During the 1990s, laparoscopic resection was established as a treatment for gastrointestinal malignant tumors. A number of randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery with conventional open colorectal surgery for colon cancer have been conducted. These trials have shown short-term benefits, and the vast majority demonstrated no significant difference in long-term outcomes. Laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery is widely performed for the treatment of colon cancer, whereas laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery for rectal cancer is less commonly performed. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of reports of laparoscopic-assisted colorectal surgery for rectal cancer, where improving short-term outcomes was shown, but no definitive effect on long-term survival has been shown to date. Randomized controlled trials focusing on long-term survival are currently ongoing.
Background: The treatment of septic non-union of the tibia is a challenging area. The objective of this clinical study was to improve the treatment outcomes in patients with a highly active infection by the three strategies consisting of a two-staged operation, a flow-through technique for vascular anastomosis of a free vascularized fibular graft (FVFG), and continuous local intra-arterial infusion of heparin.
Patients & Method: Five patients with septic non-union of the tibia who were treated with an FVFG (mean age: 52.8 years) were enrolled. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 47.2 months, and the mean length of the bone defect was 111 mm. A two-staged operation, in which polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads containing antibiotics were inserted into a bone defect followed by bone reconstruction performed with an FVFG later. Vascular anastomosis was performed with the flow-through technique in all patients. Immediately after FVFG, heparin was continuously infused through a femoral arterial catheter for 1 week.
Result: Bone union was confirmed an average of 18.8 weeks after-surgery in all patients without reoperation for thrombus.
Conclusion: Our attempt to apply the strategies appears to be a viable treatment option for septic non-union of the tibia.
AIMS: To investigate whether Imiquimod (IMQ) as TLR7 ligand protects mice from colonic inflammation and the mechanisms underlying in such immunoregulatory conditions. METHODS: Murine colitis was induced to Balb/c mice by administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) with or without daily intraperitoneal administration of IMQ. Colitis was evaluated by body weight decreases and by histological score. Also colonic mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR. To confirm the induction of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) by type-1 IFN from pDCs, we generated mouse bone marrow-derived pDCs and co-cultured these with CD4+ T cells isolated from mouse spleen with or without IMQ stimulation. Cytokine production in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA and the number of Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) from IMQ-treated mice were collected, and mRNA expressions of cytokine were measured by RT-PCR and cytokine productions were measured by ELISA. Tregs and chemokine expressions were analyzed in colon of TNBS-induced colitis mouse by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Administration of IMQ significantly suppressed colonic inflammation of TNBS-induced colitis. In the colons of IMQ-treated mice, mRNA expression of TNF-α was decreased, and strong expressions of IL-6, IFN-β and TGF-β were detected. IL-10 and TGF-β productions were increased in the supernatant of co-cultured cells stimulated with IMQ, although we were unable to detect Treg differentiaton in IMQ-stimulated co-cultured cells. In MLN of IMQ-treated mice, strong expressions of TLR7, IFN-β, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA were detected. IL-10 production from MLN cells was also increased in the IMQ-treated group. Finally, Tregs in the inflamed colon and CCR9 in MLN of IMQ-treated mice were detected. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that IMQ protects mice from TNBS colitis through induction of CCR9, which regulates accumulation of Tregs in the inflamed colon.
A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative.
Transient late-onset hyperglycemia was detected in a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant (gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 1,082 g) by routine point-of-care glucose monitoring. The infant had no clinical symptom. Serial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted for 3 days at 31, 35, and 39 weeks’ post conceptual age. The difference values between the maximum and minimum blood glucose levels during the interval from one enteral feeding to the next enteral feeding were 32.3±14.3 mg/dL, 47.5±22.9 mg/dL, and 27.5±12.9 mg/dL for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd CGM, respectively. The serial change in the values was statistically significant (p<0.01).
CGM is widely used as a routine clinical practice, which is true even in VLBW infants. Hyperglycemic events detected by only once of CGM in otherwise healthy preterm infants have already been reported on larger numbers of patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the change of glucose intolerance in a VLBW infant with transient late-onset hyperglycemia was investigated by serial CGM.