This paper proposes a method of estimating a group’s mood based on the number of synchronicities of heart rate peaks in the group as a means to support positive tourism experiences. This study constructed a prototype system with a smartwatch and a smartphone and conducted a field experiment for 12 groups at nine points of interest in Kyoto City, Japan. The results of the investigation showed that the proposed method could estimate a group’s mood from the relationships between the psychometric evaluation of groups and their synchronized heart rate peaks.
Emotion is one of the predetermined aspects that lead to non-compliance behaviour by a user in the Information Security (IS) domain. Four prominent emotions have been recognized in IS, which are fear, stress, trust, and rage. In this study, fear will be highlighted as the scope to explain fear in IS through design concept. This paper discusses how to characterize fear as stimuli for user emotional assessment in IS through the design concept of information security dialog user interface design (UID). Recent research made by other researchers shows that too low and too high levels of fear lead to user reluctance and resistance behaviour. Thus, it is essential to conduct a study to suggest methodology and procedural details in measuring fear and propose the relationship between the level of fear and user compliance behaviour toward IS procedures and policies. This study adopted part of Kansei Engineering, and KJ Method in measuring fear towards IS dialog box UID as the artefact. This study characterizes fear emotion in the IS domain based on users’ compliance response towards the artefacts. Findings from this study will give a new perspective on emotion, particularly for fear toward design in the IS domain and serve as the foundation of emotion in the IS field concerning Kansei and Affective Sciences.
This study aims to find how space discrepancy and latency affect the implicit and explicit sense of agency (SoA) with discrete and continuous operations, and whether these two factors have an interaction effect. In Experiment 1, for discrete operations, participants were asked to press a button to make a ball move. In Experiment 2, for continuous operations, participants were required to copy four shapes shown on the screen. Space discrepancy and latency were set in both experiments. Subjective scores of the SoA are used to measure the explicit SoA. The intentional binding and relative distance between the shape shown and participants’ drawing are used to measure the implicit SoA, respectively. From the experimental results, we learn how latency and space discrepancy affect the SoA and these two factors have an interaction effect. The SoA has the same manner in discrete and continuous operations according to the explicit results.
This current research presents the elements of expressing a sense of being alive of the artifacts based on the results of three experiments. In recent years, robots and AI have become necessary products in the world, and there are the considerations of designing artifacts to express a sense of being alive by making them similar to humans. However, the received data about making the artifacts have a sense of being alive are only related to the abstract concepts, which are difficult to apply. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors of the expression of a sense of being alive of the artifacts by performing comparisons between the expressing of a sense of being alive and the mechanical expression of the artifacts. Then, three experiment phases were conducted, which were a study on artificial expression via flashing lights, sounds, and changing forms. A set of questionnaires were distributed to the participants. The participants’ points of view were examined by employing multivariate analysis methods. The transition of the artificial expression in this research was turned into the figure of waveforms. Finally, four factors were selected as having the highest effect with expressing a sense of being alive from the human judgments, which were 1) the waveform with some fluctuations, 2) smooth waveforms, 3) an unexpected waveform, and 4) the waveform with unstable periods. This study’s results may further be applied to new products to allow them to express a sense of being alive.
This study aimed to identify the psychological variables that can mediate an influence of color focality on color preference in modern Japanese culture and to specify the pattern of the mediated influence. The potential mediators were 22 appraisal dimensions and the psychological processing fluency (PPF) of colors. We conducted two experiments with native Japanese speakers, which measured these variables. Data analyses showed that gracefulness is the only appraisal dimension that can mediate an effect of color focality on color preference. Specifically, focality negatively influenced the appraisal of gracefulness and gracefulness positively impacted preference. Although a U-shaped quadratic relationship exists between focality and PPF, no relationship was found between PPF and preference. Therefore, PPF’s role as a mediator is not supported. Our literature survey suggests that the focality-gracefulness-preference relationship may be caused by the “noisy color phenomenon,” which is a cultural phenomenon existing in many color-using areas in modern Japan.
An individual’s acceptance of novelty depends on their emotions. We previously developed mathematical models of emotional dimensions associated with novelty, such as arousal (i.e., surprise) and valence (i.e., positivity and negativity). The models based on Bayesian theorem have three parameters: prediction error, uncertainty and external noise. Based on Berlyne’s arousal potential, we formulated valence as an inverse U shape function of arousal. We assume that the arousal level where the valence turns from positive to negative shows the range of novelty users would accept. In this study, we derive a corresponding prediction error and term this ‘acceptable novelty’. Our model predicts that the greater the uncertainty, the larger the acceptable novelty. Our experimental results using musical stimuli with novice participants supports the model prediction under assumption that uncertainty is greater than noise. By contrast, experts’ result is explained by the model prediction when uncertainty is as low as noise.
This study explores the differences in visual perception of footwear based on gender by conducting semantic differential evaluations and classification tasks. Cluster and factor analyses were performed to analyze the similarities and factors in footwear styles, respectively. The cluster analysis results indicated that leather shoes and sneakers were the major styles clearly distinguished by the participants. Fancy leather shoes, described as “fancy and exaggerated” by men, and as “elegant and refined” by women, was the consensus style. Women emphasized on fashion and were more likely to perceive footwear integral to their outfit, whereas men valued the functionality of footwear and treated it as a tool. The factor analysis on footwear styles extracted four male factors: evaluation, attention, feature, and protection; and four female factors for: evaluation, charm, volume, and coverage. Women were more sensitive to the volume and weight of footwear, and were also more likely to sense its coverage.
This study analyzes subconscious Kansei and desires by determining the behavior and feelings of customers (e.g., sensation, cognition, and emotion) to obtain an appropriate design methodology. This study aims to address gaps between product manufacturers and customers. This allows identification of the priority areas, and design approach to be followed to meet user expectations. A set of qualitative research methods was used to quantify potential sensibilities. In addition to observing human reactions to Kansei information processing, we identify market consumption behaviors to facilitate systematic prediction of potential customer demands. We propose a Kansei marketing model providing insights to release products and to explore product design possibilities. We discuss the use of this model in a real-world setting and the missing parts needed to make it practical. The importance of this study lies in its potential application to sustainable economic activities.
Kansei Engineering was used to research the relationship between design elements and their emotional impressions in the design of saffron packaging. A preliminary study was conducted to define the target market of saffron; to determine the most important design elements of the existing packaging of saffron on the Greek market; and to better define the product domain for a follow-up study of saffron packaging on the international market. The follow-up study examined products with a glass-jar as primary package shown in the preliminary study to be the consumers’ most preferable. The study determined the most important design elements of saffron products and evaluated them in accordance with the consumers’ emotional preferences. Design recommendations pertaining to such elements as label background color, type of closure, tamper-proof seal, and the presence of an eco label and expanded information about the product were formulated.
YouTube video is one of the most popular social media channels used to attract people’s attention as it has its own “communication power” through the broadcasted videos. With the right approach to create an influential video that embeds emotional elements, YouTube video could be used as a medium to disseminate information that could influence people’s emotion. The study as reported in this paper attempted to understand people’s emotional responses towards videos posted on YouTube and how it could influence people’s unity. The study conducted an in-depth interview with 3 experts, to determine valid specimen for the investigation, and then elaborate the cause and effect of each specimen from their expert point of view. A Thematic Analysis (TA) was then performed to identify the concept of emotion and the video design elements that shaped the classification of emotion from the experts’ perspective. The study then performed a focus group study using the valid specimens with 6 viewers using the Evaluation Grid Method of Laddering (EGML) approach to discover the emotional concept and design elements in the videos from the viewers’ perspective. The results obtained from both sessions were synthesised to find agreements and finally conclude a taxonomy of Kansei Words (KWs) related to the concept of unity, and the video design elements that affect the concept. An in-depth interview with the experts has resulted in 17 valid videos reckoned to embed design elements that foster unity. The TA conducted then has identified 61 KWs and a total of 10 Items and 88 Categories of design elements. Meanwhile, EGML analysis has resulted in a total of 64-items of KWs and 14 Items and 76 Categories of design elements. The study then conducted a confirmatory analysis of both dataset and successfully synthesised 36 KWs, as well as 9 Items and 142 Categories of design elements. The final set of KWs and design elements are from the point of agreement/validation from both experts’ and viewers’ perspectives, and thus matches their implicit image of designs and the influential elements contributing to the implicit images. These become a sound clue and could be referred to as a reciprocal understanding of the concept of video design, which could lead to effective strategies to achieve people’s unity.
This study examined the desk heights of flat/sloped writing desks with the hypothesis that tilted boards can adjust to height differences. We conducted two experiments: a pilot experiment investigating the effect of a tilted board on subjective usability and other measured responses, and another experiment analyzing the combination of a tilted angle with varying desk heights. As a result, we found that subjective usability of the tilted desk was significantly better than a flat desk. Additionally, it was suggested that a 10° tilted board can accommodate a wider range of Sashaku (height difference between desk and seat) than other conditions. Based on the results, we calculated quadratic curves with the acceptable percentages and Sashaku as the objective and explanatory variables, respectively, for each tilted angle to derive the recommended ranges of Sashaku. Finally, we proposed design values for the flat/sloped writing desk that can consider individual preferences of desk heights.
The effect of the provision of “Neither-Good-Nor-Bad” (NGNB) information on the trustworthiness of agents has been reported. However, in this previous study, the size of the profits generated by the NGNB information was fixed at 50% of the maximum profit, even though this ratio can vary in practical situations. Furthermore, in this experiment, all the consequences were disclosed to the users, including those that they had not chosen. In practical situations, we are often unaware of consequences that we have not chosen. In this study, we focus on these two factors and investigate the effects of them on the trustworthiness of the agents. Experimental results reveal that the agent that reliably provides the NGNB information tends to gain a greater degree of users’ trust in a situation where it is harder to obtain large profits, and when consequences that they had not chosen were not disclosed to them.
In this study, we targeted healthy elderly individuals living with family in urban areas in Japan and Taiwan and considered the structure of their attitude towards life by conducting a survey and analysis of “satisfaction with daily life” and three aspects of attitude towards life that could affect satisfaction, namely, “enjoyment in daily life,” “anxiety in daily life,” and “ikigai in daily life.” The results revealed that “enjoyment of daily life” had a large positive effect and “anxiety in daily life” had a negative effect on the prediction of “satisfaction with daily life.” From the results of a factor analysis of what affects the consciousness of these two aspects of daily life, we were able to derive guidelines for considering service design. In addition, the characteristics and issues of each attribute could be clarified from the relationship between the attributes and the extracted clusters.