two oxidative stress biomarkers, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured before and after treatment. The estimated HbA1c and MBG decreased in both groups, especially the CSII + liraglutide group. SD, IQR, LAGE, and MODD were significantly lower in the CSII + liraglutide group than in the CSII group (all p < 0.05); there was no difference in CV or MAGE (p > 0.05). Similarly, the 4-HNE and 8-OHdG levels were significantly lower in the CSII + liraglutide group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that CSII with liraglutide was superior to CSII monotherapy in improving glycemic control and glycemic variability and in decreasing oxidative stress markers. Flash glucose monitoring can successfully provide ambulatory glucose profile data in the real world.

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  • Hiroshi Arima, Shintaro Iwama, Hidefumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Norik ...
    Type: Opinion
    Article ID: EJ19-0163
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
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    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising treatment for advanced malignancies. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in several organs, including skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, muscle, nerve, and endocrine organs. Endocrine irAEs comprise hypopituitarism, primary adrenal insufficiency, thyroid dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These conditions have the potential to lead to life-threatening consequences, such as adrenal crisis, thyroid storm, severe hypocalcemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. It is therefore important that both endocrinologists and oncologists understand the clinical features of each endocrine irAE to manage them appropriately. This opinion paper provides the guidelines of the Japan Endocrine Society and in part the Japan Diabetes Society for the management of endocrine irAEs induced by ICIs.

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  • Young Suk Shim, Se Hwan An, Hye Jin Lee, Min Jae Kang, Seung Yang, Il ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0071
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 19, 2019
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    Recent evidence indicates that urinary gonadotropins may be an alternative method for detecting pubertal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of first morning voided (FMV) and random urinary gonadotropins with the pubertal response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test to determine whether random urinary gonadotropins can be used as an alternative method for evaluating central precocious puberty (CPP). In total, 100 girls aged 6.0–8.9 years were enrolled. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their pubertal response to the GnRH stimulation test: a positive group (n = 68) and a negative group (n = 32). Random urinary luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the LH:FSH ratio were significantly positively correlated with FMV urinary LH (r = 0.411, p < 0.001), FMV urinary FSH (r = 0.494, p < 0.001), and the FMV urinary LH:FSH ratio (r = 0.519, p < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were determined to be 0.20 IU/L for random urinary LH (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.812, p < 0.001), 3.03 IU/L for random urinary FSH (AUC of 0.670, p = 0.004) and 0.08 for the random urinary LH:FSH ratio (AUC of 0.784, p < 0.001). No differences were observed between FMV and random urinary LH (p = 0.827), between FMV and random urinary FSH (p = 0.650), or between the FMV and random urinary LH:FSH ratio (p = 0.688) in ROC curve analyses with DeLong’s test. Based on our findings, random urinary gonadotropins may be applicable in clinical practice as a useful initial test for girls with CPP.

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  • Tomonori Sekizaki, Hiraku Kameda, Chiho Oba, Kyu Yong Cho, Akinobu Nak ...
    Type: Note
    Article ID: EJ19-0076
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 19, 2019
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    A 62-year-old man was referred to our department for elevation of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels during nivolumab administration for renal cell carcinoma. Although his ACTH and cortisol levels had been maintained within their reference ranges, they were elevated to 232.7 pg/mL and 21.9 μg/dL, respectively, after eight courses of nivolumab without any subjective symptoms or Cushing’s sign. He was hospitalized for endocrinological investigation. ACTH and cortisol returned to their normal ranges (29.18 pg/mL and 11.4 μg/dL, respectively) in the early morning on day 1, but fell down sharply to 3.7 pg/mL and 1.6 μg/dL, respectively, in the early morning on day 2 without subjective symptoms or vital sign changes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormality in his pituitary gland. ACTH response to CRH was apparently normal, but cortisol did not respond to increased ACTH. A rapid ACTH stimulation test showed slightly reduced response of cortisol to exogenous ACTH (1-24). These findings and his clinical course suggested secondary adrenal insufficiency arising from nivolumab-induced hypophysitis. In previous reports, most cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced hypophysitis were diagnosed based on adrenal insufficiency symptoms or hyponatremia with low ACTH and cortisol. The ACTH elevation observed in the present case may reflect destruction of the pituitary gland, suggesting that this finding may be important for early detection of ICI-induced hypophysitis. Our case underlines the necessity of close monitoring for subsequent onset of adrenal insufficiency when ACTH elevation is observed during ICI administration.

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  • Yusuke Mineoka, Michiyo Ishii, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Aki Yamashita, Nao ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0477
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 18, 2019
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    Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication in patients with diabetes. Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been reported to have a predictive effect to some diabetic complications in recent years. However, it has not been fully elucidated about the relationship between diabetic foot risk or diabetic foot ulcer and PLR in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this relationship. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationships between patient’s diabetic foot risk with the criteria of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) and prevalent foot ulcer, and PLR in 453 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes. Propensity score analysis was used to adjust the difference of covariates; age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, current smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, neuropathy, PAD, foot deformity and history of foot ulcers. PLR was higher in patients with high risk diabetic foot or foot ulcer (117 ± 40 vs. 107 ± 31, p = 0.003 and 148 ± 65 vs. 113 ± 56, p < 0.001). A receiver-operating characteristic curve demonstrated that PLR of 130.6 constitutes the cut-off value for prevalent foot ulcer with sensitivity 0.85 and specificity 0.70. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that PLR was positively correlated with prevalent foot ulcer (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.04, p = 0.003) after adjusted for several variables with propensity score analysis. Our results demonstrated that PLR can be a marker for high risk diabetic foot and diabetic foot ulcer in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • Hengcai Yu, Wen Zhang, Chengwu Shen, Haiqing Zhang, Haochao Zhang, Yah ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0078
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 18, 2019
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    A 49-year-old woman with hypothyroidism developed liver dysfunction after increasing dose of levothyroxine (L-T4) (Euthyrox®) from 25 μg to 50 μg. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were ruled out with examinations. She had no concurrent medication and had no history of infectious, chronic or any other autoimmune diseases. After cessation of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets (Euthyrox®), liver enzymes gradually returned to normal. She was diagnosed levothyroxine-induced liver injury, based on criteria proposed in “Diagnosis and treatment guideline on drug-induced liver injury” issued by the Chinese Medical Association (2015). As an alternative 25 μg qod of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets (Letrox®) was tried and increased gradually up to 75 μg daily. Since then liver enzymes have remained within normal range. The main difference of additive for both tablets is whether it contains lactose or not: Euthyrox® contains lactose which caused no liver injury, thus excluding the possibility that an additive of Euthyrox® contributed to liver injury. The relatively quicker and larger replacement with synthetic T4 for hypothyroidism inducing transient thyrotoxicosis was suspected, although thyroid function was normal. Immune-mediated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was also not excluded. This is a rare case of drug-induced liver injury due to levothyroxine tablets. It reminded us that when replacement with synthetic T4 for hypothyroidism is done, smaller-dose initiation and slower-speed increase may be useful for treatment of cases similar to genetically susceptible individuals.

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  • Yang Tang, Xiaoyun Zhu, Hui Feng, Lili Zhu, Shouqiang Fu, Bingtan Kong ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0148
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 18, 2019
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    The novel Graves disease (GD) model was established in BALB/c mice with recombinant adenovirus expressing the full-length human TSHR (Ad-TSHR289) by three times immunizations for nearly three months. Reducing the frequency of immunizations may shorten the modeling time to improve the efficiency of the study. In this study, female BALB/c mice were immunized one time with an adenovirus expressing the autoantigen thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (Ad-TSHR289). At the 3, 6, 12, 17 weeks after the immunization, mice were sacrificed. The blood was collected and thyroids were removed. T3, T4, TRAB and thyroid weight/body weight (TW/BW) were tested. Compared with the Normal control (NC) group, the incidence of hyperthyroidism at 3, 6, 12 and 17 weeks after immunization were about 66.67%, 100%, 100%, and 100%. Meanwhile, the incidences of goiter were nearly 50%, 83.33%, 100% and 100% at the same stages. Therefore, modeling rates of GD were about 50%, 83.33%, 100%, 100% at 3, 6, 12 and 17 weeks after immunization. T3 in serum continues to increase from 3 weeks to 17 weeks after immunization. Serum TRAb reached to peak at 6 weeks and remained from 12 weeks after immunization, while T4 and TW/BW had kept steady from 6 weeks. There are positive correlations between T3, T4 and TRAb, TRAb and TW/BW, as well as T3, T4 and TW/BW. GD model can be constructed by primary immunization with Ad-TSHR289, which could be detected at 3 weeks and at least until the 17 weeks after primary immunization. It would improve the efficiency of GD research.

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  • Salvatore Cannavò, Salvatore Benvenga, Erika Messina, Mariacarla Molet ...
    Type: Letter to the Editor
    Article ID: EJ19-0122
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Kaori Hozumi, Hidenori Fukuoka, Yukiko Odake, Takehito Takeuchi, Tomok ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0035
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 12, 2019
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    Although acromegaly has been reported in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), these cases have not been associated with growth hormone (GH)-producing somatotroph adenoma, but with optic pathway glioma. A 68 year-old Japanese woman, who had been clinically diagnosed with NF1, was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hypercalcemia. Acromegaly was suspected due to her facial features, and subsequent examinations revealed the presence of GH excess with a pituitary tumor, leading to the diagnosis of acromegaly. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an eosinophilic pituitary adenoma with diffuse positivity for GH, indicating typical somatotroph adenoma. In addition, her thyroid tumor was diagnosed histologically as follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). To investigate the pathogenesis of this untypical multiple endocrine tumor case of NF1, genetic analysis was performed using peripheral leukocytes and tissue of resected tumors. A heterozygous novel germline nonsense mutation (p.Arg1534*) in exon 35 of the NF1 gene was detected from peripheral leukocytes, which results in a truncated protein lacking the critical domain for GTPase activity, strongly suggesting its causal role in NF1. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in exon 35 of the NF1 gene was not detected in the somatotroph adenoma, parathyroid adenoma, and FTC. Although any mutations of the following genes; MEN1, CDKN1B, and PAX8-PPARγ were not detected, a heterozygous GNAS R201C mutation was detected in the somatotroph adenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first rare MEN1-like case of genetically diagnosed NF1 complicated with acromegaly caused by a somatotroph adenoma.

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  • Won Woong Kim, Yumie Rhee, Beom Seok Kim, Kwangsoon Kim, Cho Rok Lee, ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0036
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 12, 2019
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    Parathyroidectomy (PTX) is the standard treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT); however, the administration of cinacalcet has gained prominence as a noninvasive treatment. We aimed to determine whether PTX or cinacalcet is more effective in preventing morbidity and mortality through reviewing follow-up data concerning surgical management of SHPT. We retrospectively analyzed and divided 209 patients with SHPT into two treatment groups: PTX (n = 78) and cinacalcet (n = 131) groups. We compared clinical features, the over-the-target range rate during pre- and post-intervention periods, new cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality between both groups. Almost all biochemical parameters were well controlled in the post-intervention period, and were within the recommended target range for the PTX group but not for the cinacalcet group. A significant difference was observed in the over-the-target range rate during the post-intervention period between the groups. PTX and cinacalcet interventions significantly lowered the over-the-target range rates for serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (>300 pg/mL), corrected calcium (>10.5 mg/mL), serum phosphorus (>5.5 mg/dL), and calcium–phosphorus product (>55) in both groups (p = 0.001). PTX reduced the risk of new cardiovascular events by 86% compared to cinacalcet (p = 0.001); however, all-cause mortality did not differ significantly (14.1% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.132). For patients with SHPT, PTX helps prevent cardiovascular events through normalizing biochemical variables, according to recommended guidelines. PTX should be considered before cinacalcet treatment to prevent new cardiovascular events. Early PTX for appropriate patients can help prevent immediate postoperative complications and mortality.

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  • Yoshihiro Takesue, Fan-Yan Wei, Hiroyuki Fukuda, Yuki Tanoue, Takahiro ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0536
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 11, 2019
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    CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1) is a tRNA-modifying enzyme that catalyzes 2-methylthiolation (ms2) and has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). CDKAL1-mediated ms2 is important for efficient protein translation and regulates insulin biosynthesis in pancreatic cells. Interestingly, an association between T2D and release of growth hormone (GH) has been reported in humans. However, it is unknown whether CDKAL1 is important for hormone production in the pituitary gland. The present study investigated the role of CDKAL1 in GH-producing pituitary adenomas (GHPAs). CDKAL1 activity was suppressed in GHPAs, as evidenced by a decrease in ms2, compared with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not produce specific hormones. Downregulation of Cdkal1 using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs increased the biosynthesis and secretion of GH in rat GH3 cells. Depletion of Cdkal1 increased the cytosolic calcium level via downregulation of DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C10 (Dnajc10), which is an endoplasmic reticulum protein related to calcium homeostasis. This stimulated transcription of GH via upregulation of Pit-1. Moreover, CDKAL1 activity was highly sensitive to proteostatic stress and was upregulated by suppression of this stress. Taken together, these results suggest that dysregulation of CDKAL1 is involved in the pathogenesis of GHPAs, and that modulation of the proteostatic stress response might control CDKAL1 activity and facilitate treatment of GHPAs.

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  • Goro Sasaki, Tomohiro Ishii, Naoaki Hori, Naoko Amano, Keiko Homma, Se ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0111
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 08, 2019
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    Steroid 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency (5αRD2) is a congenital disorder of sex development caused by impairment of conversion from testosterone (T) to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT deficiency leads to various degrees of undervirilized external genitalia including micropenis, primarily correlated with mutations of the SRD5A2 gene that encodes 5α-reductase type 2. Four Japanese boys with isolated micropenis were diagnosed as 5αRD2 by elevated ratios of serum T/DHT, and decreased ratios of urinary 5α/5β-reduced steroid metabolites. Genetic analyses for SRD5A2 identified that the four patients shared a hypomorphic mutation R227Q that has a residual activity related to the mild-form of 5αRD2. For prepubertal micropenis, DHT was transdermally applied to the four patients at the ages of 4–11 year, increasing a median of stretched penile lengths (SPLs) from 2.6 cm (–2.5 SD) to 4.4 cm (–0.2 SD). Nevertheless, the post-pubertal penile growth was apparently retarded, despite normal levels of T secreted from well-developed testes. The second course of DHT treatment underwent at ages of 12–18 year, but unable to normalize SPLs at a range of 6.0 to 7.0 cm (–3.4 to –2.4 SD). The prostate volumes of two patients were variable at 8.1 and 21 cm3, and a sperm cell count of one patient was normal as young adult. DHT treatment contributes to development of the penis and prostate, which are favorable for the potential fertility of 5αRD2 adults. Meanwhile, the retarded penile growth and a risk of prostate overgrowth may complicate the post-pubertal management with DHT for 5αRD2 males.

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  • Aidibai Simayi, Patamu Mohemaiti
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0579
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 07, 2019
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    The aim from this paper is to identify the main influencing factors of co-morbid depression among T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) patients and to provide reliable evidence for relative researches. A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for co-morbid depression in T2DM was performed on all retrieved studies through an observational research of network database. Data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 from the extracted results, the heterogeneity index of the studies was determined using Chi-squared I2 tests and on the basis of heterogeneity, a fixed or random effect model was used to estimates the pooled effect of each influencing factor. Fourteen observational studies containing total of 82,239,298 cases that have been identified. Diabetic complications (OR = 2.91; 95%CI, 1.76–4.82, p < 0.0001), insulin use (OR = 1.71; 95%CI, 1.18–2.48, p = 0.005), education status (OR = 1.91; 95%CI, 1.30–2.81, p = 0.001) were confirmed as risk factors, while regular exercising (OR = 0.51; 95%CI, 0.27–0.96, p = 0.04), gender (OR = 0.56; 95%CI, 0.47–0.65, p < 0.0001), marital status (OR = 0.53; 95%CI, 0.34–0.83, p = 0.005), current social status (OR = 0.64; 95%CI, 0.47–0.88, p = 0.006) were confirmed as protective factors of co-morbid depression in the patients with T2DM. Subgroup analysis claimed age (≥60 years) was a risk factor and smoking was protective factor for co-morbid depression in the patients with T2DM. Being female, have diabetic complications, insulin use, education level less than secondary are risk factors. However, doing regular exercise, being married and on work are protective factors of co-morbid depression in patients with T2DM. As to the other influencing factors should be further studied.

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  • Satoshi Ugi, Katsutaro Morino, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, S ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0054
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 01, 2019
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    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been proven effective in treating obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, reports of the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on glucose metabolism in Japanese obese patients with T2DM are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on glucose tolerance in Japanese obese patients with T2DM, and to analyze factors influencing diabetes remission after surgery. This was a retrospective analysis of data for 24 consecutive patients with T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. We investigated weight loss and its impact on T2DM 1 year postoperatively. We also compared baseline characteristics and postoperative factors between patients who achieved diabetes remission and patients without remission. Mean body weight loss and percent total weight loss were 23.9 kg and 23.3%, respectively. Mean hemoglobin A1c levels dropped from 7.3 ± 0.3% to 6.1 ± 0.2%, and 18 patients (75%) achieved diabetes remission 1 year postoperatively. Patients achieving remission had significantly lower hemoglobin A1c levels (p = 0.026), higher fasting C-peptide values (p < 0.001), shorter diabetes duration (p < 0.001), lower insulin requirement (p = 0.002), and higher area under the insulin response curve (p < 0.001) and insulinogenic index (p < 0.001) during oral glucose tolerance testing. In conclusion, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is an effective treatment for Japanese obese patients with T2DM. Preserving insulin secretion is the major determinant of diabetes remission.

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  • Motoki Kawasaki, Mitsuru Ito, Hirosuke Danno, Kazuyoshi Kousaka, Tomoh ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0063
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 01, 2019
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    While patients with large goitrous thyroid diseases often have a relatively high serum free triiodothyronine (FT3)/free thyroxine (FT4) ratio, athyreotic patients have a relatively low FT3/FT4 ratio. Here we investigated the relationship between thyroid hormone status and thyroid volume (TV) among a large number of euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) patients. We retrospectively enrolled 2,603 untreated HT patients who visited the Kuma hospital from 2012 to 2016, and divided them into four groups as per the TV: normal TV (<20 mL), slight goiter (20 ≤ TV < 50 mL), moderate goiter (50 ≤ TV < 80 mL), and the large goiter group (≥80 mL). Baseline characteristics and laboratory data of each group were compared to those of 1,554 control subjects. The association between FT3/FT4 ratio and TV among HT patients was then analyzed. We observed a change in laboratory parameters among 13 patients in the large goiter group who were prescribed levothyroxine (LT4) for reducing TV. Compared to normal subjects, the moderate and large goiter groups exhibited significantly higher serum FT3 levels, while all HT groups exhibited lower serum FT4 levels. Serum FT3/FT4 ratios showed a positive correlation with TV (r = 0.35, p < 0.01), which was independent of age, sex, body mass index, and TgAb and TSH levels. LT4 treatment lowered serum FT3 levels and FT3/FT4 ratios significantly. Our results indicated that HT patients with increased TV tended to present with high serum FT3, low FT4, and high FT3/FT4 ratios. The elevation of deiodinase activity may be an important factor affecting thyroid hormonal balance in such patients.

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  • Yohei Koizumi, Masashi Hirooka, Atsushi Hiraoka, Hironori Ochi, Takaak ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0140
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2019
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    Lenvatinib has anti-tumor activity against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hypothyroidism is also a frequent complication in patients treated with lenvatinib. However, studies on lenvatinib-induced thyroid toxicity and destructive thyroiditis are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the frequency and timing of thyroid abnormalities in lenvatinib for unresectable HCC. This retrospective study enrolled 50 patients with advanced HCC treated with lenvatinib. Patients were classified to have euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, and thyrotoxicosis. The timing of thyroid dysfunction was assessed, and risk factors for incident hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis were evaluated using multivariate models. Subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, and thyrotoxicosis occurred in 7 (14.0%), 26 (52.0%), and 5 (10.0%) patients, respectively. In the 33 patients with hypothyroidism, 27 (84.4%) developed the condition within 2 weeks of starting lenvatinib treatment. Of the 5 patients with thyrotoxicosis, 3 developed the condition within 8 weeks of starting lenvatinib administration. One patient developed thyrotoxicosis in only 1 week of the initiation of treatment. No correlation between the presence of antibodies and the incidence and severity of thyroid dysfunction due to the autoimmune mechanism was observed. The progression-free survival was significantly better in the hypothyroidism group. Lenvatinib treatment for unresectable HCC not only causes hypothyroidism, but also thyrotoxicosis. Moreover, these thyroid conditions develop within the early period of treatment at a higher prevalence. Patients with thyroid dysfunction had better prognosis. Based on these results, in patients administered with lenvatinib, there is need for careful assessment for the possibility of thyroid dysfunction from the onset of treatment.

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  • Raishi Ichikawa, Koji Takano, Kazumi Fujimoto, Tetsuya Motomiya, Masak ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0372
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 28, 2019
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    Dysregulation of glucagon secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However it hasn’t been elucidated involvement of glucagon dysregulation in pathophysiology of T2DM. Recently a new glucagon sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) became available that can measure plasma glucagon level with higher accuracy and simpler procedure than the conventional RIA method. We performed OGTT for adult subjects aged 20–69 years to define normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 25), borderline glucose intolerance (defined as pre-diabetes mellitus: preDM, n = 15), or diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 13), and we measured glucagon levels with this new ELISA method at fasting and during OGTT. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon and active GLP-1 were also measured. This study took place in diabetes outpatient clinic in Kitasato University Hospital and an affiliated outpatient clinic. PreDM and DM exhibited higher fasting plasma glucagon levels than NGT (34.4 ± 4.6 and 44.1 ± 5.0 vs. 20.6 ± 3.6 pg/mL), and statistical significance was observed between NGT and DM (p < 0.05). There was significant correlation between fasting glucagon level and indexes of insulin sensitivity. During OGTT, glucagon levels were less suppressed in DM and preDM than in NGT, whereas no apparent relationship was observed between glucagon and GLP-1 secretion. Significant positive correlation was observed between glucagon levels during OGTT and fasting TG. In conclusion, subjects with mild T2DM exhibited fasting hyperglucagonemia and insufficient suppression to oral glucose load compared to NGT subjects.

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  • Jeong Ki Paek, Jongwoo Kim, Kyunam Kim, Seon Yeong Lee
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0064
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 28, 2019
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    Various indicators have been suggested as replacements of body mass index (BMI) for estimating body fat percentage, including the recently introduced relative fat mass (RFM). However, RFM has not been assessed in different ethnicities; therefore, we evaluated whether RFM can be used to estimate body fat percentage in Korean adults and whether RFM is a useful indicator of obesity. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2011, we analyzed a total of 18,706 individuals (7,970 men, 10,643 women) aged ≥20 years who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We compared obesity (body fat ≥25% for men, 35% for women) misclassification rate of RFM (≥25 for men, 35 for women) and BMI (≥25 kg/m2). Diagnostic accuracy and optimal cut-offs of BMI and RFM were verified by comparing area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RFM and BMI misclassification rates were similar obesity diagnosis based on body fat percentage (27.9% vs. 27.8%) among men. RFM misclassification rate was lower than that of BMI (22% vs. 45%) in women. AUC of RFM was higher in men (AUC: 0.79 vs. 0.78; p = 0.004) and lower in women (AUC: 0.80 vs. 0.83) than those of BMI (p < 0.001). In this study, RFM showed diagnostic accuracy for detecting excess body fat percentage, comparable to that of BMI. Using RFM with BMI could be beneficial in improving the diagnostic accuracy of obesity assessment in women.

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  • Sayuri Tanaka, Masahiro Yamamoto, Miwa Morita, Ayumu Takeno, Ippei Kan ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0547
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
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    Crooke’s cell adenoma (CCA) is an aggressive subtype of corticotroph adenoma; however, CCA is associated with a high incidence of low expression of methyl guanine methyl transferase (MGMT), suggesting that temozolomide (TMZ) treatment might be effective for this tumor type. The case of a 56-year-old woman with Cushing’s disease caused by a pituitary CCA is presented. At the age of 38 years, the patient presented to our hospital with polyuria and a visual field defect. MRI and laboratory studies showed a 4.5-cm-diameter pituitary tumor with plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol levels of more than 500 pg/mL and 40 μg/dL, respectively. At 39 years of age, the patient underwent a craniotomy, and her plasma ACTH and cortisol levels decreased to less than 200 pg/mL and 10 μg/dL, respectively; however, these hormone levels increased gradually to 3,940 pg/mL and 70 μg/dL, respectively, by the time the patient was 56 years old. Histopathological re-examination of the previously resected specimen showed that the pituitary tumor was MGMT-negative CCA. TMZ treatment after the second operation decreased the plasma ACTH levels from 600–800 pg/mL to 70–300 pg/mL. No signs of recurrence were observed in the seven years following these treatments with added prophylactic radiation therapy. These clinical findings suggest that TMZ treatment to patients with CCA accompanied with elevated ACTH may be good indication to induce lowering ACTH levels and tumor shrinkage.

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  • Rieko Kosugi, Eiji Nakatani, Kensuke Okamoto, Saeko Aoshima, Hidekazu ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0013
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
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    The objective of this study was to investigate whether sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes induced compensatory hyperphagia by reducing fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion. This prospective study was performed in 26 type 2 diabetes patients treated with dapagliflozin (5 mg/day). Hormonal factors associated with glucose metabolism, dietary intakes estimated by brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ), body weight (BW), and body composition were measured at baseline, and 4 and 12 weeks after dapagliflozin. At 12 weeks, HbA1c levels and BW decreased significantly (both p < 0.0001). BMI at baseline was predictive to baseline log10 (FGF21) (p = 0.037). This study showed no change in FGF21, but insulin and glucagon levels decreased significantly (both p < 0.05). Although hyperphagia was found in 10 patients (38.5%), defining hyperphagia as >20% increase in carbohydrate intake, dapagliflozin treatment induced no hyperphagia, when analyzed by all subjects, and there was no significant association between changes in FGF21 levels and carbohydrate intake. On the other hand, a positive correlation between changes in FGF21 levels or carbohydrate intake and BW was observed (both p < 0.005). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intervention to maintain the reduced levels in FGF21 is beneficial for BW reduction in type 2 diabetes patients treated with SGLT2i.

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  • Masato Furuhashi, Masayuki Koyama, Megumi Matsumoto, Takayo Murase, Ta ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0053
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
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    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an enzyme of uric acid formation from hypoxanthine and xanthine, is recognized as a source of oxidative stress. Plasma activity of XOR has been reported to be a biomarker of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, liver dysfunction, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia and adipokines. We investigated longitudinal change in plasma XOR activity, which was determined by using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography to detect [13C2, 15N2]-uric acid using [13C2, 15N2]-xanthine as a substrate, in 511 subjects (male/female: 244/267) of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study in the years 2016 and 2017. Plasma XOR activity in a basal state was significantly higher in men than in women, but no significant sex difference was observed in annual change in plasma XOR activity. Annual change in plasma activity of XOR was positively correlated with changes in each parameter, including body weight (r = 0.203, p < 0.001), body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, aspartate transaminase (AST) (r = 0.772, p < 0.001), alanine transaminase (r = 0.647, p < 0.001), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, fasting glucose and HbA1c. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that change in AST and that in body weight were independent predictors of change in plasma XOR activity after adjustment of age, sex and changes in each variable with a significant correlation without multicollinearity. In conclusion, annual change in plasma XOR activity is independently associated with changes in liver enzymes and body weight in a general population. Improvement of liver function and reduction of body weight would decrease plasma XOR activity and its related oxidative stress as a therapeutic strategy.

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  • Xiaoyan Guo, Xinyan Chen, Ce Zhang, Jiahuan Zhang, Chunyu Zhang
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0358
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2019
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    This study aimed to investigate if hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance was correlated with the occurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in a group of Chinese patients. 258 inpatients were included in the study. According to the postoperative pathology results, all subjects were divided into PTC (n = 153) and control groups (with benign thyroid nodules, n = 105). Body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, FT3, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), serum uric acid (UA), and lipid levels. Fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, TPOAb levels, serum TSH levels, and serum uric acid levels in the PTC group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences in age, gender, BMI, history of hypertension, and the levels of fasting plasma glucose, FT3, FT4, TGAb, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). After the multiple logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of PTC was positively associated with fasting insulin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.048, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.003–1.096, p = 0.037) and TPOAb levels (OR = 1.001, 95% CI: 1.000–1.002, p = 0.032). Moreover, TPOAb level was positively correlated with vague margin (r = 0.126, p = 0.045) and negatively correlated with homogeneous echo (r = –0.179, p = 0.004). However, fasting insulin levels were not correlated with pathological characteristics of PTC. Hyperinsulinemia and higher TPOAb levels might be the risk factors of PTC, but not disease severity in Chinese patients.

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  • Ko Harada, Miho Yasuda, Kou Hasegawa, Yuto Yamazaki, Hironobu Sasano, ...
    Type: Note
    Article ID: EJ19-0067
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2019
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    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from adrenocortical parenchymal cells. Myxoid ACC is one of the newly identified, rare, but important histological variants of ACC, characterized by the presence of abundant extracellular Alcian Blue-positive myxoid material. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome, and the incidence of ACC in MEN1 patients has been reported to be between 1.4% and 6%. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old Japanese woman harboring the past history of MEN1 associated with insulinoma, pituitary tumor, and hyperparathyroidism. She presented to our hospital with hypertension and hypokalemia. Imaging studies revealed a right adrenal tumor, and histological examination revealed myxoid ACC. Despite surgical resection of the tumor and mitotane therapy, the patient died 6 months after the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the myxoid variant of ACC in a patient with MEN1. The patient’s clinical course was characterized by the development of both multiple endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasm, hyperaldosteronism, and aggressive biological behavior. This case confirmed that myxoid morphology was also associated with aggressive behavior in ACC, but further studies are required to clarify the association between MEN1 and myxoid ACC.

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  • Guanqiao Wang, Rui Liang, Tengli Liu, Le Wang, Jiaqi Zou, Na Liu, Yan ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0015
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyzes the first step of prostanoid biosynthesis, and is known for its crucial role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Although a variety of studies revealed that COX-2 played a role in the IL-1β induced β cell dysfunction, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, using a cDNA microarray and in silico analysis, we demonstrated that inflammatory responses were upregulated in human T2DM islets compared with non-diabetic (ND) islets. COX-2 expression was significantly enhanced in human T2DM islets, correlated with the high inflammation level. PGE2, the catalytic product of COX-2, downregulated the functional gene expression of PDX1, NKX6.1, and MAFA and blunted the glucose induced insulin secretion of human islets. Conversely, inhibition of COX-2 activity by a pharmaceutical inhibitor prevented the β-cell dysfunction induced by IL-1β. COX-2 inhibitor also abrogated the IL-1β autostimulation in β cells, which further resulted in reduced COX-2 expression in β cells. Together, our results revealed that COX-2/PGE2 signaling was involved in the regulation of IL-1β autostimulation, thus forming an IL-1β/COX-2/PGE2 pathway loop, which may result in the high inflammation level in human T2DM islets and the inflammatory impairment of β cells. Breaking this IL-1β/COX-2/PGE2 pathway loop provides a potential therapeutic strategy to improve β cell function in the treatment of T2DM patients.

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  • Katsunori Manaka, Junichiro Sato, Yuka Kinoshita, Nobuaki Ito, Megumi ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0034
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease. Although surgical treatment is curative in most cases, there are few alternative therapies for the hypercalcemia caused by PHPT. Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of the calcium sensing receptor and was conditionally approved in Japan in 2014 to treat PHPT cases. However, there have been few reports on the outcomes. In our present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet in 61 PHPT patients who were treated with this agent at our hospital between January 2014 and March 2017. The corrected serum Ca and intact PTH levels were significantly reduced by this treatment, whereas the serum phosphorus levels significantly increased. There were no significant differences in the eGFR or urinary Ca to urinary creatinine ratio between baseline and the maintenance phase. In terms of bone mineral density, there were significant increases observed in the 16 cases for whom a baseline value was available, 11 of whom had been treated for osteoporosis. The most common adverse events from cinacalcet treatment were gastrointestinal symptom, such as nausea and appetite loss. Other adverse events included severe dehydration due to hypercalcemia, myalgia, hypocalcemia, and increased urinary calcium excretion. Seven patients were switched to surgical treatment, and the drug was discontinued in 9 other patients, due to adverse effects. Our present study findings demonstrate that cinacalcet is an effective therapeutic option for PHPT from the perspective of hypercalcemia improvement but that adverse gastrointestinal effects of this drug occur at a frequency of about 10%.

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  • Jinbo Liu, Kuanting Wang, Huan Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Yang ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0570
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2019
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    Increasing of arterial stiffness is the pathophysiological characteristic of hypertension. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) is an index of arterial stiffness. Serum uric acid has been found to be involved the development of hypertension. We investigated the relationship between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. 651 subjects (M/F 271/380) were divided into four groups, group 1: subjects without hypertension and hyperuricemia; group 2: hypertension subjects without hyperuricemia; group 3: hyperuricemia subjects without hypertension; group 4: subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. CF-PWV was measured by Complior apparatus. Results showed that levels of CF-PWV (10.75 ± 2.03 vs. 10.06 ± 1.98 m/s, p < 0.001) and serum uric acid (319.33 ± 80.12 vs. 298.78 ± 74.88 umol/L, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in hypertensive (groups 2 + 4) group than in normotensive (groups 1 + 3) group. CF-PWV was significantly higher in group 4 than group 1, group 2 and group 3 (ANOVA analysis: F = 13.348, p < 0.001; 11.78 ± 2.10 vs. 9.98 ± 1.98, 10.52 ± 1.93, 10.56 ± 1.99 m/s, all p < 0.05, respectively). There was positive correlation between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in entire study group (r = 0.187, p < 0.001), even after adjusting for gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.100, p = 0.015). Multiple linear regressions showed that SBP, age, benzbromarone, statin and serum uric acid were independent associating factors of CFPWV in all subjects (β = 0.310, p < 0.001; β = 0.330, p < 0.001; β = 0.172, p = 0.002; β = –0.143, p = 0.006; β = 0.126, p = 0.027; respectively). In conclusions, CF-PWV was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with hyperuricemia compared to hypertension without hyperuricemia subjects, and serum uric acid was an independent associating factor of CF-PWV.

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  • Yuya Fujihara, Nobuya Hamanoue, Hiromi Yano, Makito Tanabe, Yuko Akehi ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0505
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 09, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Low endogenous testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the relationships between testosterone or SHBG and liver fibrosis in NAFLD. Thus, we aimed to clarify the relationships between serum testosterone or SHBG concentration and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, a marker of liver fibrosis. Serum testosterone was assayed in various forms (total testosterone [TT], calculated free testosterone [cFT], calculated bioavailable testosterone [cbT], and SHBG) and metabolic markers were also measured in 363 Japanese men (mean age 51.1 ± 8.7 years) at routine health examinations. We then attempted to identify the factors contributing to liver fibrosis by investigating the associations between the metabolic markers, including testosterone, and FIB-4 index. People with a relatively high FIB-4 index (≥1.3) demonstrated lower cFT, cbT, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen, but higher SHBG, than those with a lower FIB-4 index (<1.3). There were no significant differences in HbA1c, fasting glucose concentration, HOMA-R, or metabolic syndrome prevalence between the two groups. Binary regression analysis revealed that SHBG ≥52 nmol/L and cFT <8.0 ng/dL were statistically significant risk factors for FIB-4 index ≥1.3. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that cFT <7.62 ng/dL (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.639) and SHBG ≥49.8 nmol/L (AUC = 0.649) were the strongest risk factors for FIB-4 index ≥1.3. In contrast to previous findings showing low SHBG concentrations in NAFLD, we provide evidence that high SHBG and low bioactive testosterone are associated with liver fibrosis.

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  • Ayako Hoshiyama, Kazumi Fujimoto, Ryo Konno, Sayaka Sasaki, Akari Momo ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0472
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, has potent insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory activities. However, exogenous GIP has less potent biological effects compared with another incretin hormone, GLP-1, which limits its use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The fate and secretion of administered native GIP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify plasma binding proteins for human GIP. Fluorescent-labelled GIP was added to fresh human plasma and subjected to clear native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CN-PAGE). Then fluorescent protein bands were in-gel trypsin-digested and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, revealing the presence of albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and transferrin. In contrast to GIP, the binding of fluorescent GLP-1 and glucagon to plasma protein fractions were minimal. CN-PAGE analysis of synthetic GIP incubated with human serum albumin, purified IgG or transferrin, and subsequent western blot analysis revealed that GIP binds to each of these proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that GIP readily binds to albumin, IgG and transferrin, three plasma proteins highly abundant in the human peripheral circulation. Separation of protein complexes using CN-PAGE and the identification of in-gel digested proteins by LC-MS/MS analysis provide a promising strategy to identify plasma binding proteins for bioactive peptides.

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  • Zongze He, Longyi Chen, Xiao Hu, Jian Tang, Linfu He, Junting Hu, Fan ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0487
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are considered the most common intracranial tumor to cause serious morbidity because of dysregulated pituitary hormone secretions. Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is correlated with the development and function of the pituitary gland as well as the tumorigenesis of hypothalamic-pituitary axis-related pituitary tumors. In this study, we showed the differential expression patterns of miRNAs in NFPAs (nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas), GHPAs (growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas) and PRLPAs (prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas) compared to those in three normal pituitary glands using the HiSeq 2000 sequencing system (Illumina). We validated miRNA expression using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses of samples from 73 patients (13 GHPAs, 42 NFPAs, and 18 PRLPAs) and 6 normal pituitary gland. We observed that miR-34c-3p was significantly downregulated in our PRLPA samples (p < 0.01), along with miR-34b-5p, miR-378 and miR-338-5p (all p < 0.05). In NFPAs, miR-493-5p was downregulated, and miR-181b-5p was significantly upregulated (p < 0.01). In GHPAs, miR-184 was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). We observed that the tumor suppressive miR-124-3p was downregulated in both NFPAs and GHPAs. Taken together, we showed distinctive miRNA expression patterns in these three PAs, and these miRNA signatures in PA may have therapeutic potential as novel biomarkers for each type of PA.

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  • Yoshinori Ozeki, Takayuki Masaki, Yuichi Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Okamoto, M ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0543
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between body weight (BW), computed tomography (CT)-assessed abdominal adipose tissue, and the glycemic metabolic profile in obese Japanese patients following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This study analyzed adipose tissue compartments using CT methods before and 1 year after LSG. Thirty obese patients were studied, and variables measured included visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), density of VAT (VAT-D), and density of SAT (SAT-D). We also examined the parameters in patients according to whether they had type-2 diabetes (T2DM). LSG induced significant losses in BW, SAT, and VAT after LSG. Additionally, SAT-D and VAT-D both increased and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c, but not C-peptide, decreased after surgery. ΔSAT and ΔVAT were positively related, and ΔSAT-D and ΔVAT-D were negatively related to ΔBW and/or FPG. Furthermore, a multivariate regression model showed that total BW loss (TBWL) was closely related to ΔSAT (β = 0.84; p < 0.001) and ΔVAT-D (β = –0.45; p < 0.05) and improvement of FPG was related to ΔVAT (β = 0.61; p < 0.05) after LSG. Finally, ΔFPG was correlated with ΔVAT in 16 T2DM patients (r = 0.58; p < 0.05) but not in non-T2DM patients. TBWL was related to ΔSAT and ΔVAT-D, and improvement of FPG was related to ΔVAT in obese Japanese patients after LSG.

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  • Yohei Akiba, Kei Miyakoshi, Satoru Ikenoue, Yoshifumi Saisho, Yoshifum ...
    Type: Note
    Article ID: EJ18-0575
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A number of data on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in singleton pregnancy is available, however, little is known about the glycemic characteristics of twin pregnancy with GDM. The aim of this study was to compare the severity of dysglycemia between twin and singleton pregnancies with GDM (T-GDM and S-GDM). We retrospectively analyzed pregnancies with GDM defined by the Japan Diabetes Society criteria (T-GDM, n = 20; S-GDM, n = 451) in our hospital. During the study period, women with GDM underwent self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements as well as dietary management. Insulin treatment was initiated when dietary treatment did not achieve the glycemic goal. The glycemic and metabolic characteristics were compared between T-GDM and S-GDM, as follows: gestational week at the diagnosis of GDM, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, HbA1c, insulin secretion (i.e. insulinogenic index [IGI] and Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 [ISSI-2]), and insulin requirement before delivery. The rate of one abnormal OGTT value in T-GDM was similar to that in S-GDM (60% vs. 71%). There were no significant differences in gestational week and levels of HbA1c at diagnosis, levels of IGI and ISSI-2 between T-GDM and S-GDM (median, 20 weeks vs. 17 weeks, 5.0% vs. 5.2%, 0.58 vs. 0.71, 1.7 vs. 1.8, respectively). The rate of insulin treatment and a median dosage of insulin needed before delivery was comparable between the two groups (T-GDM vs. S-GDM: 45% vs. 32% and 14 vs. 13 unit/day). Our data suggested that the severity of dysglycemia in T-GDM was similar to that in S-GDM during pregnancy.

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  • Min Joo Kim, Seok-Mo Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Yul Hwangbo, You Jin Lee, Sun ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0488
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Sorafenib has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib treatment in a real-world setting and unveil predictive markers of responsiveness to sorafenib. The treatment response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and adverse events (AEs) of sorafenib-treated RAI-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic DTC patients at three institutes were retrospectively reviewed, and their tumor doubling time was calculated by three investigators. Total eighty-five patients were treated with sorafenib, and seven patients discontinued sorafenib due to AEs before the first tumor assessment. The median PFS was 14.4 months, and the objective response rate was 10.3% in 78 patients who were able to evaluate the tumor response. Age, sex, histologic type, tumor location, RAI avidity, or the presence of FDG-PET uptake did not affect PFS. However, smaller tumor size (≤1.5 cm) of the target lesions in lung showed better PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.39, p = 0.01), and tumors with the shortest doubling time (≤6 months) had worse outcome (HR 2.70, p < 0.01). Because of AEs, dose reductions or drug interruptions were required in 64% of patients, and eventually, 23% of patients discontinued sorafenib permanently. The most common AE was hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR). Patients with severe HFSR showed better PFS, but there were no statistical significance (HR 0.65, p = 0.05). In conclusion, small tumor size and long doubling time of each target lesion can be a prognostic marker to predict the responsiveness to sorafenib in RAI-refractory DTC patients.

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  • Mana Hirano, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Yuichiro Miyamamoto, Shozo Yamada, To ...
    Type: Note
    Article ID: EJ19-0066
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 34-year-old woman presented our hospital with complaint of irregular menstruation and abnormal uterine bleeding lasting for a month. After her second parturition at the age of 27, her menstrual cycle had been regular, but it suddenly became irregular at the age of 30. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed the presence of ovarian mass, and the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Bilateral ovaries temporally shrink after puncture but the size soon resumed. Gonadotropins were almost normal, but estradiol and PRL levels turned out to be elevated, and cabergoline treatment was initiated. After referral to our hospital, we found that the ovaries showed multifollicular appearance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an 18-mm macroadenoma in the suprasellar area. To suppress the secretion of endogenous gonadotropins and estrogen, low-dose estrogen-progestin was prescribed. Surprisingly, the treatment temporarily reduced the size of the ovaries. The patient was referred to a neurosurgeon, and a functioning gonadotroph adenoma was suspected. After the resection of the pituitary tumor, her menstrual cycle became regular, and the size of bilateral ovaries became normal. We also noticed that her ovarian reserve judged by anti-Müllerian hormone had been almost diminished after the surgical treatment, probably reflecting the exhaustion of follicular pool. Women with multifollicular ovaries and elevated estradiol levels may have functioning gonadotroph adenomas, although the level of FSH is relatively normal, and ovarian reserve can be followed by measuring anti-Müllerian hormone.

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  • Jun Tanimura, Hiromi Nakagawa, Takeo Tanaka, Akihiro Kikuchi, Sachie O ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ18-0542
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 13, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus is an antitumor agent known to cause hyperglycemia. However, the clinical course of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, its pathophysiological basis, and the treatment strategy are not clear. In this case series report, we present the clinical course of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia in four patients. Hyperglycemia occurred 3–8 weeks after the administration of everolimus irrespective of the body mass index (range, 21.3–29.1 kg/m2) or pre-existing diabetes. Insulin or insulin secretagogues were required for glycemic control in most of the patients. Of note, the hyperglycemia was reversible in all patients, and none of the patients required anti-diabetic agents to achieve adequate glycemic control after cessation of everolimus therapy. To investigate the underlying mechanism of everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, we assessed insulin secretion and sensitivity by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, arginine challenge test, and/or hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study using stable isotope-labeled glucose tracer in two patients. Everolimus did not affect insulin sensitivity in the liver, skeletal muscle, or the adipose tissue. In contrast, everolimus impaired insulin secretion and thereby increased basal hepatic glucose production. These findings further our understanding of the role of mTOR in glucose homeostasis in humans and provide insights for treatment strategies against everolimus-induced hyperglycemia.

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  • Li Qin, Chui-can Huang, Xiu-min Yan, Yao Wang, Zhong-yi Li, Xiang-cai ...
    Type: Original
    Article ID: EJ19-0004
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 13, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents a serious reproductive and endocrine condition and is associated with high incidence rates. H19 is a compelling long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) which carries out a range of biological functions. However, prior to this study, little was known as to whether there was an association between lncRNA H19 and PCOS. In the current study, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine lncRNA H19 expression levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with PCOS and compared this data with that derived from normal controls. We also screened data for potential relationships between lncRNA H19 and a range of endocrine variables in PCOS. The expression of lncRNA H19 was significantly higher in cases of PCOS than in controls. Individuals exhibiting higher expression levels of lncRNA H19 were associated with a significantly higher risk of PCOS than those with lower expression levels. Moreover, lncRNA H19 expression was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose levels; this was the case with both raw data, and after adjustment for age and BMI in the PCOS group. However, lncRNA H19 expression showed no significant correlation with total testosterone or insulin resistance in either PCOS cases or the controls. In conclusion, we demonstrate the first evidence to indicate that lncRNA H19 is associated with PCOS, suggesting that elevated lncRNA H19 levels are a risk factor for PCOS. For susceptible individuals, lncRNA H19 may represent a useful biomarker of the early stages of endocrine and metabolic disorders in PCOS.

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  • Nuri Karadurmus, Mehmet Ilkin Naharci, Sinasi Erol Bolu, Aydogan Aydog ...
    Article ID: RET10-1
    Published: 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: November 12, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 22, 2010 as advance publication was withdrawn at the request of the authors.
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  • Nuri Karadurmus, Mehmet Ilkin Naharci, Sinasi Erol Bolu, Aydogan Aydog ...
    Article ID: K10E-195
    Published: 2010
    [Advance publication] Released: September 22, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article was retracted. See the Notification.
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  • Chengjiang LI, Mingzhi XU, Qing GU
    Article ID: K08E-187
    Published: 2008
    [Advance publication] Released: November 20, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article was retracted. See the Notification.
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