Factors related to choking under pressure during sports were investigated through a questionnaire survey and the relationship among the factors was examined. A questionnaire survey of choking was conducted among university students in sports-oriented school clubs (n=535). Exploratory factor analysis extracted 11 factors: changes in motor control and vicious circles, abnormal physical sensations, perceptual and cognitive confusion, introversion, self-consciousness, feelings of physical heaviness and weakness, conscious processing (attention to movements), passivity, feelings of physical fatigue, safety-oriented strategies, and heat sensations. An analytical model with nine factors, (excluding feelings of physical fatigue and heat sensations) as latent variables was constructed, and covariance structure analysis was performed. The results indicated the validity of the mechanistic model of choking, consisting of nine latent variables. According to the model, when self-consciousness, or abnormal physical sensations, had a high profile, conscious processing increased. Furthermore, it was confirmed that conscious processing affected changes in motor control and vicious circles, which led directly to a decline in motor performance. It was also indicated that abnormal physical sensations determined perceptual and cognitive confusion, or feelings of physical heaviness and weakness. On the other hand, when perceptual and cognitive confusion and feelings of physical heaviness and weakness had a high profile, passivity increased. High passivity caused changes in motor control and vicious circles. Moreover, increased passivity led to the adoption of a safety-oriented strategy that often caused changes in motor control and vicious circles. While previous studies have tried to explain choking only from the perspective of changes in attention, the above results suggest the following mechanistic model of choking, indicative of another perspective: Changes in psychological, physiological, and behavioral variables cause a decline in performance. Especially interactions between emotions and cognitions and the adoption of a strategy with a low risk of failure determine changes in motor control.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between life skills and post-graduation employment for top college student athletes. In March 2011, 24 Japanese top level male wrestlers (mean age=22.0±0.2) who had graduated from university in March 2011 answered to the Appraisal Scale of Required Life Skills for College Student Athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013). This scale has following 10 subscales: stress management, setting goals, thinking carefully, appreciating others, communicating, maintaining etiquette and manners, always making one's best effort, taking responsibility for one's own behavior, being humble, and maintaining physical health and well-being. The relationships between life skills acquisition level assessed in March 2011 and employment situations (employed or unemployed) by March 2012 were examined with nine members who had not obtained employment by the time of graduation from university. The analysis results showed that the employment group (n=4) who had acquired employment within one year of graduation indicated a higher acquisition level compared to the unemployed group (n=5) with regard to setting goals (p<.05). Therefore, it was suggested that there is the positive relationship between setting goals and post-graduation employment for top college student wrestlers.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation process of body culture, i.e., gestures and behavior, of physical education teachers in Japan based on phenomenological body theory, and to present a theoretical basis for the most desirable “PE teacher identity”. It has been pointed out that PE teacher body culture has a variety of influences on students. However, how a teacher acquires body culture has never been sufficiently considered. Therefore the paper focuses on the phenomenological body theory that suggests the relationship between habits and the perceptual experience of body culture formation. The main points of discussion are as follows: Previous studies have shown that the image of the PE teacher as a coach has been well established, and that clarification of the process of body culture formation is warranted. In previous studies, the body culture of PE teachers has been discussed mainly in terms of ‘habitus’. However, it has not been clarified how individual PE teachers embody such a culture. Phenomenological body theory indicates that acquisition of habit involves reworking and renewal of the body schema through perception influenced by culture. Based on this, analysis of corporal punishment as a typical example of body culture in school athletic clubs can be used to clarify the model formation of PE teacher's body culture. PE teachers' thoughts and behavior are unconsciously formed as a “body schema” through experience of school athletic clubs where a coach's one-sided method of instruction is almost unconditionally accepted by students striving to acquire athletic success. In conclusion, “PE teacher identity” is formed on the basis of original body culture, and is embodied as a habit through unconscious processes. This is why PE teachers seldom notice their behavior, and thus do not change or improve it. It is only through a “body schema” and perceptual experience that a PE teacher's thoughts and behavior, “PE teacher identity”, can be reconstructed. The possibility of PE teacher body theory can be established on the basis of this viewpoint.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the normative performance profiles proposed by O'Donoghue (2005) and the winning of sets in actual women's singles matches of professional tennis. Twenty-four matches from 2010 and 2011 US Open tournaments were analyzed with 13 performance indicators. The normative performance percentiles were calculated and the total sums of percentile values were compared between winners and losers. As a result, the normative performance percentiles are obtained from actual match data. The normative performance percentiles in current study show similar tendencies compared with O'Donoghue's (2005) data. The normative performance profiles in each match show difference of performance between winners and losers of sets visually. The difference of the total sum of percentile values between winner and loser significantly depends on types of set scores. That is, large difference in set scores show large difference of the total sum of percentile values. It suggests that the total sum of percentile values have large difference between winners and losers, resulting in an overwhelming victory. It is concluded that the difference of the total sum of percentile values have positive correlation with difference of set scores between winners and losers.
The purpose of this study was to construct a nonverbal communication scale for coaches (NCSC) and examine the relationships between nonverbal communication (NVC), communication ability, and coaching evaluation. Study 1 involved the construction of the NCSC. Adolescent athletes (N=166) completed a questionnaire that measured coaches' nonverbal communication (perceived frequency and impression). Eight factors were identified via exploratory factor analysis. These factors were negative NVC (unfavorable impression formation, negative attitude, unacceptable attitude, and exhibition of perplexity) and positive NVC (positive distance, positive gesture, positive touching, and positive expression). In Study 2, the reliability and validity of the NCSC were assessed, and the relationships between NVC, communication ability, and coaching evaluation were examined. Adolescent athletes (N=276) estimated their coaches' NVC, communication ability, and coaching using the NCSC, Communication Ability Evaluation Scale, and Coaching Evaluation Scale. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated the following: (1) reliability and validity of the NCSC used to measure coaches' NVC; (2) relationships between NVC, communication ability, and coaching evaluation; and (3) mediation of communication ability in these relationships. The findings provide a model for relationships between NVC, communication ability, and coaching evaluation.
Objective: To determine changes in functional fitness of older adults following 10 years of peer-instructed community-based exercise program participation. Subjects: Eighteen participants (65.6±8.3 yr) were assessed at pre-intervention (T1), post-12 weeks (T2), and post-10 years (T3). Method: General physical parameters, functional strength (Arm Curl [AC], Chair Stand [CS]), flexibility (Back Scratch [BS], Sit & Reach [SR]), balance (functional reach [FR]), agility (Up & Go [UG]), and endurance (12-min walk [12-MW]) were measured. After completion of an initial 12-wk of professionally-supervised community-based exercises (aerobic, resistance, flexibility and balance), the participants continued the exercises under the guidance of similarly-aged peer-instructors for the next 10 years which consisted of 10 min of warm-up, 30 min of elastic band-based resistance exercise, 10 min of balance exercise and 10 min of cool-down exercises (excluding any formal aerobic exercises), twice a week at a local community center. Results: Changes in AC (−3.0%), CS (−5.8%), SR (+7.1%), BS (−49.3%) and UG (−36.2%) over 10 years were not significant (P>0.05). However, a significant (P<0.05) decline was noted in 12-MW (−18.8%) and FR (−22.7%) over 10 years. Conclusion: Peer-instructed community-based exercises are useful in attenuating the age-associated decline in muscular strength, flexibility, and agility over an extended period of time.
This study examined the effects of low-intensity exercise in the morning on exercise performance in the afternoon. Fifteen healthy men were exposed to two measurement conditions: 30 min of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximum oxygen consumption (morning exercise) or rest in the sitting posture (control) at 8:30 AM. Physiological parameters were measured at 4:00 PM with the participant at rest in the supine position. Physical fitness tests and anaerobic power tests began at 4:30 PM. The two conditions demonstrated no significant difference in heart rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, double product, total power of R-R interval variability, ln HF (index of cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous system activity), or oral temperature. Morning exercise was associated with significantly better 20-m shuttle run, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance compared to the control condition. No significant differences in other physical fitness tests were observed. Thus, participants had significantly higher total physical fitness test scores and significantly greater maximum anaerobic power under the morning exercise condition. Our results indicate that low-intensity exercise in the morning might enhance afternoon exercise performance and may be considered an effective conditioning method on the day of a sporting event.
It is no doubt issues of athlete career transition exist and it has been left unsolved in Japan. While many studies have been conducted looking at the issue, the focus of these studies has been on professional and top athletes, not student athletes who seem to have a difficult time in career transition, similar to top athletes. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining attitudes of student athletes toward career transition, including anxiety related to career transition and their plans and goals for their post sport career. The major finding regards to ‘gaps’ in student athletes' attitudes toward career transition, namely “think vs. do” and “know vs. need to know,” suggesting it is important to provide objective and concrete career information from various perspectives for student athletes.
This study aimed to clarify the effects of changing to a short bat grip position from the long bat grip position on baseball bat swing timing, peak ground reaction force with the front leg, and activation of the upper and lower limb muscles. Nine male college baseball players participated in this study. By using a batting simulator, the coincident timing task was to swing the bat coincidentally with the arrival timing of a moving target by using the long or short bat grip position. The batter performed 10 sets of four swings for a total of 40 swings for the coincident timing task. During the four swings, the batter swung the bat by using the long grip position in the first, second, and fourth swings. Only in the third swing did the batter use the short grip position. The ground reaction force with the front leg was measured, and electromyograms of the upper and lower limb muscles were obtained during the coincident timing task. Our results indicated no significant differences in absolute and variable timing errors between the long and short bat grip positions. In contrast, the constant timing error was significantly increased with the short bat grip position. Moreover, the time to peak ground reaction force and time to peak muscle activation of both the upper and lower limb muscles were significantly delayed when the short bat grip position was employed. Significant positive relationships were observed between the constant timing error and time to peak ground reaction force, which showed differences between the second and third swings. No significant difference in swing time was observed between the long and short bat grip positions. These findings indicate that changing to the short bat grip position from the long bat grip position will not improve the batter's swing timing. Furthermore, changing to the short bat grip position could delay the batter's swing timing, probably because the change causes a delay in swing preparation.