The increasing natural disasters occurrence in Brazil is an inevitable issue to provide worthy urban settlements. The Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (Growth Acceleration Program, better knowns as PAC ) actions have been supported by Brazil's Federal Government since 2007 aiming landslides risks prevention and mitigation. This actions support municipalities in elaboration of risk mapping, and the planning and execution of retaining structural works on the slopes. The purpose of this case study is to test and evaluate the flowchart for typology work selection for slope stabilization, which was designed from a partnership between Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Brazilian Ministry of Cities as part of the “Manual for Elaboration of Structural Intervention Plans for Mass Movement”, in the GIDES (Strengthening National Strategy of Integrated Natural Disaster Risk Management) Project framework, obtaining the information from the executive projects reports of the works in the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), and Salvador, State of Bahia (BA). It was observed in the case study that the flowchart leads to solutions that are similar to what the executive projects had pointed out, such as : retaining structures ; slope surface protection ; and surface drainage. The work in Nova Friburgo was designed and executed to utilize deep subsurface horizontal drainage (PH drains), however when using the flowchart was not observed in the application of this result, due to groundwater level (G. W. L.) absence. The flowchart is an appropriate tool for the geotechnical solution for slope stabilization definition and selection against landslides.
The GIDES Project, supported by JICA, is proceeding in Brazil in order to mitigate sediment disasters. A manual for the debris flow countermeasures has been drawn up as part of the Project goals. The manual is based on the Japanese guidelines for basic planning of countermeasures against debris flow and woody debris, however, adjustments were proposed due to typical natural and social conditions in Brazil. Some equations and coefficients were modified based on Brazilian field conditions. In addition, a flow chart was proposed in order to help engineers selecting debris flow suitable countermeasures. The manual methodology has been applied in two pilot project sites, regarding Brazilian areas affected by past sediment disasters : (1) The 2011 Região Serrana do Rio de Janeiro Disaster, and (2) the Santa Catarina state disaster occurred in 2008. This paper presents a summary of the Brazilian Manual for countermeasures planning against debris flow and introduces its methodology, showing two cases in which the manual guidelines were applied.
This article aims to present the advances on the elaboration of the Urban Expansion Planning Manual for Disaster and Risk Management, which is being elaborated by the Ministry of Cities and external consultants in the GIDES Project. The urbanization processes in Brazil incorporated the accentuated social inequality, leading to the occupation of environmentally fragile areas and the configuration of risk scenarios. Intensified and spontaneous urban growth, combined with extreme rainfall events resulted in major sediment disaster, which led the Brazilian government to rethink its disaster management policies. Because of such rethinking, the Federal Law 12.068/12 incorporates the planning of urban expansion as a prevention tool of natural disasters. The methodology that is being developed is structured in three scales of planning : the macrozoning, intermediate zoning and the Urban Expansion Project.
In January 2011 the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro state was devastated by the greatest sediment disaster recorded in Brazil. In July 2013 the Government launched GIDES Project for Strengthening National Strategy of Integrated Risk Management to provide the transfer of Japanese sediment disasterrelated technology and knowledge regarding recognition, prevention and early warning in order to reduce the risk of social-economic losses. This paper describes hazard and risk assessment development carried out for 4 main sediment related phenomena : slope failures, landslides, debris flows and rockfalls. The work involved bibliographic conceptual alignment, inventory of natural disasters data and statistical data analysis. The studies allowed the definition of potential triggering angles and maximum reach distances. When these data were confronted with the Japanese parameters some adjustments were necessary to frame a more realistic synergic method, due to Brazilian field peculiarities. These procedures permitted to define hazard sediment disaster prone areas and assessment of risk. The method has been applied in five Brazilian municipalities and showed good results.