This study aimed to clarify the relationships among physical fitness and body constitution index in female adolescent. It has been suggested that body composition index is the body constitution index that can be used to effectively compare subjects who vary in height. Furthermore, it has also been suggested that in an assessment of body composition, it is important to consider the influence of height. One hundred ninety-one female junior college students aged 18 years or older were classified into three groups (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) according to the criteria of the Japanese Obese Society. There were the most items indicating the correlation BMI in the association between body constitution index and physical fitness. Participants in the overweight group tended to perform poorly in side steps and standing long jumps. On the other hand, the higher the participants body mass index value, the better they performed on hand grip strength. There was, however, no difference in hand grip strength for measurements of fat-free mass. A two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data on body composition. The analysis showed that interaction was accepted by repetition side step and standing long jump. For the evaluation of physical fitness, it was suggested that body composition index level was the effectiveness.
The purpose of this study was to conduct ACP-PE [physical education (PE) class that incorporates the concept of the Active Child Program (ACP)] through one unit, and to verify its effect. The subjects were 53 children (30 boys and 23 girls) in the second grade of elementary school. The normal PE group (where conventional physical education classes were conducted) was set as a control group, and the ACP-PE group (which performed ACP activities in all classes) was the intervention group. The amount of physical activity, movement change, and consciousness were measured for mat exercises. The analysis revealed that in the ACP-PE group, the amount of physical activity was significantly higher in terms of both exercise intensity and steps when compared with the normal PE group. In addition, with regard to movement change, although the movement scores of forward and backward rolls improved notably through the unit in both groups, A significant interaction was not found. It was also seen that children felt that ACP-PE was fun and wanted to continue with it going forward. ACP-PE allowed children to exercise and increase their physical activity while having fun. Moreover, it did not adversely affect the exercise items included in the main exercise. These results suggest that ACP-PE is effective as a physical education class for present-day children.
At a psycho-rehabilitation camp of the movement method, for the physically handicapped who had difficulty acquiring the cross-legged sitting position, we provided instructions on how to achieve this position. By clarifying the temporal relationship between the three types of movement based on analysis of movement shifts (posture evaluation of sitting position, knee standing position, standing position, etc.) , we identified upper body development as a task for severe disabled people. The purpose was to examine the significance of learning support by way of the standing position. Our results indicated that the chest was straightened in the posture holding position, the position of the center of gravity grew stable at the center, and it became possible for the individual to hold the position. Finally, holding the knee standing position and standing position, it was found that the upper body was not twisted and the position of the center of gravity was stabilized at the center. In addition, achievement of the standing position, which is a developmental upper-level task, led to improvement in the behavior of all learning tasks, suggesting that the scope of learning support for the target people was broadened.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the age at which 13 types of jump movement tasks were accomplished by 3-5 years old and the order of their acquisition. Further, the study aimed to obtain materials for utilization in the learning of jump movements by young children and for use in teaching, through a comparison of findings related to the learning situations of young children in this study and those in previous studies. Thirteen types of jump movement tasks and their evaluation and aspects for observation were created, and observation and evaluation were conducted by a total of five persons including three elementary school teachers and two graduate students specializing in health and physical education. The concordance rate of the responses among the observers of the 13 types of jump movement tasks was 83.6-98.5％, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.616-0.918. The age of accomplishment of the jump movement tasks was clarified from the observers' observation scores. It was assumed that jumps off a stand, jumps onto a stand, continuous rebound jumps, vertical jumps, and standing long jumps would already be accomplished before the age of three. Tasks accomplished at the age of three included jump the rubber band, Kenken jumps or jumps hopping on one foot, and continuous jump overs with both legs. Tasks accomplished at the age of four included bunny-hopping, gallops, and skips. It was indicated that Kenpa jumps and jumping over a vaulting horse were not yet accomplished by the age of five. The age of accomplishment of jump movement tasks of young children and the acquisition order in this study were almost the same compared with children in previous studies. Further, in order to enhance the proficiency of the jumps, it was considered important to intentionally and systematically include various jumping type of exercise movements and traditional play such as Kenken jumps, skips, and Kempa jumps.
Previous studies have shown that the use of a baby-walker during the first year after birth of a baby, when the motor skill is most significantly developed, may affect the subsequent development of the child. However, since trends in use of other infant equipment have not been investigated, it is not clear what kind of infant equipment is used at each stage of the infantile development. The present study was usage survey of infant equipment, including those other than baby-walkers, for newborns and infants during their first year of life. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire targeting 612 infants in Hyogo, Okayama, and Tottori prefectures in Japan, resulting in 307 valid responses, which have revealed their usage of infant equipment. Some items of infant equipment that are used for a longer time than baby-walkers may restrict infant. While the infant equipment increases the safety of the lives of infants, our data suggests the possibility that those devices may also limit their self-directed, which is important for gross motor development.
This study examines how the morphological growth of Thai children (7 to18 years old) transformed at the end of the 20th century (1983 to 2000) from the perspective of socio-ecological environmental changes. Items examined were height, weight, height of anterior superior iliac spine, biacromial diameter , biiliocristal diameter, chest circumference, and secular trend in growth. As a result, height has increased significantly, along with the height of the anterior superior iliac spine which has also increased markedly, and made a relative contribution to the increase in height. In the period of turbulence at the end of the 20th century, the height of Thai boys (18 years old) rapidly increased by 6.7 cm. This remarkable increase in height that occurred in Thailand is very noteworthy historically. In the same way, there was an increase in size in girls as well due to the socio-ecological influence. There was a distinct secular trend (generational difference) observed in chest circumference in girls however which was not in boys, though biacromial diameter did not appear to be influenced by environmental changes, and was virtually unaffected. It became clear that indicators such as height, weight, height of the anterior superior iliac spine, and biiliocristal diameter reflect the difference in the times. One interesting finding was regarding chest circumference, where significant socio-economic development was associated with an increased chest circumference for girls, but no such change was seen in boys. From the socio-economic indicators, it was also clear that these morphological changes were brought about by the remarkable transformation of Thai society and its socio-economic development.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between screen time, body composition and physique, and motor ability (25 m Run, Standing long jump, Softball throw, Body support duration, Continuous jump over) . The study consists of 95 healthy children (53 boys and 42 girls) aged 4-6 years old. First to gather data the parents were asked about their children's daily habits. Then the Martin method was used to measure physique and bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure body composition. A motor ability test was also administered. The results suggest that screen time has an effect on body composition and certain motor ability. The average screen time of the sample was over 2 hours per day. The sample group was divided into 3 groups by length of children who spend longer in front of a screen tended to have poorer motor ability. This was especially clear with the throwing a softball test.