Horticultural Research (Japan)
Online ISSN : 1880-3571
Print ISSN : 1347-2658
ISSN-L : 1347-2658
Volume 18 , Issue 2
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
REVIEW
  • Zentaro Inaba
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 97-106
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have bred new varieties of marguerite and registered 35 cultivars for both cut and pot flowers. For cut flowers, such as ‘Southern Elegance White’ that has a flower head type similar to ‘Zairai-Shiro’, 11 cultivars were bred. For pot flowers, such as ‘Sunday Ripple’, that are heat resistant and flower continuously from autumn, 24 cultivars were bred. To diversify the flower color and scent of marguerite, intergeneric crossing was performed using marguerite as the seed parent and annual chrysanthemum as the pollen parent. We bred new intergeneric hybrids such as ‘Peach Queen’ with orange ray florets and ‘Fuurenka’ with a new floral scent.

    Download PDF (34761K)
REPORTS
Breeding & Germplasm Resources
  • Fumi Tatsuzawa, Hiro Ideue, Takuya Otani, Kumiko Kato, Shiduko Nakajo, ...
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 107-116
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The relationship between flower color and flavonoid composition of petals was investigated in 20 cultivars (four red, seven red-purple, eight purple-violet, and one white cultivar) of Lobularia maritima. Twenty-one anthocyanins, including pelargonidin 3-[6-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]-5-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-[6-(trans-feruloyl)-glucoside]-5-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside, which, to our knowledge, have not yet been reported in the flowers of L. maritima, were identified in the cultivars with red flowers. The major anthocyanins detected in the petals were Lobularia Deep Rose Anthocyanin 1–6 (Tatsuzawa et al., 2010) and pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, found in cultivars with red-purple flowers, while Lobularia Violet Anthocyanin 1–9 and cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (Tatsuzawa et al., 2006, 2007) were observed in those with purple-violet and violet flowers. Moreover, four known flavonol glycosides {3-[2-(rhamnosyl)-glucoside]-7-rhamnoside and 3-[2-(rhamnosyl)-arabinoside]-7-rhamnoside of kaempferol and quercetin} that have never been reported in the flowers of L. maritima were identified in the 20 cultivars of L. maritima. These flavonols were components of all cultivars, and so they showed no association with the flower color in this study. Regarding flower color variation, the bluing of these cyanic petals was caused by the acylation of anthocyanin with hydroxycinnamic acid and also hydroxylation of the B-ring in anthocyanidins.

    Download PDF (2424K)
  • Satoru Murakami, Motohiro Taneishi, Kimitake Suzuki, Toshiyuki Sasaki, ...
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 117-125
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Synchronization of the flowering period between male and female varieties is fundamental in kiwifruit cultivation without artificial pollination. The flowering period of the red-fleshed kiwifruit ‘Rainbow Red’ occurs earlier than that of conventional male varieties. We selected ‘Nijitaro’ as a pollinizer, a new male variety from the chance seedlings of ‘Rainbow Red’. The blooming stage of ‘Nijitaro’ nearly matched that of ‘Rainbow Red’ and its pollen fertility was similar to that of other conventional male varieties. The number of anthers and amount of pure pollen this variety produces were smaller than those of hexaploid varieties such as ‘Tomuri’. On the basis of the results of flow cytometry analysis and the rate of fertile seed development, this variety is a diploid type of Actinidia. Partial cane grafting of ‘Nijitaro’ on ‘Rainbow Red’ achieved a higher bearing rate than that of independent male trees distributed in the open pollination test field. Especially, ‘Nijitaro’ cane was present within a circle of 2 m, with both bearing and fruit enlargement suitably secured. Thus, the ‘Nijitaro’ variety is an unsuitable pollinizer for artificial pollination, but it is effective for open pollination of cultivated ‘Rainbow Red’.

    Download PDF (2364K)
Crop Production & Cropping Type
  • Shinsuke Furuno, Chie Yoshida, Hiroshi Matsunaga
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 127-132
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The effect of light irradiation after harvest of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit on yield and color promotion by growing stage in summer-fall cultivation was investigated. Light irradiation for 4–7 days promoted fruit coloring by ≥10%, and ≤5% of fruits did not color sufficiently to meet the shipping standard. The number of irradiation days required to promote fruit coloring after harvest from 10 to 90% was also investigated. About 4 days of irradiation promoted fruit coloring in 10% of fruits for each harvest period. Further, for fruits that were left on the plant, the number of days required for coloring from 10 to 90% was 4 days from July to mid-October. After late-October, it increased gradually, and it was over 20 days by December. It is recommended to perform light irradiation post harvest after October in the Tohoku region as it increases the fruit yield by more than 10%.

    Download PDF (1661K)
  • Masahiro Kamimori, Yuka Miwa, Takeshi Isobe, Akihiro Hosomi
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 133-138
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To understand the influence of yearly changes in air temperature on the development of grapes, we analyzed the records of air temperature and phenological events (budding, blooming) of ‘Delaware’ grape under open field conditions from 1963 to 2010 in Habikino, Osaka Prefecture, Japan using a generalized linear model (GLM) and model selection with Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In this study area, the average temperature tended to rise over the 48 years. The dates of budding and full bloom became earlier. The average temperatures in February, March, and April were important factors influencing the dates of budding based on the GLM using AIC. This suggested that the dates of budding became earlier because of yearly temperature increases in February and March. The average temperatures in April and May were important factors influencing the dates of full bloom based on the GLM using AIC. This suggested that the dates of full bloom became earlier because of the earlier dates of budding and yearly temperature increase in May. In conclusion, the budding and blooming of ‘Delaware’ grape in Habikino, Osaka Prefecture have accelerated over the past 48 years: budding has been influenced by the yearly temperature increases February and March, and blooming has been influenced by the earlier of budding and yearly temperature increase in May.

    Download PDF (959K)
  • Akira Tomita, Eiki Hagihara, Michiko Dobashi-Yamashita, Masashi Ida, S ...
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 139-142
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Fruit set of sweet cherry becomes unstable with high temperatures in the flowering period. High temperatures during the flowering period increase the concentration of endogenous gibberellin-like substances of the floral organs. Degeneration of the ovule is accelerated by gibberellin. Since endogenous gibberellin affects ovule degeneration, the authors focused on the action of a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. Treatment with a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor was examined to determine whether stable fruit set can be obtained even when high temperatures are encountered during the flowering period. The fruit set rate of the section treated with a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor was significantly higher than that of the untreated plot. The effects on shoot elongation depend on the type of gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor used; the plant regulatory agent with the mildest impact was prohexadione calcium. Since prohexadione calcium has a small influence on shoot elongation, we examined the effect on open field cultivation. Even if cherry blossoms encounter high temperatures during the flowering period, it is possible to maintain healthy ovules for longer by processing prohexadione calcium up to 2 weeks before flowering. Additionally, it was revealed that the fruit set rate was improved compared with the untreated plot.

    Download PDF (1106K)
Growth Regulation
  • Sadao Komori, Yuka Saito, Manabu Watanabe, Masanobu Murakami, Izumi Mo ...
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 143-155
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To elucidate mechanisms of fruit deformation in apple, we investigated deformation of ‘Fuji’, ‘Megumi’, ‘Tsugaru’, and ‘Orin’. Among these cultivars, no significant difference was nored in the deformation indexes among weight classes, suggesting that they deformed similarly, irrespective of the fruit size. Fruits were easily deformed in the longitudinal direction because the deformation index in that direction was larger than in the transverse direction. The deformation indexes of ‘Fuji’ were larger than those of other cultivars. The maximum radii of transverse sections of ‘Fuji’ and ‘Orin’ appeared near the middle of the two locules, but those of ‘Megumi’ and ‘Tsugaru’ appeared near the right locule. Because the position of the maximum radius of transverse section was set as 0°, we investigated those of the minimum radius of transverse section, the minimum longitudinal diameter, and maximum longitudinal diameter. The maximum longitudinal diameter of all cultivars was near the maximum radius of the transverse section. However, the minimum radius of transverse section and minimum longitudinal diameter were at different positions in the four cultivars. The minimum radius of transverse section and minimum longitudinal diameter of ‘Fuji’ appeared almost symmetrically against the diameter passing through the maximum radius of the transverse section.

    Download PDF (5967K)
  • Akio Tazuke, Kazuya Kanisawa, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Munehiko Asayama
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 157-165
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we evaluated the varietal differences in the effects of total defoliation on the expression of candidate marker genes of sugar starvation in cucumber fruit. Our previous studies identified CsSEF1, asparagine synthetase gene, and CsFDI1 as candidate marker genes. Here, we conducted RNA-seq and identified 5 more genes: Csa3G435530, Csa5G606310, Csa3G824990, Csa1G002810, and Csa6G501990 (Cucurbit Genomics Database code). We examined the effects of total defoliation on the expression of these genes in major types of cucumber in the world. The examined cultivars were as follows: Japanese type: ‘Tokiwa’, ‘High green 21’, and ‘Freedom house No. 2’. North-Chinese type: ‘Suyo’. South-Chinese type: ‘Sagami hanshiro’. Slicer: ‘Poinsett’. English greenhouse slicer: ‘Proloog RZ’. Beit Alpha: ‘Khassib RZ’. Pickling: ‘Mogami’. Because defoliation treatment markedly enhanced the expression of CsSEF1 in all cultivars examined, CsSEF1 was regarded as a stable candidate marker gene.

    Download PDF (1052K)
Postharvest Physiology & Technology
  • Makoto Tonooka, Yoshiyuki Homma, Hideki Nukui, Kazuo Ichimura
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 167-172
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A factor that shortens the vase life of cut gerbera was investigated. When cut ‘Minou’ gerbera flowers were placed in water with a relatively high bacterial concentration, the vase life was markedly shortened. An experiment using vase water of cut ‘Picture Perfect’ and ‘Pinta’ revealed a correlation between the turbidity and bacterial number, suggesting that an increase in the turbidity of vase water is attributable to bacterial proliferation. There were differences among seven cultivars in the turbidity of vase water. Treatment with an isothiazolinonic germicide markedly extended the vase life of some cultivars, such as ‘Picture Perfect’, in which the turbidity of vase water was relatively high. In cut ‘Minou’, turbidity of vase water increased with time, and treatment with the germicide almost completely suppressed this increase. Treatment with the germicide increased water uptake of cut flowers and suppressed any decrease in the fresh weight. These results suggest that there is variation among cultivars in the turbidity of vase water, which is closely associated with the vase life of cut gerbera.

    Download PDF (946K)
  • Satoshi Kasai, Toru Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Kudo, Satoshi Goto
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 173-184
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To improve the year-round supply system for Japanese apple fruit, we selected long-term storable cultivars and assessed optimal storage technologies for them. At first, we investigated the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage on fruit quality after long-term storage in 30 cultivars. ‘Shuyo’, ‘Sekaiichi’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Kotaro’, ‘Shinano gold’, ‘Aori 15’, ‘Ambitious’, and ‘Aori 21’ were selected for their better quality compared with bagged ‘Fuji’ stored in CA, which was mainly handled in the present system. Next, 1-MCP, CA, and 1-MCP + CA were additionally examined in these cultivars. ‘Sekaiichi’, ‘Aori 15’, ‘Ambitious’, and ‘Aori 21’ did not have their quality maintained by these methods. On the other hand, ‘Shuyo’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Kotaro’, and ‘Shinano gold’ had no physiological disorders and showed good qualities with 1-MCP + CA. Moreover, the appropriate timing of 1-MCP treatment after harvest was thought to be within 3 days in ‘Shuyo’ and ‘Jonagold’ and 6 days in ‘Kotaro’ and ‘Shinano gold’.

    Download PDF (943K)
Disease & Pest Management
  • Akihiro Hosomi
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 185-191
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The goal of this study was to determine the suitability of rootstock of 4 fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties: ‘Celeste’ (‘Malta’), ‘Ischia Black,’ ‘Negronne’ (‘Bordeaux’), and ‘Kibaru,’ resistant to ceratocystis canker disease. The growth and fruit production of ‘Masui Dauphine’ (‘San Piero’) fig trees grafted on these 4 varieties and on sick soil resistant ‘Zidi’ were compared with those of own-rooted ones in fields without this disease. The results from trees of ages 2 to 4 or 5 years in a normal field showed that the length and basal width of shoots on these rootstocks, except those on ‘Celeste,’ tended to be greater than those on the own-rooted trees. The characteristics of fruit set, maturation date, and fruit qualities on these rootstocks were similar to those of the own-rooted trees. A few exceptions were observed in the basal portion of the shoots, in which the ratio of fruit set on ‘Negronne,’ ‘Kibaru,’ and ‘Zidi,’ and soluble solid content of the fruit juice on ‘Celeste,’ ‘Negronne,’ ‘Ischia Black,’ and ‘Kibaru,’ both tended to be lower than those of the own-rooted trees. The results from trees on ‘Negronne,’ ‘Ischia Black,’ and ‘Zidi’ aged 2 to 4 years in a field without ceratocystis canker but with soil sickness showed that the total volumes of shoots on 2 rootstocks, ‘Negronne’ and ‘Ischia Black,’ were not significantly different from that of the own-rooted trees, in contrast to being larger on ‘Zidi.’ In conclusion, none of the rootstock varieties resistant to ceratocystis canker disease had a clear influence on fruit production of the scion ‘Masui Dauphine.’ Hence, among the varieties used in this study, ‘Negronne’ and ‘Kibaru’ are recommended rootstocks in terms of disease resistance.

    Download PDF (992K)
Human Issues & Methodology in Horticulture
  • Satoshi Mizushima
    2019 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 193-198
    Published: 2019
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We investigated whether basic social skills were developed in high school students studying horticulture in the agricultural department. A three part self-evaluation questionnaire was developed that had a learning evaluation table, a basic social skills evaluation chart, and an educational activity evaluation table. Basic social skills regarding 12 elements were measured in December in 3rd grade high school students. Scores for independence, abilities facilitating problem discovery, planning, transmission, and active listening were significantly higher those before high school entrance. Correlation coefficients between those for the 12 basic social skills elements and those for interests, attitudes, and knowledge/technology, in being the learning evaluation table were obtained. The results indicated that the teaching focused on increasing the students’ interests, attitudes, and knowledge/technology, being effective in fostering individuality, execution power, planning abilities, creativity, dissemination ability, and discipline. The wide range of agricultural education activities led to the well-balanced development of each basic social skill element except for stress control. Therefore, it was concluded that it is possible to nurture basic social skills through agricultural education at high school.

    Download PDF (929K)
feedback
Top