A new liverwort species, Lejeunea masamiana G.E.Lee & Pócs, is described and illustrated from Indonesian New Guinea. It is recognised by the strongly recurved to involuted leaves both in dry and moist condition, leaf cells with well-developed trigones and with conspicuous intermediate thickenings, smooth cuticle, fully incurved free margin of the lobule, and large, reniform underleaves with frequently recurved margins and with lobes up to 1/4 of underleaf length. Morphological variations of some liverwort species due to environmental effect of the forest in New Guinea are discussed, as a factor which might have influenced also the morphology of the new species.
Evolutionary leverage is the average of total transformational trait changes among species in a dissilient (radiative) genus or larger, integral taxonomic group. It is proposed as a measure of evolutionary success in modern environments. Comparing evolutionary leverage aids in measuring potential evolutionary coherency and ecological success among taxonomic groups, here exemplified with Pleuroweisieae and Barbuloideae of Pottiaceae and genera of Streptotrichaceae (all Bryophyta). Shannon-Turing analysis—calculation using summed informational bits and sequential Bayes—translates to relative support for order and coherence of species in dissilient (radiative) genera. Hymenostylium gracillimum (Pottiaceae) is transferred to Ardeuma, while H. xerophilum and H. hildebrandtii (Merceyopsis hymenostylioides as synonym) are transferred to Eobryum. These three possess the primitive trait of a stem central strand in Pleuroweisieae. The genus Ozobryum is resurrected from synonymy with Molendoa.
A recent investigation into the four species of Hypnum Hedw. s. l. hitherto reported for Thailand confirms only two species that are consequently placed in Calohypnum Sakurai: Hypnum darjeelingense Ando [＝C. sikkimense (Renauld & Cardot) Jan Kučera & Ignatov] and H. plumiforme Wilson [＝C. plumiforme (Wilson) Jan Kučera & Ignatov]. The previous records of H. sakuraii (Sakurai) Ando and H. submolluscum Besch. in Thailand were based on misidentifications. The genus Hypnum is excluded from Thailand and Calohypnum is recognized. Based on the latest collections we made, five mosses: Claopodium aciculum (Broth.) Broth., Dicranoloma reflexum (Müll.Hal.) Renauld, Entodon scariosus Renauld & Cardot, Taxiphyllum giraldii (Müll.Hal.) M.Fleisch., and Vesicularia flaccida (Sull. & Lesq.) Z.Iwats. are reported new to Thai moss flora. The descriptions, illustrations, and key to species of Calohypnum in Thailand as well as diagnostic characters of the new moss records are provided.
A new species of Encalypta, E. kangchenjungae D.G.Long & P.Shrestha, is described from seven localities in East Nepal, India (Sikkim) and western Bhutan. It is tentatively placed in Section Rhabdotheca Müll.Hal. and shows similarities to E. rhaptocarpa Schwägr. from which it differs in its shorter stems, its shorter setae and shorter capsules, absence of a peristome, and in its short, smooth, thin and papery translucent calyptrae which are fringed at the base with triangular lobes and are campanulate-cucullate, deeply split up one side with the base consequently spreading out. In this feature it appears to be unique in the genus. It is restricted to strongly calcareous soil and rocky substrates at high altitudes in the East Himalaya. New reports are also given of three other species new to parts of this region, mostly identified by the late Diana Horton: E. alpina Sm. from Sikkim, E. ciliata Hedw. from Sikkim and Bhutan and E. rhaptocarpa Schwägr. from Nepal and Sikkim.
Re-examination of morphological features and newly executed molecular analysis based on chloroplast (rbcL, rps4, and trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS1&2) genomes revealed unexpected diversity in Symphyodon perrottetii Mont. s. l. (Symphyodontaceae) in East and Southeast Asia. Japanese plants previously recognized as S. perrottetii are shown to include at least five different species: S. asper (Mitt.) A.Jaeger, S. copelandii Broth., S. gollanioides Nog., S. recurvomarginatus (Dixon & Sakurai) H.Akiyama, comb. nov. and S. rheophilus H.Akiyama, sp. nov. In addition, previous Japanese record of S. echinatus (Mitt.) A.Jaeger is actually S. asper. Symphyodon longispinosus H.Akiyama, sp. nov. from southwestern China is newly described. Subsequently, S. perrottetii s. str. is excluded from China and Japan and has its revised distribution range from southwest India (type locality of S. perrottetii), Sri Lanka, central Thailand, and Singapore. Symphyodon merrillii Broth., once regarded as a synonym of S. perrottetii, is again recognized as a distinct species with its distribution in Malesia and Indochina. Symphyodon ovalifolius H.Akiyama & M.Suleiman, sp. nov. is described and classified under the subgenus Parasymphyodon H.Akiyama & M.Suleiman, subg. nov. Rheoshevockia fontana Ignatov, W.Z.Ma & D.G.Long is again demonstrated to have a unique systematic position sister to the genus Symphyodon.