This study aims to shed light on the status of coaching within club activities at Japanese junior high schools. To obtain relevant data, a questionnaire was administered to 202 teachers from 50 public schools in I prefecture; at the time of the survey, the teachers were coaching students in the games of soccer, basketball, table tennis, tennis, and baseball. The questionnaires were filled out anonymously, and were distributed and then collected by post. The questionnaire included information on coaching methods (24 items on a five-point scale) based on the Teaching Games for Understanding theory. The results showed the following. (1) About 70% of the teachers did not receive special education in coaching. (2) About 10% of the teachers “did not undergo special education,” “did not have experiences of playing,” and “had experiences of coaching for less than three years.” (3) The teachers differentiated between team sports and individual sports. (4) More than half of the teachers felt a degree of uneasiness about coaching. (5) The self-rating scores were influenced more by the teachers' playing experience rather than coaching experience. (6) To improve coaching competence, teachers need to acquire such skills as fostering players' problem-solving capability by using appropriate questions to prompt students' awareness and ensuring that the aims of practice are met. Future studies should focus on identifying the most crucial aspects of coaching and on analyzing teachers' behavior in greater detail.
Aim: We examined the difference in blood glucose and lactate kinetics between highly and moderately trained runners during an incremental running test, and to examine the relationship between GT and LT in different training states. Methods: Eight highly trained (25.9±5.6 years, 167.6±5.2 cm, 57.5±6.0 kg) and eight moderately trained (23.8±3.7 years, 173.6±3.8 cm, 62.4±4.6 kg) male runners performed the incremental running test. Each stage of the test consisted of running for 4 min on a treadmill. The velocity was increased by 0.6 km·h−1·stage−1 until exhaustion. Blood glucose and lactate were measured after each stage, and GT and LT were determined using the log-log method. Results: During the incremental running test, blood lactate increased significantly in both groups, whereas blood glucose increased significantly only in highly trained runners. In highly trained runners, LT and GT did not differ significantly (15.2±1.0 and 15.7±1.3 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.08), but were significantly correlated (r=0.906, p<0.01). In moderately trained runners, however, LT was significantly lower than GT (12.1±0.8 and 13.7±1.6 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.02), and no significant correlation was observed between LT and GT (r=0.596, p=0.16). Conclusions: The relationship between blood glucose and lactate kinetics differs according to training state, so that the relationship of blood glucose and lactate kinetics and appearance pattern of GT reflects a different exercise capacity than that of LT.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week group-based body-weight squat training program on muscle mass, muscle strength, and balance in physically frail community-dwelling older men and women. Fifteen older adults (mean age =78.7 yr) who needed assistance performing activities of daily living (ADL) according to long-term care insurance regulations in Japan participated in the study. Participants performed squat exercise in a group-setting using body-weight as resistance while singing for one set consisting of 48 reps twice weekly for 12 weeks. Body mass, thigh girth, thigh muscle thickness assessed by B-mode ultrasound, knee extension torque (KET), static and dynamic balance (static (SB): sway velocity (SV) standing on firm or foam surfaces with eyes open or closed; dynamic (DB): limits of stability) were measured before and after the intervention. Following the intervention, participants significantly (P<0.05) decreased body mass and increased KET relative to body mass. Although thigh girth did not change, thigh muscle thickness did increase. There were no appreciable changes in DB nor in SB, except SV standing on a firm surface with the eyes open improved. Group-based body-weight squat exercise in physically frail older adults improves muscle mass and strength but has little effect on balance parameters.
The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of community-based management (CBM) and to elucidate the influential factors formulating the strategies for developing the fan base of professional baseball teams. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among staff members of four Pacific League teams on having regional team names and adopting “community-based management” or “regional outreach activities” in their team philosophy. Influenced by the reorganization of the Nippon Professional Baseball organization, the Pacific League teams have focused on a specific community or region, rather than the entire nation, for better management. Teams are concentrating on garnering customer loyalty from avid fan club members and repeat customers, and then trying to retain and attract customers while expanding the customer target area in their community. The community-based approach implies developing a bond between local residents and teams. Through this study, CBM is defined as “developing consumers' attachment to and building their bond with a team through various local promotional or outreach activities within their specific area.” There are two significant factors emerged that influence formulating the strategies for developing the fan base: (1) agreements between teams and stadium proprietors, and (2) relationships with local promotional vehicles such as local media companies and a railway company.
The present study aimed to clarify kinematics among sprinters with similar step length but different step frequencies, and with similar step frequencies but different step lengths in sprinting. We collected kinematic data from 54 sprinters at approximately the 60 m point of a 100-m sprint using a high-speed camera. The sprinters within 0.5SD from the mean value of each of step frequency and length at top speed phase were included in the ‘SL-similar’ (n=22, step frequency: 3.99-5.19 Hz, step length: 2.07-2.15 m) and the ‘SF-similar’ (n=22, step frequency: 4.51-4.72 Hz, step length: 1.93-2.33 m) groups, respectively. In the SL-similar group, higher step frequency was correlated with shorter stance time (r=−0.899), and a more vertical thigh angle at take-off (r=0.623). In the SF-similar group, longer step length was correlated with greater distance of the hip during flight phase (r=0.847), and a larger vertical acceleration of the forward swinging leg relative to the hip (r=0.438). In conclusion, leg kinematics at touchdown and take-off are important for high step frequency in similar step length, and forward swinging leg kinematics are important for long step length in similar step frequency.
The timing at which ice is ingested prior to exercise may be important for optimizing internal pre-cooling effects. However, previous reports have not evaluated the influence of timing of ice ingestion on internal pre-cooling in the heat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on endurance cycling capacity, body temperature and perceptional sensation in the heat. Seven healthy males [age=26±2 yr, height=1.71±0.04 m, body mass=63.6±2.8 kg, body surface area=1.74±0.03 m2, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)=49.7±4.4 mL·kg−1·min−1] ingested ice for 30 minutes before exercise under three separate conditions: ice ingestion at 30- (30D), 15- (15D) and 5- (5D) minute intervals. The total volume of ice ingestion was identical during 30D, 15D, 5D and was divided equally by the number of drinking times in each experiment. Subjects performed cycling to exhaustion at 70%VO2max in a hot environment (35℃ room temperature and 30% relative humidity). Rating of thermal sensation was lower in 5D at 15 min period during exercise than those under the other conditions (p<.05). Rating of perceived exertion was lower in 5D at 20 and 25 min periods during exercise than those under the other conditions (p<.05). There were no significant differences in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature or exhaustion time between the three conditions. These results suggest that there are no significant differences in exhaustion time and rectal temperature if the total volume of ice ingestion is identical, although the ice ingestion until just before exercise attenuated the perceptual sensation during exercise in a hot environment.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of experience or inexperience with weight-training under appropriate supervision on the knowledge of squatting exercises among university students. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among university students who exercise regularly (30 or more min per day, 2 or more days per week, and maintaining this for more than 1 year) to clarify the relationships between their experience of weight-training under appropriate supervision, knowledge of squatting exercises, and the frequency with which they perform squatting exercises (n=309). More than half of the students who exercised regularly had never experienced weight-training under appropriate supervision. Approximately 50% of the participants performed squats periodically, even if they did not have any experience with weight-training under appropriate supervision. The participants who lacked experience with weight-training under supervision had made significantly fewer attempts to consciously train their gluteal and knee flexor muscles during squatting exercises than those who had experienced weight-training under supervision. In fact, approximately 50% of the former did not consciously train their gluteal muscles during squatting exercises at all. These results suggest that although the students performed squatting exercises periodically, those who had never experienced weight-training under supervision may not have properly understood the squatting method. Therefore, to enhance the benefits of training, people should be shown the correct method to perform training exercises and given appropriate supervision.
This research examined the following 2 objectives: one, to clarify the relationship between university athletic activities and the acquisition of life skills (hereinafter called “LS”) through a longitudinal study over four years of the top level athletes' university career, and second, to reveal the relationship between LS and career decision after graduation. Longitudinal research, over the course of four years with five survey periods (in April, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, in March, 2015) was conducted for 23 top level male wrestlers who enrolled in university in April, 2011 (average age was 18.1±0.3 and years of experience in the sport 6.7±4.0 years at the time of initial investigation). Participants completed the LS evaluation scale (Shimamoto et al., 2013) at all survey periods. Statistical analysis showed that the score of total LS and “thinking carefully,” which was considered an important LS from a previous study of male wrestlers increased gradually through top level university athletic activities. In addition, it was suggested that male wrestlers who had a high score of “setting goals” will be able to make career decision upon graduation. Lastly, the effective implementation of Career Development Program for top level male university athletes was discussed based on the results of this research.
The purpose of this study was to confirm how many oral contributions and their type of content provide opportunities for participants to learn at a colloquium after a research lesson as school training at C Elementary School in B city, A prefecture on July 14th, 2014. The research was conducted by first dividing the conversation at the colloquium into the comments from different speakers. Then, each comment was divided into statements that made sense. Furthermore, each oral contribution was classified into six categories on the basis of “utterance classification category on the representation of practice” (Sakamoto, 2013): ① “Representation of the target class”, ② “Inference”, ③ “Representation of problems”, ④ “Assumption of possibilities”, ⑤ “Alternatives”, and ⑥ “Others”. Then, a comparison was made of the number of each of the six categories among the practitioner, observers, and advisers. Two results were obtained: First, oral contributions related to ② “Inference”, ③ “Representation of problems”, and ⑤ “Alternatives” were more numerous for observers and advisers than for the practitioner. Second, among the “utterance classification category on the representation of practice”, ③ “Representation of problems” and ⑤ “Alternatives” for the teachers who observed the research lesson were limited to the previously-provided two viewpoints. Meanwhile, ③ “Representation of problems” and ⑤ “Alternatives” for practitioner Teacher Z, an assistant principal and a principal as managerial staff, and a teachers' consultant and a faculty member as outside advisers included the contents other than the two viewpoints.
The purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms to increase bat head speed in baseball batting, from the view-point of kinetics. The batting motion of ninety-nine amateur baseball players was recorded with a motion capture system, and the kinematics and kinetics of the bat were analyzed. The bat's rotational power increased with the torque exerted on the bat's grip. However, torque and rotational power declined just prior to impact. It can be interpreted that these declines arise from a decrease in torque exerted by the wrist's periarticular muscles as the bat's rotational velocity increases (muscle force-velocity relationship). On the contrary, the bat's translational power increased just prior to impact. Judging from the relationship between the force exerted on the bat's grip in the direction of the bat's long axis and the bat head speed, the bat's translational power seems to depend on the bat's grip velocity in the direction of the bat's long axis. It was revealed that the bat's energy, by the application of rotational and translational power at different times, contributes to an increase in bat head speed in baseball batting.