Objectives: Current evidence regarding metabolic surgery suggests that different types of digestive tract reconstruction can result in differences in postoperative glucose tolerance. This study evaluated the impact of Billroth I (B-I), Billroth II (B-II), and Roux-en-Y (R-Y) procedures on peri-operative glucose tolerance in patients with gastric carcinoma who had diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. These patients were grouped according to the type of reconstruction (B-I, B-II, or R-Y). After the operation, we addressed the changes in glucose tolerance—including changes in HbA1c levels, remission of diabetes, and overall effects of the treatment.
Results: We studied 57 patients (B-I, n=32; B-II, n=17; R-Y, n=8). B-II and R-Y reconstruction improved HbA1c levels more than B-I. Notably, R-Y improved tolerance the most (B-I vs. B-II, p<0.001; B-I vs. R-Y, p<0.001; B-II vs. R-Y, p<0.001). The type of reconstruction (B-II and R-Y vs. B-I) and a pre-operative HbA1c ≥7% were the two significant independent contributing factors determining postoperative improvement in HbA1c, with odds ratio (OR) 8.437, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.635–43.527, p=0.011; OR 16.5, 95% CI 3.361–81.011, p=0.001, respectively.
Conclusions: Either R-Y or B-II should be considered the primary option for patients with gastric carcinoma and diabetes when glycemic control is insufficient.
Objectives: High-dose fondaparinux therapy at 7.5 mg/day (FPX 7.5 mg) for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may increase the risk of hemorrhage. We investigated the efficacy and safety of FPX 7.5 mg to treat DVT after total knee arthroplasty.
Methods: This study included 101 patients (91 with osteoarthritis, 10 with rheumatoid arthritis; mean age at total knee arthroplasty: 72.9 years) with asymptomatic postoperative DVT. Medical prophylaxis for DVT was started on postoperative day 1. Vascular ultrasound was conducted within 2 days postoperatively; patients were switched to FPX 7.5 mg after DVT diagnosis. Ultrasound was repeated to monitor DVT resolution. Adverse reactions were assessed.
Results: DVT resolved in 72 patients (71.3%) receiving FPX 7.5 mg. There were no significant differences between patients with versus without DVT resolution in the timing of FPX 7.5 mg therapy, treatment period, age, body mass index, or D-dimer or hemoglobin levels. There was no significant difference in DVT outcome between patients starting FPX 7.5 mg within 4 days postoperatively versus on day 5 or later, or between patients treated for ≤7 versus ≥8 days. Hemoglobin decreased to ≤7 g/dL in three patients (2.9%).
Conclusions: FPX 7.5 mg can be expected to resolve DVT in 71.3% of patients; however, the risk of associated hemorrhagic complications may be higher than the risk of pulmonary embolism. To treat DVT with FPX 7.5 mg without compromising safety, patients should be selected carefully and the timing of treatment should be adjusted appropriately.
Objectives: The correlations of the ratio of long-/short-chain DNA fragments in blood with the existence of cancer and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) were examined. The potential use of this ratio for diagnostic screening was evaluated.
Methods: DNA concentrations were amplified using Alu247 for long-chain DNA fragments and Alu115 for long- and short-chain DNA fragments. The Alu247/115 ratio was calculated for 60 patients with CRC and 24 healthy volunteers. The correlation of the Alu247/115 ratio with clinicopathological variables and the efficacy of this ratio as a tumor marker were examined. The Alu247/115 ratio cut-off value was set using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results: The Alu247/115 ratio was significantly higher in patients with CRC than in healthy volunteers (P<0.001). The Alu247/115 ratio was also significantly higher in patients with Dukes stage A or B CRC than in healthy volunteers (P=0.034) as well as in patients with Dukes C or D CRC than in those with Dukes A or B CRC (P=0.016). Among patients with CRC, the Alu247/115 ratio was significantly higher in those with than without venous invasion (P=0.031). Using the cut-off value set from the ROC curve, the sensitivity of the Alu247/115 ratio was significantly higher than that of the carcinoembryonic antigen level (P=0.004) or the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the Alu247/115 ratio is a promising tool for highly sensitive and early detection of CRC.
Objective: The decision of whether and/or when to treat cerebellar infarction surgically remains controversial. We investigated the effectiveness of decompressive suboccipital craniectomy (DSC) for treating cerebellar infarction and the prognostic factors that affect the surgical results.
Methods: From October 2006 to June 2017, a total of 14 consecutive patients (12 men, 2 women; mean±SD age 65±12 years, range 42–84 years) were admitted to our hospital and underwent DSC at the time of admission or during their hospitalization. Inclusion criteria were (1) a level of consciousness below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13, and/or (2) brainstem compression and/or obstructive hydrocephalus caused by brain edema due to cerebellar infarction. Ventricular drainage was performed simultaneously or later, according to the surgeon’s decision.
Results: At the 90-day point, 12 of the 14 patients (85.7%) had survived, 10 (71.4%) of whom were independent (modified Rankin scale ≤2). Four (28.6%) were either completely dependent or dead. Comparisons between good and poor prognoses showed that the factors affecting the prognosis were lesions other than the cerebellar infarction (p<0.01) and/or obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Early DSC should be considered for treating cerebellar infarction in patients with GCS 13 or worse. A poor prognosis is inevitable in patients whose infarction is combined with other location than the cerebellum but in those who already have obstructive hydrocephalus at the time of surgery.
Management of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is often difficult because of its aggressive characteristics. Molecular-targeted therapy was recently introduced as an alternative therapeutic strategy for ATC; lenvatinib is a molecular-targeted agent that is currently indicated only in Japan for the treatment of ATC. Here we report the case of an 86-year-old Japanese woman with ATC who was treated with lenvatinib at our hospital and exhibited a remarkable response. Computed tomography showed tumor shrinkage by day 8 and stable disease until day 32. She maintained activities of daily living (ADLs) until shortly before her death. The patient’s resting energy expenditure and body composition were analyzed at the time of admission. Potential toxicity risk of lenvatinib was evaluated based on these data. Enteral nutrition for oral intake was supplied to compensate for her lack of dietary intake and to improve metabolism for the purpose of suppressing lenvatinib toxicity. She also engaged in physical rehabilitation to avoid developing sarcopenia, which is thought to be a risk factor of molecular-targeted therapy toxicity, and to maintain her activity level. We emphasize the importance of a team approach for providing an appropriate treatment regimen to maintain ADLs, which includes nutritional support, physical rehabilitation, and aggressive therapy with lenvatinib.