The components and the structure of an open system-of-systems (SoS) cannot be completely predicted at the design phase. An open SoS dynamically connects to collectively provide a superordinate functionality, which could not be provided by a single system. In addition, open systems' boundaries, functions, and structures are continuously evolving and perceived differently depending on stakeholders. Preventing them from becoming vague figures requires a particular effort. Therefore, for designers and systems engineers to realize open systems dependability in a company, they need to describe how they recognize the open SoS. This study aims to propose an assurance case (AC) description method that clarifies the objects to reduce misunderstanding of managed objects at the designing phase of an open SoS. We evaluate the method to confirm whether the subjects can describe the managed objects as an open SoS. Additionally, to confirm the utility of the proposed AC description method, we confirm whether the subjects can explain the managed objects as an open SoS using the proposed method. As a result, this study suggested that the proposed AC description method is effective for systems designers and systems engineers to recognize the open SoS.
Providing unique value through differentiation is a challenge for today's increasingly commoditized markets, to which the Japanese tea-based beverage market is no exception. Even with the continued growth spurn by an increase in consumer health consciousness, the market is becoming increasingly commoditized. Many tea-based beverage manufacturers are striving to gain a competitive advantage by decommodifying their products through increasing health-related functional appeal and differentiating packaging to meet the health-conscious market’s needs. Given the consumers’ difficulty in perceiving differences in the contents of tea-based beverages, packaging becomes the primary way to influence their perception and a key incentive in choosing a particular product (basis for decision). This study compared the effects of altering packaging design on the sales volume of tea-based beverages by testing the hypothesis that differences in packaging design have varying effects depending on the product type's functionality for health. As a result of an analysis using actual sales data, the following two results were demonstrated. In the case of tea-based beverages in plastic bottles: i) “Alterations to label design for limited time packaging” have the most significant positive impact on sales volume compared to other methods alteration. ii) Alterations to packaging design positively influence sales volume for non-functional tea-based beverages, but not for the functional ones. These findings provide helpful suggestions for future packaging design strategies to promote sales as a means of decommoditization.
When expanding businesses overseas, companies must consider the dispatch of international personnel. However, overseas dispatch requires a large amount of money. In case of failure, the company will incur substantial losses. To ensure success, it is necessary to study the characteristics and select an appropriate destination country for each expatriate. In this study, we propose an entropy model to capture the characteristics of destination countries for international human resources. Specifically, we construct a model using the CAGE Framework and elements of overseas subsidiaries. While the prior studies have focused on individual factors, the relative influence of factors affecting international human resource dispatch can be ascertained through analysis using the model in this study. We conduct an empirical analysis that realistically supports previous research concerning the importance of geographic location and the number of expatriates in the destination country. In addition, we found that culture and institutions proved to be important considerations.
The number of movie theater visitors has not increased despite the increased number of movies and theaters for many reasons, including the development of video content. Consequently, considering measures for increasing the sum of money spent by visitors through marketing initiatives aimed at theatre sustainability has become necessary. Theater income comprises four main elements: tickets, advertising, movie-related products, and food and beverage income. This study aims to develop measures for increasing revenue from food and beverage sales, which does not depend on the movie itself. Specifically, we constructed an explanatory model based on the logit model to explain how the frequency of usage of food and beverage outlets was related to the satisfaction of each element of a theater experience using a questionnaire. However, the simple logit model was insufficient for explaining this relationship. Consequently, we applied the logit model considering the latent classes and identified factors increasing the number of food and beverage outlet users for each latent class. Moreover, we analyzed real-world data and demonstrated the effectiveness of our analysis.
One of the widely used keywords in modern-day society is “network.” Information communication networks, e.g., communication and broadcasting networks, networks of different industries across the framework of an organization, community networks of citizens, and networks of nonprofit organizations, are rapidly enhancing in various fields of social “networking.” Finally, based on this trend, several researchers havefocused on “network” and conducting studies in individual research fields related to social science and engineering (natural science). Several network studies have been conducted by segregating the research into social science and natural sciences. However, a few major issues remain unresolved in network studies. This study clarifies the definition and positioning of networks and networking using an interdisciplinary approach from social science (organizational theory) and engineering (graph theory). Moreover, we will focus on network connectivity and propose connection density indicators. Based on an empirical analysis, the connection density of Japanese subways will be calculated using this connection density index, and the connectivity of each subway will be examined. Abstract One of the widely used keywords in modern-day society is “network.” Information communication networks, e.g., communication and broadcasting networks, networks of different industries across the framework of an organization, community networks of citizens, and networks of nonprofit organizations, are rapidly enhancing in various fields of social “networking.” Finally, based on this trend, several researchers havefocused on “network” and conducting studies in individual research fields related to social science and engineering (natural science). Several network studies have been conducted by segregating the research into social science and natural sciences. However, a few major issues remain unresolved in network studies. This study clarifies the definition and positioning of networks and networking using an interdisciplinary approach from social science (organizational theory) and engineering (graph theory). Moreover, we will focus on network connectivity and propose connection density indicators. Based on an empirical analysis, the connection density of Japanese subways will be calculated using this connection density index, and the connectivity of each subway will be examined.
Since an investment in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) does not correspond to an investment in tangible assets, its real effects on corporate values are ambiguous. Thus, we examined the impact of corporate SDG initiatives on the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) of the companies listed in the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange in the chemical industry. The analysis revealed a negative correlation between SDG initiatives and WACC. Further, we estimated the investment supply function via the instrumental variable method, employing the results of the linear discriminant analysis-based topic model of non-financial information based on the Annual Securities Report and Integrated Reports; we determined that “multiple awards for SDG disclosure,” which is the recognition of a company’s SDG efforts by society, lowered WACC. Put differently, we concluded that a proactive approach to SDGs, which explicitly states corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a business strategy, positively affected corporate values by shifting the investment supply function and lowering the hurdle rate (WACC).
In this study, it is examined how to organize a game schedule to increase the number of spectators. By applying the proposed methods, audience for each match condition, such as day of the week, opponent, etc., from past data, is estimated and a new match schedule is constructed based on the estimated values. The models based on multiple regression analysis is evaluated by comparing audience estimated from the new match schedule with it estimated from the actual schedule. In order to create a model that is more realistic, summer vacations and public holidays are added as conditions, and the trend of changes in audience over time is also considered. In addition, a comprehensive judgment is made by considering the impact of the schedule on the travel cost. The experimental results show that audience increased on the proposed methods compared to the actual game schedule. Although there are differences in the rate of increase among teams, the objective of this study is achieved as an optimizing the entire baseball world. These results show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
The characteristics of communication among the members of an organization can help to identify different organizational processes. In a series of studies, we applied information theory and the Markov chain to construct quantitative models capable of determining the information distribution for infinitely repeated communication in an organization. However, the constructed models primarily focus on randomness in information processing and do not sufficiently address the concept of fuzziness. The dual ambiguity of randomness and fuzziness exists in human information processing, neither of which can be overlooked when discussing organizational communication. In this study, we considered a memory communication channel and proposed an estimation model that included randomness and fuzziness to analyze the prior information allocation ratio of each of the members in two organizations. In addition, we analyzed a communication network with isomorphic and non-isomorphic structures. The proposed model, particularly in the field of organizational theory, will provide new research perspectives that incorporate randomness and fuzziness of information in human information processing and organizational communication. Furthermore, the proposed model suggests the possibility of designing or restructuring an organization that uniformly distributes the amount of prior information to a single organization or multiple ones.
Leader identity development, where the focus shifts from individual- to collective-level identity, is critical to ensure leaders’ continuous development. However, the leader development process brings with the challenge of leader burnout. This study aimed to propose and apply a method to facilitate a shift in leader identity focus by simultaneously fostering work engagement as a counter-concept to burnout. The proposed method consists of 17 frames and deepens the leader’s self-awareness. The participants in this study's experiment were in their early 20s and worked at a growing Japanese company. A previous study’s leader identity development method (i.e., the Leader Identity Development Canvas) is compared with the method proposed in this study. The participants completed pre- and post-implementation questionnaires for each method and the results were verified through statistical analysis using the level of self-concept and Utrecht work engagement scales. The results suggested that fostering work engagement may support leaders’ identity development. We found that participants’ perception of themselves as leaders led them to recognize the individual level of leader identity and may further shift their focus to the collective level. However, room remains for further consideration and it must be continuously investigated in future studies. Implications for theory and practice are finally discussed.
In this paper, we formulate multiobjective fuzzy random bimatrix games, and introduce two kinds of equilibrium solution concepts. By applying possibility/necessity measure and an expectation model to such games, the corresponding equilibrium solution concepts are defined. To circumvent the computational difficulties to obtain such equilibrium solutions, the algorithms based on the bisection method is proposed, in which equilibrium conditions in the membership function space are replaced into equilibrium conditions in the expected payoff space.
The previous study states needing to confirm whether systems designers and systems engineers can applicate in other fields the architecture description method that clarifies the objects to reduce misunderstanding of the scopes of virtual system-of-systems (SoS). In order to confirm applicate in other fields, we concretely applicate the previous architecture description method to the case both including virtual SoS and invisible SoS. Especially, we try to clarify the difference between the assumable range depending on virtual SoS and the assumable range depending on invisible SoS. We consider that the systems engineers and systems designers can expand the two assumable ranges using the previous architecture description method. In the evaluation method, we show the assumable range depending on virtual SoS and the assumable range depending on invisible SoS. Next, we show the difference depending on virtual SoS and invisible SoS. Finally, to verify the difference, the three writers that understood the previous architecture description method confirmed the results. As results, we suggest to depend on the position and contractual relationship with the visible one, in order to hear the relation of virtual SoS. However, we consider hearing the relation of invisible SoS more difficult than hearing the relation of virtual SoS. The reason why we consider it difficult is that the relation of virtual SoS is direct, and the relation of invisible SoS is indirect. From the above, we showed the difference between the assumable range depending on virtual SoS and the assumable range depending on invisible SoS. Finally, this study concludes with future research topics.