The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships between neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and chewing time in fattening Japanese Black steers.In experiment 1, 18 steers were observed at the ages of 12 and 15 months. The steers were fed 5.2, 7.8 kg of concentrate and 3.1, 1.5 kg of roughage on a dry matter basis at the age of 12, 15months, respectively.In experiment 2, 15 steers were observed at the ages of 20, 25 and 28 months.The steers were divided into three groups; six steers were fed 5.1-5.3 kg of concentrate A (consisting of 50% ground corn grain) and 3.1-5.4 kg of corn silage (ConA･CS group), six steers were fed 4.8-5.1 kg of concentrate B (consisting of 40% ground brown rice) and 3.3- 5.7 kg of corn silage (ConB･CS group), and three steers were fed 8.5-8.8 kg of concentrate A and 1.0-1.6 kg of wheat straw (control group) at each observation period, respectively. In experiment 1, the NDF intakes from forage (FNDFI), the ratios of FNDFI to dry matter intake (DMI) and the chewing times of steers at the ages of 15 months decreased as the increase of the concentrate intake.In experiment 2, the FNDFIs were 1.6, 1.6, 0.7kg/day, the ratios of FNDFI to DMI were 17.5, 17.2 and 7.6%, the chewing times were 386, 436289 minutes/day, and the RVIs were 60, 62, 46 minutes/kgDM, respectively, in the ConA･CS group, ConB･CS group and control group. The correlation coefficients between chewing time and the ratio of NDFI to DMI, and between chewing time and the ratio of FNDFI to DMI, were 0.28 and 0.51, respectively. These results indicate that the FNDFI and the ratio of FNDFI to DMI affect chewing time and RVI in the diets of fattening Wagyu steers
We conducted two experiments to investigate the relationships among starch intake, feces starch and fecal pH in fattening Japanese Black steers.In experiment 1, 18 steers were observed at the ages of 12 and 15 months.The steers were fed 5.2, 7.8 kg of concentrate and 3.1, 1.5 kg of roughage on a dry matter basis at the age of 12, 15months, respectively. In experiment 2, 15 steers were observed at the ages of 25 and 28 months.The steers were divided into three groups; six steers were fed 5.1, 5.3 kg of concentrate A (consisting of 50% ground corn grain) and 5.4-4.8 kg of corn silage (ConA･CS group), six steers were fed 4.8, 5.1 kg of concentrate B (consisting of 40% ground brown rice) and 5.7, 4.9 kg of corn silage (ConB･CS group), and three steers were fed 8.5, 8.8 kg of concentrate A and 1.6, 1.3 kg of wheat straw (control group) at each observation period, respectively. In experiment 1, the ratios of starch intake to dry matter intake (DMI) for steers at the ages of 12 and 15 months were 28.8 and 36.8%, respectively. However, feces starch and fecal pH did not differ at the two ages. In experiment 2, the ratios of starch intake to DMI were 41.3, 38.3 and 38.8%, the feces starch levels were 10.9, 14.1 and 6.8% and the fecal pH were 6.09, 5.81 and 6.31, respectively, in the ConA･CS group, the Con B･CS group and the control group. The correlation coefficients between fecal pH and feces starch, and between fecal pH and the dry matter ratio of feces, were -0.44 and -0.47, respectively (p<0.01). These results indicate that lower fecal pH is correlated with higher feces starch, and suggest that excessive flow of starch from the small intestine increase hindgut fermentation and feces pH decrease.
An accumulated data set from digestion trials with lactating dairy cows (n = 170) was used to determine the effects of a proportion of herbage dry matter (DM) intake and crude protein (CP) content of herbage on nitrogen and energy utilization. The data set was divided into 2 groups based on the proportion of herbage DM intake in total diet (LI: < 35%, HI: > 35%). Moreover, the data set within HI was divided into 3 groups based on herbage CP content (LP: < 15%, MP: 15-18.5%, HP: > 18.5% of DM). Total dietary nitrogen intake and urinary nitrogen excretion increased as the proportion of herbage DM intake and herbage CP content increased. Milk nitrogen as a proportion of total nitrogen intake increased with herbage DM intake and decreased with an increase of herbage CP contents in HI. Digestible energy and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes were greater for HI than for LI (P < 0.01). In HI, DE and ME intake did not differ among groups. Milk energy yield for HI was greater than that for LI (P < 0.05), but was similar across herbage CP concentrations within HI. Simple regression analysis of milk energy against ME for production (ME intake - ME for maintenance) revealed that the conversation rate of ME for production was smaller for LI than for HI (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease as herbage CP content increased within HI.
Placenta, which can be obtained from animals without slaughtering them, is an attractive biological resource for proteoglycans (PGs). In order to seek the way for efficient use of placenta, we investigated the effects of hydrolysates derived from placental PGs on rat dermal fibroblasts in vitro. We extracted PGs from bovine placenta and hydrolyzed them into glycosaminoglycan (GAG) fragments and core protein peptides (CPPs). Both GAG fragments and CPPs promoted proliferation of fibroblasts. Biochemical and immunological analyses showed that the collagen and PGs synthesized by fibroblasts increased in the conditioned media and the cell layers of PG hydrolysates-treated fibroblasts. GAG fragments, but not CPPs, promoted the mRNA expression of a collagen-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-13, suggesting that GAG fragments also stimulate reactions involved in ECM remodeling. These results suggest that the PG hydrolysates have an anabolic effect on dermal fibroblasts. Therefore, placenta could be efficiently used by employing it to skin care products as PG hydrolysates.
Carrot silage prepared from substandard carrots (carrot) and supplement wheat bran was evaluated in fermentation quality, and mixed with a basal feed consisting of grass silage and beet pulp. The quality of the mixed diet was evaluated in terms of feed intake, digestibility, nutritive value, and nutrient intake by four sheep to examine the application of substandard carrot silage (carrot silage) as a substitute for corn and wheat bran. On a dry matter (DM) basis, mixed diet intake ratio was 11.7% corn and 11.4% wheat bran (control diet), and 24.0% carrot silage (7.6% carrot and 16.4% wheat bran) (experimental diet). Carrot and carrot silage had a DM content of 10.2 and 28.2%, respectively. The carrot silage demonstrated a high fermentation quality. Carrots contained crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and starch at concentrations of 6.5, 41.1, and 15.3%DM, respectively, while the carrot silage without wheat bran had a WSC content of 6.8%DM. There were no significant differences between the control and experimental diets regarding the digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen-free extract, acid detergent fiber, or neutral detergent fiber. Neither the total digestible nutrients content nor intake was significantly different between the control and experimental diets. These results suggest that on a DM basis, 24% carrot silage can be used as substitute 11.7% corn and 11.4% wheat bran.
Wild female Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), captured around Lake Akan in Hokkaido during winter, were fed for short time.During the short time feeding, fawns were born.After 15-23 weeks, 5 fawns were slaughtered and carcass and cut meat were collected in the present study. Body weight, feed intake, carcass weight, total meat weight and cut meat weight were measured.Chemical compositions, mineral contents of loin were analyzed.Birth weight and daily gain were 3.8 - 5.8 kg and 83.6 - 179.1 g, respectively. The daily gain was heavier in the heavier fawn. The weight of carcass and total meat were 8.5 - 15.5 kg and 5.0 - 10.9 kg, respectively.The yield of carcass and total meat were 41.9 - 51.1 % and 27.1 - 34.6 %, respectively.In the cut meats, round was the heaviest (3,222 g; 46.6 %), followed with shoulder (1,330 g; 19.4 %) and brisket (960 g; 13.5 %).Crude protein and crude fat content were 19.2 - 22.9 %FM and 0.8 - 3.2 %FM, respectively, and there were large individual differences. Moisture and crude ash content were 71.7 - 76.4 %FM and 1.1 - 1.4 %FM, respectively. Sodium, calcium and iron content in the meat had high variability.Cadmium, lead and molybdenum were not detected.
The present study aimed to select inessential feed for emus, and an experiment, involving local by-products of crops and food processing, was conducted to examine emus' preferences. The subjects were four adult emus, allowed to select from the following varieties of feed: the first group: carrots, cabbages, and the leaves of Japanese radishes; the second group: carrot silage, cabbage silage, and corn silage; the third group: soybean curd residue and soybean meal, and concentrated feed made of liquids from potatoes; and the fourth group: the varieties of feed in the first group mixed with concentrated feed equivalent to 5% of the dry matter contents. In the experiment, the emus ate all dry matter feed amount of cabbages, the leaves of Japanese radishes, cabbage and corn silage, soybean curd residue and soybean meal. Small amounts of carrot and its silage were left in dry matter contents, presumably because they did not like the shape of shredded carrots. Although they did not eat concentrated feed when it was fed alone, they consumed it completely when it was mixed with preferred inessential feed. It was suggested that the concentrated feed is able to mix as a feed to increase crude protein contents.
Digestibility of diet could affect the preference of herbivore. In woodland, Hokkaido native horses graze selectively from some species of plants. In this experiment, the first experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility of 10 plants (Cacalia delphiniifolia, Cacalia hastata ssp.orientalis, Carex leucochlora, Cryptotaenia japonica, Pachysandra terminalis, Persicaria thunbergii, Petasites japonicus ssp. giganteus, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica, Polygonum filiforme and Sasa nipponica) that Hokkaido native horses grazed in woodland. The second experiment was to determine a preference order of those plants by Hokkaido native horse. The in vitro digestibility was high in forbs (Cacalia hastata ssp.orientalis, Cryptotaenia japonica and Pachysandra terminalis) but low in gramineous plants (Carex leucochlora and Sasa nipponica). Contrary, horses preferred to eat gramineous plants rather than forbs. In this experiment, the woodland plants showed high in vitro digestibility did not correlate to the preference order by Hokkaido native horses.
It is considered that the ostriches can use roughage by microbial fermentation in hindgut, nevertheless the research on intake and /or digestibility of roughage in ostriches is very few. In this study the voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of fresh grass, grass hay and grass silage were investigated and compared with those of pelleted concentrates to clarify the availability of forage grasses by ostriches. The voluntary intake of grasses was 0.5 - 0.6 kgDM/day, then it were 0.5 - 0.8% of their body weight, which is lower than that of concentrates (P<0.05). The NDF digestibility of grass silage was 46%, which was lower than that of fresh grass (65%) and grass hay (62%). These values were considered to be very high compared with other birds. The TDN contents of fresh grass, grass hay and silage were 68.3, 56.8 and 51.9%DM, respectively. It seems that the nutritive values of forage grasses for ostrich were comparable to that for horses. On the other hand, the body weights of ostriches fed forage grasses were not able to be maintained because of the lack of intake. These results suggested that it is necessary to investigate the digestive tract dynamics of roughages in ostriches to make effective use of grasses.