The present adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) aimed to determine the occurrence of developmental disorders in Fukushima Prefecture, which was exposed to low-dose radiation. At two medical institutions in Fukushima City, we enrolled 339 pregnant women from September 2013 through May 31, 2014, who delivered 335 neonates (174 male, including one set of twins) between November 4, 2013 and November 11, 2014. The parents of four neonates declined to participate in the present study and one neonate died. Therefore, 334 families agreed to participate in additional surveys until March 2017. Child Behavior Checklists (CBCL) were mailed to all 334 families during the month of their infant's second birthday and we received 236 responses (response rate, 70%). All responses were below the 69th percentile in the CBCL, and no responses indicated significant problem behaviors. Boys tended to have higher values for items associated with developmental problems, but symptoms of autism were not evident. The mental health of the mothers indicated in the previous study might not have influenced the children. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not obvious by the age of three years and thus it might become apparent as the children grow older.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of awareness and behavior for falling accident prevention according to medical profession. We used a questionnaire called “Self-Evaluation of Awareness and Behavior for Falling Accident Prevention,” which was originally designed for nurses. In October and November 2016, the questionnaire was administered to 1,670 medical staff (nurses, doctors, lab technicians, nursing assistants, radiological technicians, pharmacists, physical therapists, nutritionists, and occupational therapists, among others) at a hospital in Japan, using a 5-step scale and a not applicable (N/A) option. Valid responses were obtained from 923 (55.3%) participants, and all seven factors extracted by factor analysis had Cronbach’s α coefficients of greater than 0.9. Using cluster analysis based on principal component analysis, four categories were identified. According to the results of the N/A χ2 (chi-square) test question item and occupation, nurses answered N/A the least, followed by doctors, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Nursing assistants’ awareness and behavior were both low, suggesting the necessity of education on preventing falling accidents. By applying the “Self-Evaluation of Awareness and Behavior for Falling Accident Prevention” to all medical staff, we succeeded in clarifying their characteristics of awareness and behavior for falling accident prevention.
Recently in Japan, Ramucirumab (RAM) became the first anti-angiogenic agent to be approved for second-line treatment of gastric cancer. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RAM plus paclitaxel (PTX) in patients with unresectable and recurrent gastric cancer in our institution.
Patients and Methods
The subjects were 11 patients with unresectable and recurrent gastric cancer who received RAM plus PTX as a second- or later-line treatment at our hospital between June 2015 and September 2017, after the failure of previously-attempted treatments. We assessed the efficacy and safety of RAM plus PTX, and also compared them between patients aged <75 years (n=6) and those aged ≥75 (n=5), by performing a retrospective analysis based on the data obtained from daily clinical practice for gastric cancer treatment.
Objective tumor response was observed in one of the 11 patients (9.1%) with partial response, and disease control was seen in the remaining 10 (90.9%). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients were 20.8 months (95% CI 7.8-NA (not applicable)) and 11.3 months (95% CI 6.5-NA), respectively. There were no serious adverse events.
The median OS for the <75 years group and ≥75 years group was NA (due to short follow-up period) and 20.8 months (p = 0.336), respectively, and their respective median PFS rates were 9.4 and 11.3 months (p = 0.492). The difference of rate of adverse events was not significant between the two age groups in the present study, though the number of adverse events was not sufficient.
The results of the present study suggest that the combination chemotherapy of RAM and PTX was effective in unresectable and recurrent gastric cancer patients as a second- or later-line therapy, and has been shown to be safe and feasible in elderly patients.