Objectives: Circulating micro (mi)RNA profiles are influenced by various medical conditions, and miRNAs have been examined as potential biomarkers for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. However, few studies
have investigated whether circulating miRNAs and cigarette smoking are correlated. Our aim was to determine the
association between smoking status and expression of various miRNAs in a Japanese population sample. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 526 subjects (219 men and 307 women) aged 39 years and older who had undergone a health examination at a clinic in Yakumo, Hokkaido in August 2012. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine serum miRNA expression. We then calculated the odds ratios for elevated serum miRNA levels according to smoking status using never-smokers as the reference group. Results: Expression of lethal (let)-7d, miRNA(miR)-150, miR-192, miR-197 and miR320 was significantly higher in current smokers than in never-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that while current smokers were significantly more likely to have elevated serum levels of miRNA let-7d, miR-21, miR-122, miR-146, miR-150, miR-192, miR-197, and miR320 than never-smokers, former smokers had significantly higher odds of having elevated miR-1, miR-146, miR-150, miR-195, and miR-320 levels in their sera. Conclusions: We found that cigarette smoking is associated with elevated expression of various serum miRNAs. Our results suggest that it is necessary to consider the confounding effect caused by smoking when evaluating expression of serum miRNAs for diagnosing pathological conditions.
Objectives: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) associated with citrus fruits has been previously reported. However, in Japan, although rare, citrus allergy is also associated with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). This study was done to determine whether different allergens may be involved in these two responses, and to examine cross-reactivity between popular citrus fruits and local pollen allergens. Methods:Twelve patients were studied who had a history of OAS (8 cases) or FDEIA (4 cases), and had positive IgE antibody titers or tested positive with a skin prick test to citrus antigens. Serum immunodetection assays and immunoblot inhibition assays were performed with extracted Valencia orange (rCit s 2), selected antigens in white birch pollen (WBP) and orchard grass pollen (OGP). Results: Immunodetection assays demonstrated an allergen associated with OAS as the 14-kDa protein, Cit s 2. An as yet unidentified 54-kDa protein was demonstrated in FDEIA patients. Cross-reactivity between orange and pollen antigens was confirmed by the following results: 1) Significant correlations between serum specific IgE levels for orange and OGP, 2) Immunoblot inhibition with WBP and OGP pollen antigens against rCit s 2. In Immunoblot inhibition, WBP and OGP both pollen antigens inhibited against rCit s 2. Conclusion: The main allergen of OAS induced by orange was Cit s 2, which has cross-reactivity with WBP and/or OGP in Japanese patients with orange allergy. IgE-binding protein pattern in patients with FDEIA induced by orange were different from that in OAS. A 54-kDa protein was assumed to be a candidate for clinically relevant allergens in the development of the FDEIA.
Objectives: In coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), half reconstruction has commonly been used to prioritize temporal resolution. With the latest 320-row area detector computed tomography (ADCT), the maximum tube rotation speed has been increased to 0.275 s/rotation, and full reconstruction could be used to improve image quality at low heart rate. We compared motion artifacts on full-reconstruction CCTA images with half-reconstruction images and investigated the heart rate at which full reconstruction might be indicated. Methods: Among the 162 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA using 320-row ADCT at our hospital, 50 with a regular pulse and ≤60 bpm heart rate during imaging were included. Half-reconstruction and full-reconstruction images were created from the imaging data. Motion artifacts were visually assessed on a five-point scale, and the two image types were compared. Results: Comparison between half-reconstruction and full-reconstruction images from all of the subjects with heart rate of ≤ 60 bpm indicated that motion artifacts were considerably more common in the latter. No statistically significant difference was found between the two image types from subjects with heart rate <50 bpm. Conclusion: If ADCT with a faster tube rotation speed is used for CCTA, full reconstruction of images might be indicated in patients with heart rate <50 bpm.
Objectives: It is well recognized that lung cancer can present as parenchymal infiltration mimicking pneumonia on chest X-ray films or computed tomography images. Such cancers can be misdiagnosed as inflammatory lung diseases, delaying accurate diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed nine consecutive lung cancer patients who presented with pulmonary
consolidation mimicking pneumonia at their initial examinations between January 2012 and December 2014 and analyzed their clinical courses and radiological and pathological findings. Results: The nine patients (six men) were aged 47 to 86 years (median 75 years). Four were smokers or exsmokers. In all cases, radiological findings included parenchymal opacification with air bronchograms; in some cases, parenchymal consolidation was associated with volume loss and traction bronchiectasis and located in the subpleural zone. Ground glass opacity or tree-in-bud appearance (suggesting aerogenous metastasis) also sometimes accompanied the consolidation. In all cases, biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma (including three cases of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma). Neither EGFR gene mutation nor ALK gene rearrangement were found; however, KRAS mutation was identified in five cases. Although lung infiltrations had been recognized for two or more months in some cases, no previous biopsies had been performed. Furthermore, in three cases, initial bronchoscopic examination had failed to diagnose malignancy. None of these patients responded to chemotherapy and four cases died within 6 months of diagnosis. Conclusion: Diagnosis of lung cancer presenting as lung consolidation mimicking pneumonia is difficult and often delayed. The prognosis is poor because of delayed diagnosis and poor response to chemotherapy.