This study aims to shed light on the status of coaching within club activities at Japanese junior high schools. To obtain relevant data, a questionnaire was administered to 202 teachers from 50 public schools in I prefecture; at the time of the survey, the teachers were coaching students in the games of soccer, basketball, table tennis, tennis, and baseball. The questionnaires were filled out anonymously, and were distributed and then collected by post. The questionnaire included information on coaching methods (24 items on a five-point scale) based on the Teaching Games for Understanding theory. The results showed the following. (1) About 70% of the teachers did not receive special education in coaching. (2) About 10% of the teachers “did not undergo special education,” “did not have experiences of playing,” and “had experiences of coaching for less than three years.” (3) The teachers differentiated between team sports and individual sports. (4) More than half of the teachers felt a degree of uneasiness about coaching. (5) The self-rating scores were influenced more by the teachers' playing experience rather than coaching experience. (6) To improve coaching competence, teachers need to acquire such skills as fostering players' problem-solving capability by using appropriate questions to prompt students' awareness and ensuring that the aims of practice are met. Future studies should focus on identifying the most crucial aspects of coaching and on analyzing teachers' behavior in greater detail.
Aim: We examined the difference in blood glucose and lactate kinetics between highly and moderately trained runners during an incremental running test, and to examine the relationship between GT and LT in different training states. Methods: Eight highly trained (25.9±5.6 years, 167.6±5.2 cm, 57.5±6.0 kg) and eight moderately trained (23.8±3.7 years, 173.6±3.8 cm, 62.4±4.6 kg) male runners performed the incremental running test. Each stage of the test consisted of running for 4 min on a treadmill. The velocity was increased by 0.6 km·h−1·stage−1 until exhaustion. Blood glucose and lactate were measured after each stage, and GT and LT were determined using the log-log method. Results: During the incremental running test, blood lactate increased significantly in both groups, whereas blood glucose increased significantly only in highly trained runners. In highly trained runners, LT and GT did not differ significantly (15.2±1.0 and 15.7±1.3 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.08), but were significantly correlated (r=0.906, p<0.01). In moderately trained runners, however, LT was significantly lower than GT (12.1±0.8 and 13.7±1.6 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.02), and no significant correlation was observed between LT and GT (r=0.596, p=0.16). Conclusions: The relationship between blood glucose and lactate kinetics differs according to training state, so that the relationship of blood glucose and lactate kinetics and appearance pattern of GT reflects a different exercise capacity than that of LT.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week group-based body-weight squat training program on muscle mass, muscle strength, and balance in physically frail community-dwelling older men and women. Fifteen older adults (mean age =78.7 yr) who needed assistance performing activities of daily living (ADL) according to long-term care insurance regulations in Japan participated in the study. Participants performed squat exercise in a group-setting using body-weight as resistance while singing for one set consisting of 48 reps twice weekly for 12 weeks. Body mass, thigh girth, thigh muscle thickness assessed by B-mode ultrasound, knee extension torque (KET), static and dynamic balance (static (SB): sway velocity (SV) standing on firm or foam surfaces with eyes open or closed; dynamic (DB): limits of stability) were measured before and after the intervention. Following the intervention, participants significantly (P<0.05) decreased body mass and increased KET relative to body mass. Although thigh girth did not change, thigh muscle thickness did increase. There were no appreciable changes in DB nor in SB, except SV standing on a firm surface with the eyes open improved. Group-based body-weight squat exercise in physically frail older adults improves muscle mass and strength but has little effect on balance parameters.
The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of community-based management (CBM) and to elucidate the influential factors formulating the strategies for developing the fan base of professional baseball teams. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among staff members of four Pacific League teams on having regional team names and adopting “community-based management” or “regional outreach activities” in their team philosophy. Influenced by the reorganization of the Nippon Professional Baseball organization, the Pacific League teams have focused on a specific community or region, rather than the entire nation, for better management. Teams are concentrating on garnering customer loyalty from avid fan club members and repeat customers, and then trying to retain and attract customers while expanding the customer target area in their community. The community-based approach implies developing a bond between local residents and teams. Through this study, CBM is defined as “developing consumers' attachment to and building their bond with a team through various local promotional or outreach activities within their specific area.” There are two significant factors emerged that influence formulating the strategies for developing the fan base: (1) agreements between teams and stadium proprietors, and (2) relationships with local promotional vehicles such as local media companies and a railway company.
The present study aimed to clarify kinematics among sprinters with similar step length but different step frequencies, and with similar step frequencies but different step lengths in sprinting. We collected kinematic data from 54 sprinters at approximately the 60 m point of a 100-m sprint using a high-speed camera. The sprinters within 0.5SD from the mean value of each of step frequency and length at top speed phase were included in the ‘SL-similar’ (n=22, step frequency: 3.99-5.19 Hz, step length: 2.07-2.15 m) and the ‘SF-similar’ (n=22, step frequency: 4.51-4.72 Hz, step length: 1.93-2.33 m) groups, respectively. In the SL-similar group, higher step frequency was correlated with shorter stance time (r=−0.899), and a more vertical thigh angle at take-off (r=0.623). In the SF-similar group, longer step length was correlated with greater distance of the hip during flight phase (r=0.847), and a larger vertical acceleration of the forward swinging leg relative to the hip (r=0.438). In conclusion, leg kinematics at touchdown and take-off are important for high step frequency in similar step length, and forward swinging leg kinematics are important for long step length in similar step frequency.