Bifurcation refers to wye division of penstock to divide the flow symmetrically or unsymmetrically into two units of turbine for maintaining economical, technical and geological substrates. Particularly, water shows irrelevant behavior when there is a sudden change in flow direction, which results into the transition of the static and dynamic behavior of the flow. Hence, special care and design considerations are required both hydraulically and structurally. The transition induced losses and extra stresses are major features to be examined. The research on design and analysis of bifurcation is one of the oldest topics related to R&D of hydro-mechanical components for hydropower plants. As far as the earlier approaches are concerned, the hydraulic designs were performed based on graphical data sheet, head loss considerations and the mechanical analysis through simplified beam approach. In this paper, the multi prospect approach for design of Bifurcation, incorporating the modern day's tools and technology is identified. The hydraulic design of bifurcation is a major function of dynamic characteristics of the flow, which is performed with CFD analysis for minimum losses and better hydraulic performances. Additionally, for the mechanical design, a simplified conventional design method as pre-estimation and Finite Element Method for a relevant result projections were used.
Numerical simulation is carried out for flow characteristics in a plenum fan and the influence of the diameter ratio of the rotating vaneless diffuser on the performance of plenum fan is analyzed. The diameter ratio of the rotating vaneless diffuser employed is from 1.03 to 1.3. The research results show that the rotating vaneless diffuser is able to enhance the performance of plenum fan. It is found that there is significant improvement in static pressure and efficiency at the diameter ratio of 1.05 at high flow coefficients, while the optimal diameter ratio is 1.2 at rated and low flow coefficient.
An objective of this study is to demonstrate the validity of using a small wind turbine to recover the fluid energy flowing out of an exhaust duct for the generation of power. In these experiments, a butterfly wind turbine of a vertical axis type (D = 0.4 m) is used. The output performance is measured at various locations relative to the exit of a small wind tunnel (W = 0.65 m), representing the performance expected in an exhaust duct flow. Two-dimensional numerical analysis qualitatively agrees with the experimental results for the wind turbine power coefficient and rate of energy recovery. When the turbine is far from the duct exit (more than 2.5 D), an energy recovery rate of approximately 1.3% is obtained.
In the current study, identifying regimes and behaviors of the various viscous fluids in a typical horizontal singlestage centrifugal pump and improving its performance by enhancing volute throat area have been surveyed numerically and experimentally. Indeed the initial pump had insufficient head at BEP (Best Efficient Point) in relevant applications. In order to solve this problem, the method of increasing the volute throat area on the prototype was used in steps and eventually the increased head values have been achieved. Then modified centrifugal pump, that has been constructed based on the modified control volume from numerical results, has been tested thoroughly. The maximum head and efficiency discrepancy between numerical and experimental results in BEP were 1.4 and 2.6% respectively. The effects of viscous fluids, from 1 cSt to 500 cSt, on the performance curves of centrifugal pump have been investigated as well and results showed that viscous fluids has significant effect on them. Indeed the highest head and efficiency in the same conditions at BEP has been obtained in viscosity 1 cst which was by 19.2% and 44% greater than the viscosity 500 cSt. It is also found that the highest viscous fluid had the highest energy consumption as the absorbed power of highest viscous fluid, 500 cSt, increased up to approximately 55% above the lowest viscous fluid, 1 cSt, values.
Small valves including ball valves, gate valves and butterfly valves have been adopted in the fields of steam power generation, petrochemical industry, carriers, and oil tankers. Butterfly valves have normally been applied to fields where in narrow places installing the existing valves such as gate valves and ball valves have proven difficult due to the surrounding area and the heavier of these valves. Butterfly valves are used to control the mass flow of the piping system under low pressure by rotating the circular disk installed inside. The butterfly valve is benefitted by having simpler structure in which the flow is controlled by rotating the disc circular plate along the center axis, whereas the weight of the valve is light compared to the gate valve and ball valve above-mentioned, as there is no additional bracket supporting the valve body. The manufacturing company needs to acquire the performance and life test equipment, in the case of adopting the improving factors to detect leakage and damage on the seat of the valve disc. However, small companies, which are manufacturing the industrial valves, normally sell their products without the life test, which is the reliability test and environment test, because of financial and manpower problems. Furthermore, the failure mode analysis of the products failed in the field is likewise problematic as there is no system collecting the failure data on sites for analyzing the failures of valves. The analyzing and researching process is not arranged systematically because of the financial problem. Therefore this study firstly tried to obtain information about the failure data from the sites, analyzed the failure mode based on the field data collected from the customers, and then obtained field data using measuring equipment. Secondly, we designed and manufactured the performance and life test equipment which also have the real time monitoring system with the naked eye for the butterfly valves. The concept of this equipment can also be adopted by other valves, such as the ball valve, gate valve, and various others. It can be applied to variously sized valves, ranging from 25 mm to large sized valves exceeding 3000 mm. Finally, this study carries out the life test with square wave pressure, using performance and life test equipment. The performance found out that the failures from the real time monitoring system were good. The results of this study can be expanded to the other valves like ball valves, gate valves, and control valves to find out the failure mode using the real time monitoring system for durability and performance tests.
Surface pressure integration and momentum method were respectively performed to evaluate the impeller thrust and the system thrust of a contra-rotating axial flow water jet propulsion, and an interesting phenomenon so-called thrust paradox was revealed. To explain the paradox, the impeller thrust and the system thrust were physically and theoretically analyzed, the results show that the impeller thrust is head involved and is determined by the hydraulic parameters upstream and downstream the impeller, while the momentum method depicted by a classic equation is valid simply under the best efficiency point. Consequently, the role of a water jet propulsion nozzle was deduced that the nozzle is mainly to limit the flow rate that crosses the impeller and to assure the system working under the best efficiency condition apart from its ability to produce momentum difference. Related mathematical formula expressed the nozzle diameter is the dominant variable used to calculate the working condition of the water jet propulsion. Therefore the nozzle diameter can be steadily estimated by the former expression. The system thrust scaling characteristics under various speeds were displayed lastly.
The Savonius wind turbine has a lower performance than other types of wind turbines which may attract more study focus on this turbine. This study aimed to improve wind turbine performance by combining a conventional blade with an elliptical blade into a combined blade rotor. The analysis was performed on three blade models in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using ANSYS_Fluent Release 14.5. Then the results were verified experimentally using an open wind tunnel system. The results of the numerical simulation were similar to the experimental and showed that the combined blade rotor has better dragging flow and overlap flow than the conventional and elliptical blade. Experimental verification showed that the combined blade was to increase the maximum coefficient of power (Cpmax.) by 11% of the conventional blade and to 5.5% of the elliptical blade.
Many axial fans have circular arc blades with constant thickness. It is still a challenging task to calculate their performance, i.e. to predict how large their pressure rise and pressure losses are. For this task a need for cascade data exists. Therefore, the designer needs a method which works quickly for design purposes. In the present contribution a design method for such cascades consisting of circular arc blades with constant thickness is described. It is based on a singularity method which is combined with a CFD-data-based flow loss model. The flow loss model uses CFD-data to predict the total pressure losses. An interpolation method for the CFD-data are applied and described in detail. Data of measurements are used to validate the CFD-data and parameter variations are conducted. The parameter variations include the variation of the camber angle, pitch chord ratio and the Reynolds number. Additionally, flow patterns of two dimensional cascades consisting of circular arc blades with constant thickness are shown.
Wall pressure measurements and flow visualization were conducted for a 90 degree elbow with an axis curvature radius the same as its inner diameter (125 mm). Reynolds numbers 320,000 and 500,000, based on the inner diameter and bulk velocity, were examined. A deflected inflow, having an almost constant velocity slope and a faster velocity at the inside, was introduced. Ensemble averaged pressure distributions showed that no difference of normalized pressure could be found in both the Reynolds number cases. Power spectral density functions of pressures exhibited that the fluctuation having the Strouhal number (based on the inner diameter and bulk velocity) of 0.6 existed in the downstream region of the elbow, which was 0.1 larger than that of the uniform inflow case . Results of numerical calculations qualitatively coincided with the experimental ones.
In order to obtain high efficiency and low resistance droplet separation apparatus, axial vane type gas-liquid separators with different guide vanes were designed, and the RNG k-ε model as well as discrete phase model (DPM) were used to investigate the flow pattern inside the separators. It was shown that the tangential velocity distribution under different guide vanes have Rankine vortex characteristics, pressure distribution exhibits a high similarity which value becomes big as the increase of the blade outlet angle and the decrease of the guide vane numbers. The increase of the guide vane numbers and the decrease of the blade outlet angle could make separation improve significantly. The separation efficiency is almost 100% when the droplet diameter is bigger than 40μm.