Introduction Traumatic experiences and disordered sleep are strongly associated with drinking problems. We examined the effects of experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant accident, and of sleep problems, on behavioral changes observed in non-drinkers.
Methods This study examined cross-sectional data from the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey conducted among residents in restricted areas of Fukushima in 2012. Participants were 21,454 evacuees aged 20 years or older at the time of disaster. People who did not drink before the disaster but became drinkers afterwards were compared with the rest of the cohort. We analyzed the association between behavioral changes in non-drinkers and potentially predictive variables, using logistic regression.
Results The behavioral change of non-drinkers becoming drinkers (n=2,148) was significantly related to being male (OR=1.93, 95% CI:1.74-2.15), being younger (21-49 yrs, OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.60-2.13), having less educational attainment (up to high school graduate, OR=1.21, 95% CI:1.09-1.35), smoking (OR=1.22, 95% CI:1.08-1.38), losing family or relatives (OR=1.21, 95% CI:1.07-1.37), change in employment (OR=1.19, 95% CI:1.07-1.32), having severe sleep problems as measured by a Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale (3-8, OR=1.45, 95% CI:1.30-1.62), and severity of traumatic symptoms as measured by the PTSD Checklist Stressor-Specific (PCL-S) score (<44, OR=1.33, 95% CI:1.17–1.51).
Conclusion Having sleep problems and having more severe traumatic symptoms are significantly related to non-drinkers becoming drinkers.
Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare complication involving the implantation of the gestational sac in a cesarean delivery scar. The authors report a case of unexpected placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) caused by late diagnosed CSP, necessitating emergent hysterectomy. A 28-year-old Japanese woman with two previous cesarean deliveries presented to our hospital at 11 weeks of gestation with abnormal transvaginal ultrasound findings obtained at another hospital;however, transabdominal ultrasound revealed that the fetus was already present in the uterine cavity at this time. At 28 weeks, there was no evidence of placenta previa. The woman developed preeclampsia at 29 weeks, and a cesarean section was conducted. Intraoperative findings confirmed PAS, and hysterectomy was conducted immediately.
Early intra-abdominal infection (IAI) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is an initial event relating to morbidities caused by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). The aims of this study were to determine factors associated with IAI, and to investigate its impact on postoperative outcome.
Consecutive patients, 113 in total, who underwent PD at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between January 2012 and September 2017 were included in this retrospective study. IAI was defined by positive bacterial culture from intra-abdominal drainage fluid any time through postoperative day 3 (POD3). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relevant factors associated with IAI. The clinical impact of the POD3 infection indicators related to POPF were assessed by multivariate analysis.
The incidence of IAI, POPF, and mortality were 36.1%, 36.1%, and 0%, respectively. Independent factors associated with IAI were preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) (OR = 2.91, CI = 1.16-7.33, p = 0.023) and soft pancreas (OR = 8.67, CI = 2.37-31.77, p = 0.001). Among infection markers on POD3, the significant factors for POPF were CRP (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.08-1.30, p < 0.001), IAI (OR = 7,37, CI = 2.53-21.5, p < 0.001), and drain amylase (OR = 1.00, CI = 1.00-1.01, p = 0.001).
In conclusion, PBD, soft pancreas, and higher age were associated with IAI. IAI has a significantly negative impact on postoperative outcome.
α6β4 integrin plays pivotal roles in cancer progression in several types of cancers. Our previous study using N-glycan-manipulated cell lines demonstrated that defects in N-glycans or decreased β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans on β4 integrin suppress β4 integrin-mediated cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis has shown that colocalization of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans with β4 integrin was observed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue. However, until now there has been no direct evidence that β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans are upregulated on β4 integrin in cutaneous SCC. In the present study, we performed an ELISA analysis of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans on β4 integrins as well as β4 integrins in cell lysates from human normal skin and cutaneous SCC tissues. The SCC samples showed a 4.9- to 7.4-fold increase in the ratio of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans to β4 integrin compared with normal skin samples. These findings suggest that the addition of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans onto β4 integrin was markedly elevated in cutaneous SCC tissue compared to normal skin tissue. The value of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans on β4 integrin may be useful as a diagnostic marker associated with cutaneous SCC tumor progression.