Regarding education as 'the social' rather than an intentional action between individuals, this paper discusses the fair way of its distribution. Fairness is presumed to be relevant to the distribution of resources for education not only among people belonging to the same generation in the same society, but also among people belonging to different generations and different societies. To keep society sustainable and to leave a sustainable society to future generations, it is not sufficient to keep resources intact. It is also necessary to leave a fair way, i.e. the fair way of sharing burdens and benefits, for future generations. The educational significance of John Rawls' difference and just savings principles is elucidated in contrast to Robert Nozick's account of the entitlement of property. The main conclusion of the paper is that, if we see education as 'the social', we cannot design fair education without concern for the welfare of those who are living in different societies and are not yet born.
The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general, describes a few major research paradigms set forth by generations of researchers, and examines the present status of higher education in Japan and the challenges it presents for higher education studies.
This study is the first attempt to analyze the articles in several journals, in order to disclose the development of academic educational studies in Japan. In this paper, my examination was not limited to one journal, but covered six education journals listed below and all their issues until 2005. I chose, from a methodological viewpoint, four journals that have been most important for the philosophical, historical, sociological and comparative research on education and, from thematic viewpoints, two celebrated Japanese journals for the study of educational method and that of educational administration. The development of educational studies shown in the articles of the journals reviewed was diverse and complex. On the one hand, the home institutions of the authors were not only traditional research universities, but also other types of universities. On the other hand, the former institutions are still the center of training for (graduate) students who make up the largest number of authors of the articles today. The analyzed six journals had such heterogeneous character as to have oriented themselves to different areas (theory, school, society [public]) to a varied extent. The articles targeted several historical periods and countries/areas and their distribution of these factors was relatively balanced. Although the studies were based, methodologically, primarily on the analysis of certain kinds of text, in other words on the philosophical method, the object of the studies was mostly not the ideas of certain persons. The articles referred, topically, to a certain philosopher or education researcher/theorist less often than to secondary/higher education. Furthermore, the research methods, objects and topics of the articles in one journal were far from homogeneous.
In all European countries, education has been related to nation building. It has contributed to the building of national identity, national consciousness and the development of a nation state. Since the Second World War and above all since the fall of the Berlin Wall, education in the European Union has also included a consideration of European and cultural diversity. Culture does not designate a self-contained, uniquely definable ensemble of practices, values, symbolizations and imaginations. The borders between cultures are dynamic and change according to context. Globalization must be understood as a process in which two global developmental tendencies that define the present are advancing reciprocally in a manner that is not without conflict. One tendency is toward universal standardization of the world; the other tendency is toward provision of room for cultural diversity in the process. Both tendencies also create new forms of globalization. The mission of transcultural education is contact with the other and with alterity in a manner that is free of violence. Within the scope of transcultural education, the terms differentiation, transformation and hybrid formation play a central role in dealing with the foreign, the other and alterity. These terms are interrelated. Their interconnectedness is obvious. In education from an transcultural point of view, it is important to make use of these three concepts for the analysis of cultural phenomena and relations. Transcultural learning, which is oriented toward a better understanding of the other and toward a reduction in violence toward other people and future generations, will also have to develop innovative forms of learning. In a radical perspective, a transcultural education for sustainability oriented toward peace and social justice leads to a far-reaching reform of the educational system. In conjunction with the realization of a complex multimodal learning process, four perspectives play an important role: mimetic learning, performativity of learning, inquiry learning, and rituals of learning and communication.
With the decreasing college-aged population and the transforming policy environment in Japan, private universities are confronted with management crises, such as bankruptcy, mergers, etc. As the second largest source of funding, government subsidies for private universities is considered to have contributed to enhancing educational conditions and the soundness of financial management in the first two decades since its establishment but has a tenuous effect on the alleviation of students' economic burden. In this paper a statistical method is employed with the presupposition that private universities as a kind of organization rely on their external resources to make decisions. During the analysis, we have focused on the influence of government subsidies, with suppositions that there exist differences in government subsidy ratio among different types of private universities, and that in certain aspects government subsidy hinders private universities from achieving independence, and that the ratio increase of government subsidies should be favorable for alleviating students' economic burden. Through the analysis of financial data collected, we found that government subsidies did not show positive effects on promoting independence, and that its influence on alleviating students' economic burden proves to be complicated as correlation coefficients of government subsidy ratio and tuition & fees per capita, and No. 3 Capital Fund which is considered to be prepared for research and scholarship, are negative. Such results show that regulations accompanied with subsidies are constrictive to private universities to some degree. However, besides the financial status, there are several other factors to consider when discussing management behavior of individual private universities, such as the higher education market, policy issues, and internal governance. In brief, government subsidies have complicated influences on private universities and such complication reflects these uncertainties.
Is teaching emotional labor? Are teachers selling their own emotions in exchange for money? To examine these questions, this paper examines teachers'emotion expression in teaching. Most previous studies have assessed teachers'emotional experience using interviews, and have reported that because teachers manage their own emotions, teaching is emotional labor However, these studies have not examined teachers'emotion expression mediated by their interaction with students. This paper uses multiple methods, combining observations of and interviews with three secondary school teachers, and introduces the concept of emotion management and self-disclosure. Teachers induced enjoyment and spontaneously expressed it to help students concentrate on learning. Whereas, when students showed teachers their interest in learning, participated positively in the class and increased their understanding toward learning content, teachers expressed positive emotions such as joy and wonder The teachers'negative emotions were drawn out by students'speech and behaviors that showed passivity and an impolite attitude. Teachers tended to express negative emotions to control students and help them concentrate on learning. However, before teachers expressed strong negative emotions such as anger, they tried to express irritation in a controlled way, and suppressed their anger as much as possible. Teachers indicated that frank expressions of emotions formed caring relationships with students based on reciprocal emotional understanding. Results indicated that teachers consciously and unconsciously expressed negative emotions based on their caring professional identity and personal beliefs and values. Therefore, teachers appear to disclose their genuine emotions according to the context or situation. Overall, teachers did not manage their emotions or alter their values based on the schools request; they induced, suppressed, and disclosed their own emotions based on their professional autonomy and personal beliefs. Teachers'emotional practice can thus be considered an autonomous, discretionary, and professional activity of caring rather than emotional labor.
Higher education systems are now in a global state of flux. Japan is no exception. The most persuasive framework for analyzing the basic structure and direction of change is the structural-historical theory of the American sociologist Martin Trow. This is a generalization of his "elite to mass to universal" based on first American and then European experience. The purpose of this paper is to use the Japanese experience as a case study for testing the validity of Trow's formulations as comparative higher education theory. In comparing the Japanese case with that of Europe and the United States, this paper validates in principal the appropriateness of the basic theory of transition put forward by Trow. At the same time, doubts are raised on the issue of whether it is possible to postulate a single path for the transition "elite to mass to universal."