This study aims to shed light on the status of coaching within club activities at Japanese junior high schools. To obtain relevant data, a questionnaire was administered to 202 teachers from 50 public schools in I prefecture; at the time of the survey, the teachers were coaching students in the games of soccer, basketball, table tennis, tennis, and baseball. The questionnaires were filled out anonymously, and were distributed and then collected by post. The questionnaire included information on coaching methods (24 items on a five-point scale) based on the Teaching Games for Understanding theory. The results showed the following. (1) About 70% of the teachers did not receive special education in coaching. (2) About 10% of the teachers “did not undergo special education,” “did not have experiences of playing,” and “had experiences of coaching for less than three years.” (3) The teachers differentiated between team sports and individual sports. (4) More than half of the teachers felt a degree of uneasiness about coaching. (5) The self-rating scores were influenced more by the teachers' playing experience rather than coaching experience. (6) To improve coaching competence, teachers need to acquire such skills as fostering players' problem-solving capability by using appropriate questions to prompt students' awareness and ensuring that the aims of practice are met. Future studies should focus on identifying the most crucial aspects of coaching and on analyzing teachers' behavior in greater detail.
Aim: We examined the difference in blood glucose and lactate kinetics between highly and moderately trained runners during an incremental running test, and to examine the relationship between GT and LT in different training states. Methods: Eight highly trained (25.9±5.6 years, 167.6±5.2 cm, 57.5±6.0 kg) and eight moderately trained (23.8±3.7 years, 173.6±3.8 cm, 62.4±4.6 kg) male runners performed the incremental running test. Each stage of the test consisted of running for 4 min on a treadmill. The velocity was increased by 0.6 km·h−1·stage−1 until exhaustion. Blood glucose and lactate were measured after each stage, and GT and LT were determined using the log-log method. Results: During the incremental running test, blood lactate increased significantly in both groups, whereas blood glucose increased significantly only in highly trained runners. In highly trained runners, LT and GT did not differ significantly (15.2±1.0 and 15.7±1.3 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.08), but were significantly correlated (r=0.906, p<0.01). In moderately trained runners, however, LT was significantly lower than GT (12.1±0.8 and 13.7±1.6 km·h−1, respectively; p=0.02), and no significant correlation was observed between LT and GT (r=0.596, p=0.16). Conclusions: The relationship between blood glucose and lactate kinetics differs according to training state, so that the relationship of blood glucose and lactate kinetics and appearance pattern of GT reflects a different exercise capacity than that of LT.