Psychological studies have shown that when individuals move their gaze between two alternative objects, they tend to choose the object that holds their gaze for longer (the gaze-manipulation effect). This effect is especially evident when both alternatives appeal to the viewer. We hypothesized that if individuals have an interest in sports and/or fashion, and thus view varieties of sportswear favorably, then gaze manipulation would influence their choice. Japanese university students participated in our experiments. The participants made preference choices between two uniforms of European football teams, which were presented alternately across the left and right sides of a computer screen six times for different durations (900 ms vs. 300 ms). They were required to compare the uniforms with or without fixing their gaze directly on them. They also completed questionnaires designed to assess their interest in football and fashion. The results showed that the gaze-manipulation effect was not significant across all participants or across those participants who merely liked fashion, or who merely watched football or casually played it. However, the effect was significant in participants who had been members of football teams. Our results suggest that application of the gaze-manipulation technique would be more effective for visual advertisement of sports items if it was focused on sports players.
This study clarifies abilities that enable “sympathy of movement” (Mitvollziehen der Bewegung). Moreover, it discusses the methodological directionality to expand these abilities from coaches' and researchers' standpoints, using five discussions by highlighting Husserl's Phenomenology. “Sympathy of movement” refers to sympathizing with an athlete's performance and interpreting their experience from a coaching perspective. Previously, Kaneko indicated that “sympathy of movement” is performed using three coaching activities: the observation of movement, “inquiry,” and “virtual self-movement.” Using these activities, coaches can consider and provide appropriate advice for each individual. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of expanding these abilities; however, the manner in which these abilities should be expanded has yet to be clarified. Thus, this study employs three activities to clarify a methodological directionality to expand these abilities from a phenomenological perspective. In addition, it uses five discussions to indicate the necessity for coaches to learn the difference between external and internal standpoints on performance. Furthermore, researchers should focus on the phenomenological perspective.
This study aimed to examine temporal change in the physical demands with respect to a referee's running distance and speed, and heart rate (HR) during Japanese high-school (U-18) and university (U-22) football matches, and to investigate the match technical-tactical data. Additionally, we compared the physical demands and match performance of referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches. Physical performance (15Hz global positioning system device) and HR of 20 Japanese referees (age, 26.3±3.4 years) were measured from 20 matches (one match dataset per referee). All matches were video filmed to calculate the distance from a foul and match technical-tactical data (passes, shots, fouls, offense-defense turnovers, and penetrations into the attacking zone). We found that physical demands were temporarily increased in the last stage of a match. Some technical-tactical data similarly increased in the same stage, suggested that the referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches are required to move around each penalty area and keep up with play in the last stage of a match. Referees' physical demands and match performance were not different between the U-18 and U-22 matches.
The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (the TPSR model) is a method for teaching students about fulfillment of personal and social responsibilities through physical activities. A characteristic of this model is that it aims to transfer and maintain behavior acquired through physical activities. Past studies have revealed a number of challenges related to transfer and maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model. First, physical education classes in schools were not targeted. Second, the effects of the TPSR model were not examined using quantitative data. Third, maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model were not examined. One effective experimental design for examining maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model would probably be a case study in which changes in one group were measured for a certain period of time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the TPSR model would promote acquisition and maintenance of social skills in daily life using an experimental design and quantitative data targeting physical education in junior high schools in Japan. The results were as follows: First, the TPSR model promoted the acquisition of social skills that students could use outside of physical education classes, although it did not facilitate the maintenance of these social skills. Second, the TPSR model appeared to promote the acquisition of social skills by encouraging students to imagine scenes in their daily lives that were similar to scenarios in physical education classes, where they were encouraged to behave responsibly. Third, the TPSR model did not facilitate the maintenance of social skills because it did not incorporate methods for acquiring structural knowledge based on fundamental and procedural disciplines or allow students to gain structural understanding that would allow them to apply this knowledge to new scenarios.
The objectives of the present study were: to examine the relationship between kendo competition levels and men strike times in 20 university kendo club members; and to determine factors for shortening men strike times. LED lamps were attached to the men and the kote (the strike targets), and subjects struck in the direction of the lit LED lamp with maximal effort from a distance of 2.30 m. Phase times, movements, and ground reaction force on both feet were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. Subjects of higher competition levels tended to demonstrate shorter men strike times. Reaction times, movement times, and shinai upswing phase time also tended to be shorter. 2. Factor for shortening men strike times in the upswing phase consisted of the following: lifting the right foot from the ground quickly, simultaneously pushing off the ground with great force with the left foot, quickly lifting the right thigh forward while moving the body forward, and to increase the range of upswing motion of the shinai with high velocity. In the downswing phase, the shinai should be swung at a higher velocity, and the left shoulder should be flexed more when striking.
The present study was conducted to analyze the visual behavior of volleyball players using a wearable camera, instead of the expensive eye trackers that have been employed to date. The position of the player's forehead, i.e. the direction of the line of sight, was estimated approximately from the images recorded by the camera (pilot studies 1 and 2). We then examined differences in the player's gaze shift patterns, ball pursuit time and initial spiker fixation when blocking the volleyball, as a function of experience in playing volleyball (main study). The results from pilot studies 1 and 2 indicated that the ball pursuit time from just after release of the ball by the setter and the time taken to fix on the spiker, i.e. the time between the blocker's eyes leaving the ball and shifting to the spiker, was measured as accurately by the wearable camera as by using an eye tracker. The main study indicated that gaze shift pattern was separable into “gaze shift” (volleyball players, 100% and general sports players, 47.8%) and “ball pursuit” types (general sports players, 52.2%) indicative of skills based differences. However, there was no detectable difference in the time when players shifted their sight from the ball, or in the time when they saw the spiker, according to skills based on prior volleyball experience. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that it is possible to estimate visual behavior during blocking tasks in volleyball using a less expensive wearable camera, rather than an expensive eye tracker.
Unity is one of the most important factors for individual and team performance in sports. Mental health is also identified an important factor for athletes' sports performance. Scholars have proposed that athletes' mental health is related to resilience, that includes environmental and personal factors. We have hypothesized that unity in sports teams predicts environmental and personal factors of resilience, which in turn relate to athletes' mental health. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to this examine the effect of team unity on athletes' mental health, and the mediating effect of resilience in its relationship. A total of 626 university athletes (average age 20.08±1.31 years) from 16 sports completed questionnaires. The survey questionnaire comprised the Unity Scale for Sports Teams (Yamada et al., 2013), the Psychological Resilience Scale for University Athletes (Ueno and Shimizu, 2012) and the General Health Questionnaire-30 (Nakagawa and Daibo, 1985). Relationships between team unity, resilience and mental health were tested, as well as the above hypothesis. Results showed that positive correlations between team unity, athletes' resilience and mental health. Additionally, the results supported the mediation hypothesis of resilience in the relationship between team unity and mental health. The results suggest that interventions aiming to support athletes' mental health should focus on both teams and individual athletes.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of fair play in the pre-modern era, targeting pugilism in the 18th century, by focusing on the essence of gambling-oriented spectator sports. First, it analyzes the practice of gambling-oriented spectator sports from the perspective of the concept of figuration. Second, it analyzes Broughton's Rules of pugilism from the perspective of the concept of figuration to identify their function and the characteristics of fair play seen in them. Third, it examines the process by which fair play was transformed in the transition from the pre-modern to the modern era by exploring the meaning of the revision of Broughton's Rules as the London Prize Ring Rules. This study establishes the following. First, the main function of Broughton's Rules was to guarantee interesting bouts and the viability of gambling. The fair play in spectator sports conducted in accordance with these rules manifested itself in the “performance” of a bout that was fought skillfully and carefully right to the end, while being free of unnecessary accidents and injuries. Second, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, fair play in pugilism evolved under the influence of an emphasis on greater clarity. As a result, conduct that had previously been permitted came to be prohibited under the London Prize Ring Rules.