Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-40 of 40 articles from this issue
  • Toshihide Yamamoto, Takuma Kimura, Yuki Kubo, Shin-ichi Nakatsuka, Hir ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0116
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 29, 2022
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    Adrenal incidentaloma is a clinically unapparent adrenal mass more than one cm in diameter detected during imaging performed not for adrenal disease. A 34-year-old man was evaluated for AI with a diameter of 3.5 cm in the left adrenal. He was obese with body mass index of 33,9. Blood pressure was 110–120/90 mmHg. The general laboratory tests were unremarkable. An adrenal hormone screening set revealed that ACTH was 6.9 pg/mL, cortisol 14.9 μg/dL, renin activity 0.9 ng/mL/h, aldosterone 79.4 pg/mL, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) measured on two occasions 5,217 ng/mL and 6,477 ng/mL (gender- and age-adjusted reference values, 1,060–4,640 ng/mL). The levels of metanephrine and normetanephrine were normal. The tumor was thought to produce solely DHEA-S. The excised left adrenal tissue contained a tumor with a diameter of 26 mm and neighboring adrenal tissue. The tumor consisted mostly of acidophil cells without necrosis, capsular or vascular invasion, and mitosis. Immunohistochemical study revealed followings: the cells of the tumors were stained positive for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 17α-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase, weakly positive for DHEA sulphotransferase, and negative for aldosterone synthetase. The atrophy of neighboring tissue was presumably caused by excess cortisol production. Four months after surgery, the cortisol level was 11.2 μg/dL and DHEA-S level 1,462 ng/mL. The tumor is considered to be a cortisol-producing adenoma with modestly excessive DHEA-S production rather than isolated DHEA-S-producing adenoma. Immunohistochemical study of steroidogenic enzymes is a valuable addition to blood hormone measurement to clarify steroid production profile.

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  • Toru Iizaka, Eriko Kodama, Kentaro Mikura, Tatsuya Iida, Hideyuki Imai ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0140
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 29, 2022
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    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) 3 is a rare genetic disorder caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARG) mutations. Most cases have been reported in Western patients. Here, we describe a first pedigree of FPLD 3 in Japanese. The proband was a 51-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with fatty liver at age 32 years, dyslipidemia at age 37 years, and diabetes mellitus at age 41 years. Her body mass index was 18.5 kg/m2, and body fat percentage was 19.2%. On physical examination, she had less subcutaneous fat in the upper limbs than in other sites. On magnetic resonance imaging, atrophy of subcutaneous adipose tissue was seen in the upper limbs and lower legs. Fasting serum C-peptide immunoreactivity was high (3.4 ng/mL), and the plasma glucose disappearance rate was low (2.07%/min) on an insulin tolerance test, both suggesting apparent insulin resistance. The serum total adiponectin level was low (2.3 μg/mL). Mild fatty liver was seen on abdominal computed tomography. On genetic analysis, a P495L mutation in PPARG was identified. The same mutation was also seen in her father, who had non-obese diabetes mellitus, and FPLD 3 was diagnosed. Modest increases in body fat and serum total adiponectin were seen with pioglitazone treatment. Attention should be paid to avoid overlooking lipodystrophy syndromes even in non-obese diabetic patients if they show features of insulin resistance.

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  • Taeyun Kim, Jihun Kang
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0280
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 27, 2022
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    We aimed to identify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationwide population-based sample. A total of 7,900 adults with information on the STOP-Bang score and MetS (3,341 men and 4,469 women) were identified from the dataset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2019–2020. The association between OSA, IR, MetS, and its components was estimated using complex sample logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age, body mass index, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, household income, education, and the presence of diabetes. Participants with a high OSA score were more likely to have IR (odds ratio [OR] 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96–3.95 in men and OR 2.64, 95% CI 0.55–12.80 in women), MetS (OR 6.05, 95% CI 4.23–8.69 in men and OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.23–15.70 in women), and components of MetS, compared to individuals with a low OSA score. Compared to premenopausal women, postmenopausal women had a more intense association between OSA and IR (OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.13–24.43 for premenopausal women and OR 3.64, 95% CI 0.60–22.28 for postmenopausal women) and MetS (OR 2.58, 95% CI 0.23–29.55 for premenopausal women and OR 5.36, 95% CI 1.42–20.21 for postmenopausal women). OSA was associated with abdominal obesity and hypertension in premenopausal women, while all components of MetS were associated with OSA in postmenopausal women. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these findings.

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  • Yuji Nagayama, Eijun Nishihara
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: EJ22-0391
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 27, 2022
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    The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) plays critical roles in thyroid growth and function and in the pathogenesis of several thyroid diseases including Graves’ hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Several low-molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) and anti-TSHR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with receptor antagonistic and inverse agonistic activities have been reported. The former binds to the pocket formed by the receptor transmembrane bundle, and the latter to the extracellular TSH binding site. Both are effective inhibitors of TSH/thyroid stimulating antibody-stimulated cAMP and/or hyaluronic acid production in TSHR-expressing cells. Anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 inhibitors are also found to inhibit TSHR signaling. Each agent has advantages and disadvantages; for example, mAbs have a higher affinity and longer half-life but are more costly than LMWCs. At present, mAbs appear most promising, yet the development of more efficacious LMWCs is desirable. These agents are anticipated to be efficacious not only for the above-mentioned diseases but also for resistance to thyroid hormone and have utility for thyroid cancer radionuclide scintigraphy/therapy as a new theranostic.

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  • Hironori Bando, Masaaki Yamamoto, Michiko Takahashi, Keitaro Kanie, Yu ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0390
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 15, 2022
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    There is uncertainty regarding the need for COVID-19 peri-vaccination glucocorticoid coverage in patients with adrenal insufficiency. In this survey conducted in a single tertiary medical institution, 167 consecutive outpatients taking physiological glucocorticoids because of adrenal insufficiency were included. The patients declared if they developed an adrenal crisis after vaccination, and the amount and duration of an increase in their glucocorticoid dosage, if any. None of the patients without preventive glucocorticoid increase suffered an adrenal crisis after COVID-19 vaccination. Only 8.3% (14 cases) and 27.5% (46 cases) of the patients needed to escalate the dose of glucocorticoids when systemic symptoms appeared after the first and second injections, respectively. Glucocorticoids were increased in patients <60 years of age more than in patients ≥60 years of age at the time of both the first (p = 0.026) and second injections (p = 0.005). Sex and the causes of adrenal insufficiency were not associated with the frequency of the patients who needed glucocorticoid dose escalation. In the cases with increased glucocorticoids, the median dosage for escalation was 10 mg (hydrocortisone equivalent). In conclusion, even without prophylactic glucocorticoid administration, adrenal crisis did not occur during the peri-COVID-19 vaccination period. The dose escalation of steroid was more frequent in younger patients following the second vaccination. Careful monitoring of adverse effects and the appropriate management of glucocorticoids when necessary are essential following COVID-19 vaccinations.

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  • Akeo Ohira, Tadashi Yamakawa, Noriaki Iwahashi, Shunichi Tanaka, Mai S ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0308
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 10, 2022
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    Previous reports indicated the therapeutic effect of chronic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on cardiac hypertrophy due to sleep apnea syndrome. However, little is known for cases involving diabetic complications. This retrospective observational study examined the effects of CPAP therapy on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For all cases, the observation period was 3 years from the time when the patient was introduced to CPAP therapy. Overall, 123 patients were divided into a good CPAP group (CPAP ≥4 h/day, n = 63) and non-adherence group (CPAP <4 h/day, n = 60). The mean CPAP usage times were 5.58 ± 1.23 and 1.03 ± 1.17 h/day in the good CPAP and non-adherence groups, respectively. Regression tendencies of the thickness of the left ventricular posterior (–0.30 ± 1.19 mm) and interventricular septal walls (–0.48 ± 1.22 mm) were observed in the good CPAP group. Hypertrophic tendencies of the left ventricular posterior wall (+0.59 ± 1.44 mm) and interventricular septal wall thickness (+0.59 ± 1.43) were observed in the non-adherence group. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness (odds ratio, (coefficient: –0.254, p = 0.0376) and interventricular septal wall thickness (coefficient: –0.426, p = 0.0006) were more likely to be greater in the non-adherence group than in the good CPAP group. Patients in the non-adherence group with an apnea hypopnea index ≥30 had increased left ventricular posterior wall thickness (coefficient: –0.263, p = 0.0673) and interventricular septal wall thickness (coefficient: –0.450, p = 0.0011). In conclusion, appropriate CPAP therapy is an effective treatment for LVH in patients with T2DM and OSAS, especially for severe cases.

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  • Mari Uehara, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Kaori Koga, Naoko Yamamoto, Mana Hira ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0158
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 07, 2022
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    Dienogest (DNG) is widely used to treat dysmenorrhea associated with estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis and adenomyosis. DNG becomes unnecessary after menopause when estrogen secretion declines drastically. However, there are no clear criteria for when to halt DNG in perimenopausal patients. Menstruation and dysmenorrhea often resume after discontinuation due to approaching menopause. This case-control study used serum estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels to predict whether menstruation would resume in perimenopausal women after discontinuation of DNG. The study enrolled patients aged ≥40 years with endometriosis and/or adenomyosis and who had either completed oral DNG therapy (DNG group) or had spontaneous menopause without hormone therapy (control group). We assessed estradiol and FSH values before DNG termination or the final menstrual period. DNG group members that resumed menstruation after DNG termination (D (+) group, n = 17) had significantly higher estradiol and lower FSH levels than those who did not (D (–) group, n = 22) up to four months before DNG termination but not from four to 12 months. Estradiol and FSH levels were not significantly different between the D (–) and control groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves created from the estradiol and FSH values indicated that menstruation resumed when levels were ≥17 pg/mL and <100 mIU/mL, respectively. In contrast, menstruation did not resume in cases of estradiol ≤20 pg/mL and FSH >80 mIU/mL. The study results provide useful criteria for deciding when to terminate DNG in perimenopausal patients that consider their tolerance for resuming menstruation. Applications to menopause-inducing therapy for uterine fibroids and other conditions are anticipated. Further large-scale studies are needed.

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  • Masaki Yoshioka, Keisei Kosaki, Masahiro Matsui, Shoya Mori, Natsumi N ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0063
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 03, 2022
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    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone secreted by the bone in response to dietary phosphate intake. Since the phosphate content in the diet correlates with the protein content, both plant- and animal-based protein intake can increase the serum FGF23 level. However, a higher percentage of energy from plant protein than from animal protein is associated with a lower serum FGF23 level in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States. Since dietary habits differ between Asian and Western populations, we performed a cross-sectional study to determine the association between the percentages of energy from plant and animal proteins and the serum FGF23 level in Japanese CKD patients. In 107 non-dialysis CKD patients (age: 66 ± 9 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate: 56 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m2), the percentages of energy from plant and animal proteins were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups. Venous blood samples were used to measure the serum FGF23, phosphate, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and intact parathyroid hormone levels. The percentages of energy from plant and animal proteins showed a negative and positive association, respectively, with the serum FGF23 level. Furthermore, isocaloric substitution modeling showed that replacing animal protein with plant protein was associated with a low serum FGF23 level. Our findings suggest that encouraging diets with high plant protein level may prevent an increase in the serum FGF23 level in Japanese CKD patients.

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  • Naoya Fujita, Yosuke Ono, Takahiro Kobayashi, Sawako Kozono, Yugo Hori ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0248
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 03, 2022
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    We present a case of a 58-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa and a sacral decubitus ulcer who developed hypothyroidism because of an iodine-containing ointment. Considering the absence of autoimmune thyroid diseases, the development of hypothyroidism after the use of an iodine-containing ointment, and the recovery of thyroid function after the discontinuation of the ointment, we presumed that her hypothyroidism was induced by the iodine-containing ointment. Although the hypothyroidism improved after discontinuing the iodine-containing ointment, she developed aspiration pneumonia and required long-term hospitalization. Many patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases develop hypothyroidism after excessive iodine intake. However, anorexia nervosa may have exacerbated the iodine-induced hypothyroidism in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported a case of hypothyroidism caused by iodine-containing ointment in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Hence, physicians must pay careful attention to a patient’s background factors to ensure the early diagnosis of hypothyroidism due to iodine-containing ointments.

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  • Ge Li, Yusei Tataka, Kayoko Kamemoto, Haixin Wen, Kazuna Yamanaka, Chi ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0150
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 01, 2022
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    Ample evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise and meal consumption reduces acylated ghrelin concentration. However, the mechanisms by which this exercise- and meal-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin occurs in humans is unknown. This study aimed to examine the concentration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme responsible for hydrolysing ghrelin and other appetite-related hormones in response to a single bout of running and a standardised meal in young, healthy men. Thirty-three men (aged 23 ± 2 years, mean ± standard deviation) underwent two (exercise and meal conditions) 2-h laboratory-based experiments. In the exercise condition, all participants ran for 30 min at 70% of the maximum oxygen uptake (0930–1000) and rested until 1130. In the meal condition, participants reported to the laboratory at 0930 and rested until 1000. Subsequently, they consumed a standardised meal (1000–1015) and rested until 1130. Blood samples were collected at baseline (0930), 1000, 1030, 1100 and 1130. BChE concentration was not altered in both the exercise and meal conditions (p > 0.05). However, acylated ghrelin was suppressed after exercise (p < 0.05) and meal consumption (p < 0.05). There was no association between the change in BChE concentration and the change in acylated ghrelin before and after exercise (p = 0.571). Although des-acylated ghrelin concentration did not change during exercise (p > 0.05), it decreased after meal consumption (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that BChE may not be involved in the suppression of acylated ghrelin after exercise and meal consumption.

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  • Shakun Chaudhary, Vinay Dogra, Rama Walia
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0208
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 18, 2022
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    Mass immunization has led to a decrease in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide. At the same time, awareness regarding possible adverse effects of newly developed vaccines is critical. The present study was undertaken to report the cases of Graves’ disease occurring after administration of viral vector vaccine (ChAdox1nCoV-19) and describe the clinical profile, response to treatment, and effect of administration of a second dose in patients developing Graves’ disease. Four cases of Graves’ disease after administration of the vaccine were noted. Two of these had a mild thyroid eye disease. Three cases were female and had a family/self-history of autoimmune disease. All cases responded well to treatment and became euthyroid within two to four months. Two patients exhibited worsening thyrotoxicosis after receiving a second dose of the vaccine. We propose that the temporal relationship between administration of the vaccine and the onset of symptoms establishes Graves’ disease as an adverse event after the SARS-CoV-2 viral vector vaccine. Close follow-up is advisable in individuals developing Graves’ disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

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  • Tami Tsuchiya, Yoshifumi Saisho, Jun Inaishi, Hironobu Sasaki, Midori ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0170
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 06, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    The development of pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with worsening of glucose tolerance. However, there is limited information about the effects of PC on islet morphology. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in alpha and beta cell mass in patients with PC. We enrolled 30 autopsy cases with death due to PC (9 with diabetes; DM) and 31 age- and BMI-matched autopsy cases without PC (controls, 12 with DM). Tumor-free pancreatic sections were stained for insulin and glucagon, and fractional beta cell (BCA) and alpha cell area (ACA) were quantified. In addition, expression of de-differentiation markers, i.e., ALDH1A3 and UCN3, was qualitatively evaluated. The pancreas of subjects with PC showed atrophic and fibrotic changes. There was no significant difference in BCA in subjects with PC compared to controls (1.53 ± 1.26% vs. 0.95 ± 0.42%, p = 0.07). However, ACA and ACA to BCA ratio were significantly higher in subjects with PC compared to controls (2.48 ± 2.39% vs. 0.53 ± 0.26% and 1.94 ± 1.93 vs. 0.59 ± 0.26, respectively, both p < 0.001). Increased ACA to BCA ratio was observed in subjects with PC irrespective of the presence of DM. Qualitative evaluation of ALDH1A3 and UCN3 expression showed no significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, in subjects with PC, alpha to beta cell mass ratio is increased, which may contribute to the increased risk of worsening glucose metabolism. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms of increased alpha to beta cell mass in patients with PC.

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  • Daisuke Aono, Mitsuhiro Kometani, Takahiro Asano, Seigo Konishi, Shige ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0171
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 06, 2022
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    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon cause of adrenal incidentaloma (AI). ACCs generally occur in large sizes, >4 cm in diameter, at initial presentation and grow rapidly. Therefore, there have been few reports of cases with long-term follow-up with imaging before ACC was diagnosed. Herein, we present a case of an adrenal mass that had remained small and unchanged for 5 years but later grew rapidly and was finally diagnosed as ACC. A 77-year-old hypertensive woman was referred to our hospital for the examination of a 5.4-cm left adrenal mass. Upon reviewing her previous unenhanced computed tomography (CT) scan, a 1.6-cm and 30 Hounsfield units (HU), homogeneous, round, left adrenal mass was incidentally detected 9 years ago. This mass remained unchanged until 4 years ago. One year ago, the mass enlarged to 3.0-cm and changed into an irregular form with heterogeneous density. The hormonal evaluation during the 9 years from the discovery of the AI was inadequate. The present examination diagnosed this case as ACC with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. The patient underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy, and a histological diagnosis of high-grade ACC was made. The resected tumor had the CTNNB1 gene mutation. High unenhanced CT attenuation values (>10 HU) are one of the findings that raise suspicion of malignancy. This case suggests that patients with findings atypical of adenomas on an initial unenhanced CT might be carefully followed up given the possibility of development of ACCs, even if the initial tumor size is small.

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  • Jing Shang, Li Lin, Xiumin Huang, Lihua Zhou, Qi Huang
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0153
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 29, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    An increasing number of data have shown the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) involves circular RNA (circRNA). The study aims to investigate the function and the potential mechanism of circ_0043610 in PE. The study was performed on two human placental trophoblastic cell lines (JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo). The expression of circ_0043610, microRNA-558 (miR-558), and RING1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP) was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and RYBP were assessed by Western blotting. Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration were evaluated by cell counting kit-8, 5-Ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine, flow cytometry analysis, transwell invasion assay, and wound-healing assay, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation assay, and RNA pull-down assay were performed to identify the associations among circ_0043610, miR-558, and RYBP. Compared with normal placental controls, the increased expression of circ_0043610 and RYBP and the decreased miR-558 expression were detected in PE placental tissues. The overexpression of circ_0043610 led to decreased trophoblast cell proliferation, invasion, and migration but increased cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, circ_0043610 acted as a miR-558 sponge, and miR-558 bound to RYBP. Besides, miR-558 introduction remitted circ_0043610-mediated effects in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells. Moreover, RYBP participated in the regulation of miR-558 on trophoblast cell behaviors. Further, the ectopic expression of circ_0043610 led to RYBP upregulation through miR-558. Circ_0043610 induced RYBP production to promote trophoblast dysfunction by binding to miR-558 in PE.

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  • Yuta Nakamura, Ichiro Horie, Kengo Kanetaka, Susumu Eguchi, Seiko Naka ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: EJ22-0224
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 26, 2022
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    The postoperative increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is the main factor to improve glucose metabolism following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the β-cell responsiveness to an injection of exogenous GLP-1 in the preoperative period could determine the postoperative glucose tolerance in 18 patients underwent SG. In the preoperative period, a regular oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an exenatide-challenge during OGTT (Ex-OGTT) were performed to evaluate the β-cell function and its responsiveness to GLP-1. The postoperative glucose tolerance was evaluated by another regular OGTT performed at 3 months after SG. The significant decrease in glucose levels with enhanced secretions of insulin and GLP-1 was observed in OGTT at 3 months after SG. The area under the curve of glucose from 0 to 120 minutes (AUC glucose0–120 min) and the insulinogenic index (I.I.) in OGTT at 3 months post-SG were significantly improved compared to those in preoperative period, but comparable with those in Ex-OGTT. AUC glucose0–120 min and I.I. in OGTT at 3 months post-SG were significantly correlated with not only those in Ex-OGTT, but also those in the preoperative regular OGTT. Conversely, the correlations calculated by the Spearman’s ρ were stronger in the latter than the former. This exenatide-challenge protocol might be useful to estimate glucose tolerance and insulin secretion after SG, however, it may be insufficient to improve predictability of a patient who is likely to achieve a significant benefit on glucose metabolism from receiving SG.

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  • HakChung Kim, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Shingo Maeda, Satoshi Tamahara, Naoak ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0075
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 21, 2022
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    Protein carbonylation is an irreversible and degenerative modification that can be used to evaluate oxidative stress caused by glucocorticoids. In this study, we focused on protein carbonylation in dogs with hypercortisolism (HC). Sera samples were collected from 14 dogs diagnosed with HC and treated with trilostane, 12 dogs with inflammatory diseases (disease control group), and eight clinically healthy dogs. When the carbonylated protein levels were detected by the immunoblot analysis, one band of approximately 40 kDa was predominantly increased in the dogs with HC. The band was identified as haptoglobin using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Furthermore, haptoglobin immune reactivity was higher in the dogs with HC. Although the average protein carbonylation level of the HC group was not significantly different from that of the other groups, the carbonylation level was significantly higher for the poorly controlled HC cases than for the well-controlled HC group. Additionally, the primary culture of canine hepatocytes was used to clarify the direct effect of glucocorticoids on protein carbonylation in dog livers. Both the carbonylated protein and haptoglobin clearly increased after 72 h. These findings suggest that haptoglobin and its carbonylated form are increased with canine HC, and that the protein carbonylation ratio and/or haptoglobin level could be related to disease management. These factors could be useful as biomarkers for an oxidative stress reaction, at least in the liver, and for treatment monitoring of HC.

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  • Ning Xu, Jie Liu, Xiangling Li
    Article type: Review
    Article ID: EJ22-0123
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 20, 2022
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    Findings of preclinical studies and recent phase I/II clinical trials have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a significant role in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Thus, MSCs have attracted increasing attention as a novel regenerative therapy for kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent literature on the roles and potential mechanisms, including hyperglycemia regulation, anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, pro-angiogenesis, and renal function protection, of MSC-based treatment methods for DKD. This review provides novel insights into understanding the pathogenesis of DKD and guiding the development of biological therapies.

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  • Yuko Akehi, Makito Tanabe, Hiromi Yano, Yuichi Takashi, Daiji Kawanami ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0073
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 14, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    The Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) score, developed to screen for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), contains 17 questions regarding mental, physical, and sexual parameters. In the Japanese guidelines, a free testosterone (FT) <8.5 pg/mL is recommended for testosterone treatment. However, previous studies have shown no correlation between total AMS scores and testosterone concentration. We aimed to develop a better questionnaire for the detection of testosterone deficiency in men, for the diagnosis of LOH. In 234 Japanese men, aged 40–64 years, we analyzed the relationships of AMS with serum total testosterone (TT), FT, calculated FT (cFT), and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT), and identified useful questions for the detection of testosterone deficiency. Four scores, a decrease in muscular strength, a decrease in ability to perform sexually or the frequency, a decrease in the number of morning erections, and a decrease in sexual desire/libido, were negatively associated with two or more of the above four testosterone parameters, and the sum of these four scores (named the selective score) correlated with TT and cFT, independent of age. Statistical analysis revealed an association between insulin resistance and testosterone deficiency, and a higher selective score in smokers than non-smokers. Cubic function model analysis and logistic regression analysis revealed that selective scores ≥10 corresponded with the testosterone concentrations recommended for the diagnosis of LOH, including FT <8.5 pg/mL, independent of age, insulin resistance, and smoking. Thus, the selective score represents a simple and useful means for screening of testosterone deficiency in Japanese men, as an indicator of LOH.

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  • Kai Yoshimura, Masaaki Yamamoto, Tomoya Inoue, Hidenori Fukuoka, Keiji ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0108
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 14, 2022
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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with endocrine disorders, but their long-term clinical course remains unclear. We here report the 15-month clinical course for an individual with multiple endocrine disorders of the pituitary gland and testis likely triggered by COVID-19. A 65-year-old man with no history of endocrinopathy was admitted for acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Although his respiratory condition improved after administration of antiviral drugs, his blood pressure dropped suddenly to a preshock level and was refractory to vasopressors. The circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations were low, and secondary adrenal insufficiency was suspected. Administration of hydrocortisone rapidly ameliorated the hypotension, and the patient was discharged taking 15 mg of hydrocortisone daily. An insulin tolerance test performed 3 months later revealed impaired ACTH, cortisol, and growth hormone (GH) responses, indicative of combined hypopituitarism. The patient also manifested symptoms of hypogonadism, and a hormonal workup suggested primary hypogonadism. At 12 months after discharge, GH and ACTH responses had recovered completely and partially, respectively. After another 3 months, basal ACTH and cortisol levels had been restored to the normal range and the patient discontinued hydrocortisone replacement without exacerbation of symptoms, although his hypogonadism persisted. The patient thus developed transient GH and ACTH deficiency that lasted for more than a year as well as persistent primary hypogonadism during intensive care for COVID-19. Certain prolonged symptoms of COVID-19 might be accounted for by such hormonal disturbance.

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  • Yozen Fuse, Yoshiya Ito, Yoshimasa Shishiba, Minoru Irie
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: EJ22-0237
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 09, 2022
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    Thyroid diseases in pregnant and lactating women may result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and infants. A reference range for thyroid function is required in different areas; however, few studies on the gestational change or reference ranges of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations for Japanese pregnant women have been reported. To establish the gestational trimester-specific reference ranges of serum TSH and FT4 concentrations, our previously published data on 481 pregnant women with the mean age of 30.8 years who provided serum samples as early as gestational week (GW) 6 was compiled by using their percentile values. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) during pregnancy was 201 μg/L suggesting adequate iodine intake. The prevalence of positive serum thyroid autoantibody (ThAb), i.e., antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), was 11.4%. The reference ranges (2.5–97.5th percentile) of serum TSH and FT4 concentration calculated for samples with negative TgAb and TPOAb were 0.04–6.06 mIU/L in the first trimester (T1), 0.31–3.11 mIU/L in the second trimester (T2) and 0.48–3.93 mIU/L in the third trimester (T3) for TSH, and 1.10–1.87 ng/dL (T1), 0.76–1.56 ng/dL (T2) and 0.76–1.14 ng/dL (T3) for FT4. Compared to published data around the world in the 2017 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline, both the upper and lower limits of our TSH and FT4 reference ranges in the first trimester were higher than those in other countries. Further research is necessary in larger samples.

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  • Mamoru Morikawa, Takashi Sugiyama, Yuji Hiramatsu, Norimasa Sagawa
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0072
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 01, 2022
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    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening methods and GDM incidences. In 2018, a national questionnaire was administered at 231 institutions (56.6%) of all 408 perinatal medical centers in Japan. Of 100,485 women, 2,982 (3.0%) were diagnosed with GDM during their first pregnancy period (FPP) and 7,289 (7.3%) were diagnosed with GDM during their middle pregnancy period (MPP). The proportion of women diagnosed with GDM during FPP and MPP using 95 mg/dL as the cutoff value (CV) for random plasma glucose (PG) at FPP (4.3% and 9.2%) was significantly higher than that of women diagnosed with GDM using 100 mg/dL as the CV for random PG (2.7% and 6.9%, p < 0.0001, respectively). Compared with women screened for GDM using “random PG and random PG,” women who were screened for GDM using “random PG and 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT)” had a significantly higher incidence of GDM (6.6% versus 8.9%, p < 0.0001). Using random PG and 50-g GCT, the incidence of GDM among women diagnosed at MPP using a CV of 95 mg/dL at FPP was significantly higher than that of women diagnosed using a CV of 100 mg/dL (16.5% versus 7.8%: p < 0.0001). While, using “random PG and random PG,” the incidences of GDM among women were similar between institutions using a CV of 100 mg/dL and those using a CV of 95 mg/dL at FPP (6.7% versus 6.9%: p = 0.3581). This study showed random PG as a first-step screening method in MPP may overlook women with GDM.

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  • Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Minoru Kihara, Naoy ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: EJ22-0141
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 29, 2022
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    Intrathyroidal thymic carcinoma (ITTC) is a rare malignancy of the thyroid. It is thought to originate from ectopic thymic tissue or embryonic thymic rest, in, or adjacent to, the thyroid. We analyzed the backgrounds, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of 20 patients with ITTC, treated at our hospital. Thirteen of the 15 patients (86%) who underwent ultrasonography were diagnosed as malignant, based on imaging findings. 16 of the 17 patients (93%) who underwent cytology, were diagnosed or suspected to be malignant. Locally curative surgery (thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection) was performed for 19 patients. Large tumor size (>4 cm) was positively related to pathological node metastasis (p = 0.0389). Fourteen patients, including nine Ex-positive patients, underwent adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of the neck after surgery. Two patients showed recurrence of thyroid bed after and neither of them underwent adjuvant EBRT after surgery. Two patients who underwent EBRT showed recurrences of the lateral nodes (level V and level II), but they were easily dissected by re-operation. Ten- and 20-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 84.9% and 60.6%, respectively. To date, four patients showed distant recurrence, and 10- and 20-year distant recurrence-free survival rates were 75.0% and 75.0%, respectively. Our findings indicate that 1) the prognosis of ITTC is generally favorable, and 2) large tumor size is significantly related to lymph node metastasis. Two patients showing recurrence of the central region did not undergo EBRT; thus, further comparative studies are desirable to elucidate whether EBRT can prevent significant local recurrence.

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  • Youn Huh, Ga Eun Nam, Jisun Lim, Hye Soon Park
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ21-0780
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 28, 2022
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    High blood glucose level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents are long-term risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and poor prognosis. We investigated recent trends of high blood glucose levels and NAFLD among Korean adolescents aged 12–18 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data of 5,685 adolescents aged 12–18 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), from 2007–2009 to 2016–2018. Linear trends in the prevalence of high blood glucose level, NAFLD, and associated factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. During the study period, the odds ratios for high blood glucose level and NAFLD increased significantly in both sexes and in girls, respectively (p for trend <0.05). Over-consumption of total calories in boys and fat intake in boys and girls increased significantly (p for trend <0.05). In Korean adolescents, the prevalence of high blood glucose level and NAFLD has increased recently. Efforts to modify the associated factors and further research to determine the public health measures are warranted to prevent these metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

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  • Masatoshi Yamamoto, Naoyoshi Onoda, Akira Miyauchi, Makoto Fujishima, ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0043
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2022
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    Hypoparathyroidism is a major complication of thyroid surgery. To avoid this complication, visual identification of the parathyroid glands is essential. However, its effectiveness depends heavily on the surgeon’s expertise. Here, we describe a novel method, the gauze blotting technique, to immunochemically identify the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Twenty-three patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy were enrolled in this study; 16 and 7 had benign and malignant thyroid diseases, respectively. After visually identifying candidate nodules for the parathyroid gland, a piece of dry gauze (5 mm × 10 mm) was applied to each tissue until it was moistened by exudates from the tissue. Pieces of gauze were also applied to the thyroid gland and adipose tissue located away from the candidate nodules. The gauze was immersed in saline, and the intact PTH (i-PTH) level of the supernatant was measured. The median PTH level for the parathyroid glands was 1,060 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than that for the thyroid gland (34 pg/mL) and adipose tissue (28 pg/mL) (p < 0.001). The cut-off value to distinguish the parathyroid gland from other tissues was 68 pg/mL with a positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of 84.6%, 88.8%, 86.8%, and 86.7%, respectively. A value ≥250 pg/mL yielded a 100% positive predictive value. Our novel gauze blotting technique can identify the parathyroid glands without damaging tissues during thyroid surgery.

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  • Tomoyasu Fukui, Nobuaki Takehana, Yusaku Mori, Munenori Hiromura, Mich ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: EJ22-0146
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for simultaneously detecting three islet cell autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) (3 Screen ICA ELISA) in Japanese patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, clinical factors affecting the 3 Screen ICA ELISA index were investigated. We compared the positivity values of 3 Screen ICA ELISA with that of each autoantibody alone in 97 patients with acute-onset T1D (mean age 48.7 years, 49% male) and 100 non-diabetic subjects (mean age 47.0 years, 50% male). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin autoantibody levels were also evaluated. The cut-off value of the 3 Screen ICA ELISA was determined based on the 97th percentile of 100 non-diabetic controls (threshold for positivity, ≥14 index). The mean age of disease onset and duration of diabetes were 34.2 years and 14.5 years, respectively. Among all T1D patients, the positivity of 3 Screen ICA ELISA was 71.1%, while that of GADA, IA-2A, and ZnT8A were 59.8%, 25.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. The median 3 Screen ICA index was 121.9 (8.7–468.2) and was associated with titers of each autoantibody, most so with GADA, and was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive patients than in TPOAb-negative patients. Our findings suggests that the 3 Screen ICA ELISA may be a time-saving diagnostic tool for evaluating islet autoantibodies in acute-onset T1D patients.

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  • Ilan Shimon, Zaina Adnan, Dania Hirsch, Hadar Duskin-Bitan, Amit Akiro ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0066
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 22, 2022
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    Patients with acromegaly usually present with the classical signs of acromegaly, whereas patients without the specific signs or symptoms are rarely diagnosed. This unique entity can be named “subclinical acromegaly”. This was a retrospective study. Our study group consisted of 6 patients (4 females) with incidentally diagnosed acromegaly, most following head MRI for unrelated reasons and without the specific signs of acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis was 48.8 ± 19.2 years. Baseline IGF-1 ranged between 1.3–2.0 × upper limit of normal (ULN). MRI depicted a pituitary microadenoma in 5 patients, and one patient presented with a 12 mm intra-sellar macroadenoma. Mean calculated SAGIT clinical score was 4.8. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal resection; two achieved hormonal remission and one improved but did not normalize IGF-1 following surgery. Four patients (including one following surgery) were given somatostatin analogs, and three normalized IGF-1. Several patients improved clinically following treatment, reporting improvement in snoring, hypertension, or weight loss, and pituitary adenoma decreased in size in 2 patients that responded to medical treatment. We report a series of 6 patients with very mild and subclinical acromegaly. It is uncertain whether all such patients will gain clinical benefit from treatment, but most experienced clinical improvement due to treatment.

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  • Hong-Qun Wang, Ying Li, Xin Song, Ya-Qi Ma, Jin-Long Li, Ying-Xue Li, ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0010
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2022
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    We enrolled 264 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We performed immunohistochemical detection of p16 and determined the degree of interstitial fibrosis (IF). The expression of p16 was associated with pathological tumor–node–metastasis (pTNM) stage and age (p < 0.05). The overall survival was longer in p16-negative patients (195.73 vs. 181.78 months, p = 0.007). p16 was significantly related to the degree of IF (r = 0.130, p = 0.035). PTC patients with no or mild fibrosis tended to have a larger tumor (p = 0.045). The degree of fibrosis was related to the proportion of papillary structure components (p = 0.025). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses showed that relapse-free survival was longer in patients with moderate/severe IF (p < 0.05). In summary, p16 was correlated with prognosis and IF of PTC. Patients with moderate/severe IF tend to have better prognosis in RFS.

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  • Mai Sugiyama, Tadashi Yamakawa, Marina Harada, Akeo Ohira, Masahiro Ic ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ21-0537
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 16, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Singleton pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Multiple pregnancies are associated with increased risks of perinatal complications; however, the impact of GDM on maternal and neonatal outcomes in multiple pregnancies is unknown, and there are currently few reports on GDM status in twin pregnancies. This study aimed to compare the background and perinatal outcomes between Japanese twin pregnancies with and without GDM at a perinatal center in Japan. Additionally, the clinical course of GDM was investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, women with twin pregnancies underwent GDM screening at Yokohama City University Medical Center from January 2011 to December 2016. Overall, 307 twin pregnancies were divided into GDM (47 cases, 15.3%) and non-GDM (260 cases, 84.7%) groups. GDM-associated pregnancy complications, GDM status, and pregnancy outcomes were ascertained. Women with GDM were older and had a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index than those without GDM. Glycemic control was good in all patients, and there was no difference in delivery outcomes between the two groups. Gestational weight gain was lower in pregnant women with GDM (+8.0 kg) than in those without GDM (+11.8 kg), suggesting the impact of strict nutritional guidance on twin pregnancies with GDM. In conclusion, twin pregnancies with GDM did not have different delivery outcomes compared to those without GDM. To manage twin pregnancies with GDM, this study suggests that it is important to monitor patients’ weight and blood glucose levels.

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  • Xiaorui Lyu, Kemin Yan, Xin Wang, Hanyuan Xu, Xiaonan Guo, Huijuan Zhu ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ21-0802
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 16, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Liraglutide has been approved for the treatment of obesity in the past few years. Both oxidative stress and leptin resistance are the critical drivers of obesity. The present study investigated the mechanism of liraglutide protection against obesity by ameliorating leptin resistance and oxidative stress. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and subcutaneously injected with 200 μg/kg/d liraglutide for 20 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, serum levels of leptin, insulin, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. In addition, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The expressions of leptin, its signaling genes, and antioxidant enzymes were detected using RT-qPCR and western blot methods in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice. The results depicted that liraglutide treatment significantly slowed weight gain of body, reduced the fat mass, ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism, and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed obese mice. Further study demonstrated that liraglutide treatment resulted in decreased serum levels and the transcript levels of leptin as well as leptin signaling inhibitory regulators. However, it increased leptin receptor expression and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in WAT (p < 0.05). In addition, the antioxidant enzyme expression was elevated in both liver and WAT of liraglutide-treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, liraglutide conspicuously prevented obesity and ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism in obese mice through a novel mechanism that improves peripheral leptin resistance in WAT and enhance the antioxidant enzyme expression in both liver and WAT.

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  • Naoyoshi Onoda, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Akihiro Miya, Takahiro Sasaki, Ma ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0118
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 10, 2022
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    Parathyroid Lipoadenoma (PLA) contains abundant mature adipose tissue and is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of PLA in nine patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, including two men and seven women, with ages ranging from 45–84 years (median 60 years). PLA accounted for 0.5% of all parathyroid tumors during the study period. One patient presented with anorexia due to hypercalcemia; however, the other eight patients were asymptomatic. The median preoperative serum intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and calcium levels were 143 pg/mL (range, 102–378) and 10.8 mg/dL (range, 10.3–11.3), respectively. PLA was difficult to identify using ultrasonography (US) as it appears as a moderately hyperechoic nodule and is difficult to distinguish from the surrounding adipose tissues. Only 33% of the lesions (three out of nine lesions) were accurately identified. However, they could be distinctly differentiated from the surrounding tissue using computed tomography (CT). All PLAs were also detected using the sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). All the patients were treated by a single gland extirpation. The median size and weight of the PLA were 14 mm (range, 10–22) and 567 mg (range, 200–1,533), respectively. In conclusion, the clinical manifestations of PLA are similar to those of ordinal parathyroid adenomas, except for their unique US and CT images. PLA should be considered as a potential etiologic factor in cases of hyperparathyroidism when the lesions are demonstrated as hyperechoic nodules or unidentified by US but detected by CT or SPECT imaging.

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  • Yasuhiro Nakamura, Aya Yoshihara, Mitsuo Kiriya, Akira Kawashima, Kazu ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0055
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 09, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Sulfonation is an important step in the metabolism of dopamine, estrogens, dehydroepiandrosterone, as well as thyroid hormones. However, the regulation of cytosolic sulfotransferases in the thyroid is not well understood. In a DNA microarray analysis of rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, we found that the mRNA expression of 10 of 48 sulfotransferases was significantly altered by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), with that of sulfotransferase family 1A member 1 (SULT1A1) being the most significantly affected. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that TSH, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP significantly suppressed SULT1A1 mRNA and protein levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining of FRTL-5 cells showed that SULT1A1 is localized in the perinuclear area in the absence of TSH but is spread throughout the cytoplasm with reduced fluorescence intensity in the presence of TSH. Sulfotransferase activity in FRTL-5 cells, measured using 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a donner and p-nitrophenol as an acceptor substrate, was significantly reduced by TSH. These findings suggest that the expression and activity of SULT1A1 are modulated by TSH in thyrocytes.

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  • Esther Park, Min-Sun Kim, Eu Seon Noh, Ji-Eun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young S ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0084
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 08, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in the RET proto-oncogene and is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) are defined as multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated with loss of immune tolerance. APS type 2 (APS-2) consists of at least two of the following diseases: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroid disease, and Addison’s disease. We describe the clinical, molecular, and biochemical findings of MEN2A, APS-2, and Kabuki syndrome (KS) in a 16-year-old male. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the genetic cause of the pheochromocytoma and syndromic features including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and epilepsy. RET pathogenic variant and KMT2D pathogenic variant were identified, and he was diagnosed with MEN2A and KS. This is the first case of association between MEN2 and APS in adolescence and the second proven case in humans. In addition, this is the first report of MEN2 and APS in KS.

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  • Sueyoshi Moritani, Masao Takenobu, Masakazu Yasunaga, Katsuyuki Kawamo ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0033
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a relatively indolent disease, despite the high incidence of lymph node metastases. Although less frequent, some upper mediastinal metastases of PTC cannot be removed without sternal resection. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of upper mediastinal dissection (UMD) by sternotomy on patients with mediastinal metastases of PTC. Charts of patients with PTC who underwent surgical treatment at our institution between 2006 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-eight patients with upper mediastinal metastases were enrolled. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were compared, and Cox hazard regression models were used for analyses. Of the 58 patients with mediastinal metastasis, 12 (20.7%) underwent dissection of the prevascular nodes, 51 (87.9%) underwent dissection of the upper paratracheal nodes, and 14 (24.1%) underwent dissection of the lower paratracheal node. The preferred site of mediastinal metastasis was the upper paratracheal nodes. The 5 and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for patients after UMD were 74.6% and 58.7%, respectively. Among 25 patients (43.1%) with locoregional recurrence, 12 (20.7%) had mediastinal recurrence and 7 were eligible for additional UMD. Although distant metastasis was the predominant poor prognostic factor, mediastinal recurrences were more frequently unresectable than cervical recurrences, suggesting that mediastinal recurrence is a poor prognostic factor. Mediastinal metastases larger than 30 mm or metastases to the lower paratracheal nodes are considered a risk factor for mediastinal recurrence. UMD by sternotomy for patient with upper mediastinal metastases which are difficult to resect via transcervical approach is an effective treatment option to improve patient prognosis.

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  • Mitsuo Kiriya, Akira Kawashima, Yoko Fujiwara, Yuta Tanimura, Aya Yosh ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0082
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 28, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Solute carrier family 26 member 7 (SLC26A7), identified as a causative gene for congenital hypothyroidism, was found to be a novel iodide transporter expressed on the apical side of the follicular epithelium of the thyroid. We recently showed that TSH suppressed the expression of SLC26A7 and induces its localization to the plasma membrane, where it functions. We also showed that the ability of TSH to induce thyroid hormone synthesis is completely reversed by an autocrine negative-feedback action of thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in the follicular lumen. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of follicular Tg on SLC26A7 expression and found that follicular Tg significantly suppressed the promoter activity, mRNA level, and protein level of SLC26A7 in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. In addition, follicular Tg inhibited the ability of TSH to induce the membrane localization of SLC26A7. In rat thyroid sections, the expression of SLC26A7 was weaker in follicles with a higher concentration of Tg, as evidenced by immunofluorescence staining. These results indicate that Tg stored in the follicular lumen is a feedback suppressor of the expression and membrane localization of SLC26A7, thereby downregulating the transport of iodide into the follicular lumen.

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  • Masatoshi Murakami, Nao Fujimori, Kazuhide Matsumoto, Akihisa Ohno, Ka ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0111
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    VIPomas are generally rare functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) that cause watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria. Due to their extreme rarity, the clinicopathological features and outcomes of VIPomas have not been well reported. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics and prognosis of VIPomas and to compare them with other PanNETs at a Japanese reference hospital. Medical records of 293 patients with PanNETs were collected. Patient and tumor characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. This cohort had only 1.4% (four patients) of patients with VIPomas, and three of these patients changed from non-functioning (NF-) PanNETs during their disease course. Recurrences of hormonal symptoms were observed in all patients despite the initial controls, and all of them died from their disease, more specifically mainly from hormonal symptoms. Compared to the other PanNETs, VIPomas were all located at the pancreatic tail, were larger, and had a higher Ki-67 index and more metastasis. The median survival time was significantly shorter for patients with VIPoma than for those with NF-PanNET (5.9 vs. 26.7 years, p < 0.0001), insulinoma (21.8 years, p < 0.0001), and gastrinoma (12.3 years, p = 0.0325). This study presents the possibility of shifting from non-symptomatic to symptomatic VIPomas as they grow or of transforming from NF-PanNETs to VIPomas. VIPomas should be considered in patients with relatively large NF-PanNETs, especially those located in the pancreatic tail, when diarrhea is continuously observed. As hormonal symptoms are an important cause of death in VIPomas, long-term symptomatic control, which is relatively difficult, is of great significance.

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  • Takuya Murata, Shuichi Chiba, Mitsumori Kawaminami
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0095
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recently, we reported that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates annexin A1 (Anxa1) and A5 (Anxa5) mRNA expression through the GnRH-receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in LβT2 cells. As LβT2 cells respond to activin, we examined the effect of activin A on Anxa1 and a5 expression in LβT2 cells. Activin A (0.4 and 4 ng/mL) treatment decreased Anxa5 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect Anxa1 mRNA levels at concentrations up to 40 ng/mL. After activin A treatment (4 ng/mL), Anxa5 mRNA levels significantly decreased at 6 h, gradually declined until 24 h, and remained low until 48 h, whereas Anxa1 mRNA levels did not significantly change following treatment. Pretreatment with activin A for 24 h increased GnRH agonist (GnRHa)-induced Anxa1 increase by approximately 7-fold compared with GnRHa stimulation alone, but Anxa5 was not affected. As previously reported, these activin A treatments increased gonadotropin β subunit and GnRH receptor mRNA levels and slightly decreased common α-glycoprotein subunit mRNA levels. Furthermore, we examined the effect of activin A on Nr4a3, which is repressed by ANXA5 and which reduces Fshb expression, and found that activin A augmented Nr4a3 expression and slightly decreased the GnRHa-induced increase in Nr4a3. These results suggest that in gonadotrope cells, the mechanism regulating Anxa1 and a5 expression is differentially coupled with activin A signal transduction. Activin A suppresses Anxa5 expression under increased Nr4a3 expression, whereas activin A and GnRH synergistically stimulate Anxa1 expression. These GnRH-inducible annexins may have different specific functions in gonadotropes.

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  • Naruhiko Sunada, Hiroyuki Honda, Yasuhiro Nakano, Koichiro Yamamoto, K ...
    Article type: Original
    Article ID: EJ22-0093
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Symptoms of long COVID are complex and long-lasting, and endocrine dysfunction might be involved in the underlying mechanisms. In this study, to clarify the hormonal characteristics of long COVID patients, laboratory data for patients who visited the outpatient clinic for long COVID were evaluated. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients who visited Okayama University Hospital during the period from Feb 2021 to Dec 2021 with focus on the interrelationships between major symptoms and endocrine data. Information and laboratory data were obtained from medical records for 186 patients. The patients had various symptoms, and the most frequent symptoms were general malaise, dysosmia/dysgeusia, hair loss, headache, dyspnea, and sleeplessness. Patients who were suffering from fatigue and dysosmia/dysgeusia were younger, while hair loss was more frequent in older and female patients. As for the characteristics of patients suffering from general fatigue, the scores of depression and fatigue were positively correlated with serum levels of cortisol and free thyroxin (FT4), respectively. Also, patients suffering from general fatigue had lower levels of serum growth hormone and higher levels of serum FT4, while patients with dysosmia/dysgeusia had a significantly lower level of serum cortisol. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were higher and the ratios of FT4/TSH were lower in the initially severe cases, suggesting occult hypothyroidism. In addition, the ratios of plasma adrenocorticotropin to serum cortisol were decreased in patients with relatively high titers of serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Thus, hormonal changes seem to be, at least in part, involved in the persistent symptoms of long COVID.

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  • Nuri Karadurmus, Mehmet Ilkin Naharci, Sinasi Erol Bolu, Aydogan Aydog ...
    Article ID: RET10-1
    Published: 2010
    Advance online publication: November 12, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 22, 2010 as advance publication was withdrawn at the request of the authors.
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  • Nuri Karadurmus, Mehmet Ilkin Naharci, Sinasi Erol Bolu, Aydogan Aydog ...
    Article ID: K10E-195
    Published: 2010
    Advance online publication: September 22, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article was retracted. See the Notification.
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  • Chengjiang LI, Mingzhi XU, Qing GU
    Article ID: K08E-187
    Published: 2008
    Advance online publication: November 20, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article was retracted. See the Notification.
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