Psychological studies have shown that when individuals move their gaze between two alternative objects, they tend to choose the object that holds their gaze for longer (the gaze-manipulation effect). This effect is especially evident when both alternatives appeal to the viewer. We hypothesized that if individuals have an interest in sports and/or fashion, and thus view varieties of sportswear favorably, then gaze manipulation would influence their choice. Japanese university students participated in our experiments. The participants made preference choices between two uniforms of European football teams, which were presented alternately across the left and right sides of a computer screen six times for different durations (900 ms vs. 300 ms). They were required to compare the uniforms with or without fixing their gaze directly on them. They also completed questionnaires designed to assess their interest in football and fashion. The results showed that the gaze-manipulation effect was not significant across all participants or across those participants who merely liked fashion, or who merely watched football or casually played it. However, the effect was significant in participants who had been members of football teams. Our results suggest that application of the gaze-manipulation technique would be more effective for visual advertisement of sports items if it was focused on sports players.
This study clarifies abilities that enable “sympathy of movement” (Mitvollziehen der Bewegung). Moreover, it discusses the methodological directionality to expand these abilities from coaches' and researchers' standpoints, using five discussions by highlighting Husserl's Phenomenology. “Sympathy of movement” refers to sympathizing with an athlete's performance and interpreting their experience from a coaching perspective. Previously, Kaneko indicated that “sympathy of movement” is performed using three coaching activities: the observation of movement, “inquiry,” and “virtual self-movement.” Using these activities, coaches can consider and provide appropriate advice for each individual. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of expanding these abilities; however, the manner in which these abilities should be expanded has yet to be clarified. Thus, this study employs three activities to clarify a methodological directionality to expand these abilities from a phenomenological perspective. In addition, it uses five discussions to indicate the necessity for coaches to learn the difference between external and internal standpoints on performance. Furthermore, researchers should focus on the phenomenological perspective.
This study aimed to examine temporal change in the physical demands with respect to a referee's running distance and speed, and heart rate (HR) during Japanese high-school (U-18) and university (U-22) football matches, and to investigate the match technical-tactical data. Additionally, we compared the physical demands and match performance of referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches. Physical performance (15Hz global positioning system device) and HR of 20 Japanese referees (age, 26.3±3.4 years) were measured from 20 matches (one match dataset per referee). All matches were video filmed to calculate the distance from a foul and match technical-tactical data (passes, shots, fouls, offense-defense turnovers, and penetrations into the attacking zone). We found that physical demands were temporarily increased in the last stage of a match. Some technical-tactical data similarly increased in the same stage, suggested that the referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches are required to move around each penalty area and keep up with play in the last stage of a match. Referees' physical demands and match performance were not different between the U-18 and U-22 matches.
The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (the TPSR model) is a method for teaching students about fulfillment of personal and social responsibilities through physical activities. A characteristic of this model is that it aims to transfer and maintain behavior acquired through physical activities. Past studies have revealed a number of challenges related to transfer and maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model. First, physical education classes in schools were not targeted. Second, the effects of the TPSR model were not examined using quantitative data. Third, maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model were not examined. One effective experimental design for examining maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model would probably be a case study in which changes in one group were measured for a certain period of time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the TPSR model would promote acquisition and maintenance of social skills in daily life using an experimental design and quantitative data targeting physical education in junior high schools in Japan. The results were as follows: First, the TPSR model promoted the acquisition of social skills that students could use outside of physical education classes, although it did not facilitate the maintenance of these social skills. Second, the TPSR model appeared to promote the acquisition of social skills by encouraging students to imagine scenes in their daily lives that were similar to scenarios in physical education classes, where they were encouraged to behave responsibly. Third, the TPSR model did not facilitate the maintenance of social skills because it did not incorporate methods for acquiring structural knowledge based on fundamental and procedural disciplines or allow students to gain structural understanding that would allow them to apply this knowledge to new scenarios.
The objectives of the present study were: to examine the relationship between kendo competition levels and men strike times in 20 university kendo club members; and to determine factors for shortening men strike times. LED lamps were attached to the men and the kote (the strike targets), and subjects struck in the direction of the lit LED lamp with maximal effort from a distance of 2.30 m. Phase times, movements, and ground reaction force on both feet were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. Subjects of higher competition levels tended to demonstrate shorter men strike times. Reaction times, movement times, and shinai upswing phase time also tended to be shorter. 2. Factor for shortening men strike times in the upswing phase consisted of the following: lifting the right foot from the ground quickly, simultaneously pushing off the ground with great force with the left foot, quickly lifting the right thigh forward while moving the body forward, and to increase the range of upswing motion of the shinai with high velocity. In the downswing phase, the shinai should be swung at a higher velocity, and the left shoulder should be flexed more when striking.
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