Agroforestry integrates trees in agricultural landscapes for socio-economic and ecological benefits. On Kilimanjaro, the agroforestry system of the Chagga homegardens harbours a high diversity of vascular plants and animals. In contrast, the commercial coffee plantations represent a monocultural type of agroforestry and are managed more intensively. The aim of this study is to investigate the bryophyte flora of these differently managed agroforestry systems on Kilimanjaro and to highlight their function for biodiversity and as a refuge for bryophytes. We used 10 of the permanent monitoring plots of the DFG-funded Kili-project, each of 20 × 50 m. We recorded the species separately on the ground, on dead wood, on coffee trees and on trees taller than 2 metres using rope-based canopy access methods from arboriculture. In total we found 68 bryophyte species, which (without the 10 new records) corresponds to 45% of the known bryophyte species of the submontane and colline zone of Kilimanjaro. The strongest correlation for the total number of species per plot was with elevation, followed by land use intensity and mean annual precipitation (all, except land use intensity with a positive trend). Our study shows that homegardens and partly also commercial coffee plantations on Kilimanjaro can serve as refuges for former forest dwellers. This ability to conserve nature is enhanced by less intensive land management without using pesticides. As the market for organic products grows, such ecological management could provide coffee farms with a stable income while protecting their biodiversity.
Anoectangium bellii Broth. ex Dixon is A. aestivum (Hedw.) Mitt. Anoectangium euchloron (Schwaegr.) Mitt. is reported for Queensland. Barbula indica (Hook.) Spreng. [= Hydrogonium orientale (F.Weber) J.Kučera] is doubtfully present in Australia. Chionoloma tenuirostre (Hook. & Taylor) M.Alonso, M.J.Cano & J.A.Jiménez is the only species present in this genus in Australia. Chionoloma bombayense (Müll.Hal.) P.Sollman and C. subduriusculum (Müll.Hal.) M.Menzel are excluded from Australia. The occurrence of Barbula ehrenbergii (Lorentz) M.Fleisch. is confirmed. Barbula incerta Dixon and B. obtusissima Broth. & Paris (≡ Didymodon obtusissimus Broth.) are Hydrogonium consanguineum (Thwaites & Mitt.) Hilp. Hyophila nymaniana (M.Fleisch.) M.Menzel, as H. rosea R.S.Willliams, is excluded from Australia. Syntrichia laevipila Brid. [≡ Tortula laevipila (Brid.) Schwaegr.] is also excluded for the continent. Syntrichia ruralis (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr and S. rubra (Mitt.) R.H.Zander are both distinct species present in Australia. Trichostomum crispulum Bruch is newly reported for New South Wales. Weissia novae-valesiae (Broth. ex G.Roth) I.G.Stone is Weissia austrocrispa (Beckett) I.G.Stone. Weissia latiuscula Müll.Hal. occurs in Queensland. Hymenostomum aristatulum Broth. & Paris is Weissia patula (C.Knight) Fife. Weissia leratii (Broth. & Paris) P.Sollman is reported for New South Wales and Queensland.
Ptilidium californicum (Austin) Underw. & O.F.Cook has been recognized as a member of Ptilidium Nees in Japan since its first discovery in 1951. However, recent molecular phylogenetic study doubted the occurrence of the species in Japan, suggesting that the Japanese P. californicum may be a poorly development phase of P. pulcherrimum (Weber) Vain. To clarify the taxonomic identity of Japanese plants, molecular phylogenetic analyses and morphological examination were carried out. The Japanese materials identified as P. californicum were clearly resolved in the P. californicum clade consisting of North American samples. Morphological examination confirmed that underleaf shape could be a stable taxonomic character to distinguish P. californicum from P. pulcherrimum, even in poorly developed plants. Therefore, we accept P. californicum as a member of Japanese bryoflora. A revised key to the species of Ptilidium in Japan is provided.
In Thailand, two species of Plicanthus R.M.Schust. are confirmed: P. birmensis (Steph.) R.M.Schust., P. hirtellus (F.Weber) R.M.Schust. A description and illustrations of each species as well as ecology and geographical distribution are provided. The morphological variation of each species and the differences between the two species are discussed.
An updated account of the genus Calypogeia Raddi in Thailand is presented. Three species, including C. arguta Nees & Mont., C. goebelii (Schiffn.) Steph., C. lunata Mitt., are currently reported from Thailand. Calypogeia goebelii var. siamensis N.Kitag. is reduced to a synonym of C. goebelii. A key to the species of the genus as well as the descriptions, illustrations, ecological information, and geographical distribution of each species are provided.
Critical morphological study of the type of Leiomitra robusta (Steph.) R.M.Schust. (≡ Trichocolea robusta Steph.) showed that L. robusta is conspecific with L. paraphyllina Spruce. The former species is proposed as a synonym of the latter. Mexican plants previously reported as T. robusta were also examined and appeared to belong to L. paraphyllina as well, confirming results of previous authors. The latter species is widely distributed in Central and South America. A worldwide key to the species of Leiomitra is provided.
Based on molecular data we show that there are at least five taxa involved among the morphological complex of large Aneura species with wide, thin thalli. We also typify the previously described large Aneura species and show their relationship to two currently undescribed taxa from Europe.