In recent years, leisure, including sports and physical activity, has been shown to have positive effects on life satisfaction. However, enough empirical evidence regarding long-distance running has not yet been provided. Additionally, running event participants’ attitudes regarding life satisfaction with life-long sports needs to be understood. Community sports events are expected not only to have economic impacts but also to promote sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sports event satisfaction and life satisfaction through life domain satisfaction. In particular, this research focused on long-distance runners. I collected 377 data out of the participants in the event, and valid responses were received from 340 respondents. The sample consisted of 223 males (66%) and 117 females (34%), most of whom came from the host prefecture (n = 284, 84%). The results indicated that there is a significant indirect effect of event satisfaction on life satisfaction through life domain satisfaction partially. However, life satisfaction did not affect life satisfaction directly. This study contributes to understanding the relationship between event satisfaction and life satisfaction. Future research should examine the involvement and daily sports and physical activity levels of event participants to develop individualized strategies for runners.
The purpose of this study was to present a new perspective on the problem of attempting to lose a game on purpose through a consideration of whether doing so threatens the existence of sport. We began by hypothesizing the concept of “failed athletic contests”, which has been discussed in the field of sport philosophy, as jeopardizing the existence of this activity. We then examined the concept of “losing games on purpose” with reference to the “failed athletic contests” theory of Kawatani (2013). We examined 2 broad categories of “losing games on purpose”: one where defeat is clearly the goal, and the other where players deceive referees and spectators by behaving as though they want to win, while in fact actually trying to lose.
Kawatani claims that games where an ethos (internal purpose) is not achieved, even though the contest is based on athletes playing according to the rules, constitute “failed athletic contests”. He found that player commitment to winning is necessary as a condition in achieving the ethos of the game, suggesting that “losing games on purpose” in either category constitutes a “failed athletic contest” in that athletes are not committed to victory and the ethos is not established. On the other hand, it was also clarified that there is a dilemma for players in athletic meets when a commitment to winning is called for, but when this is occasionally in conflict with the ethos of individual games.
For the second category, it was also revealed that referees and spectators were not aware of the nature of such a defeat when it was concealed. This suggests that the second category of “losing games on purpose” is more problematic than the first.
Limited data on the response of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) to acute exercise are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of FABP4 to incremental maximal exercise in exercise-trained and untrained men. Eleven exercise-trained young men (T group; age, 20.4 ± 1.2 years) and 9 untrained young men (UT group; age, 20.7 ± 0.5 years) performed an incremental maximal exercise after a 12-h fasting period. Before and immediately after the incremental maximal exercise, venous blood was drawn to measure circulating FABP4, free fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations. Body composition, and aerobic capacity were also assessed. Glycerol concentration significantly increased during the exercise in the T group (group × time interaction: p = 0.034; group effect, p = 0.088; and time effect, p = 0.003), and the percentage increase in glycerol concentration was greater in the T group than in the UT group (p = 0.046; ES(r): 0.45). Although circulating FABP4 concentration significantly increased in the two groups (group × time interaction: p = 0.766; group effect, p = 0.114; and time effect, p = 0.001), the percentage increase in FABP4 concentration was similar (p = 0.210; ES(r): 0.28). Additionally, the change of FABP4 concentration was not correlated with that of glycerol (r = -0.04, p =0.872). These results indicated that circulating FABP4 concentration increased during incremental maximal exercise regardless of difference in lipolysis and exercise training status in healthy young men.
The purposes of this study were to identify facilitative factors in career patterns of sports participant among middle-aged and older adults, and to compare and examine the characteristics of facilitative factors in each career. This study was conducted as a secondary analysis of the sports monitoring survey of the Kansai Region in 2018. The survey was conducted online, with a random sampling of men and women over 18 years of age throughout the Kansai area. The survey continued until the target sample size (10,000) was reached. The main findings were as follows: (1) Facilitative conditions were extracted in accordance with the free description of the reasons and causes that led the participants to participate in sports, and not from conventional personal and environmental factors. The free description items comprised 44, 35, and 44 conditions on adherence, adoption, and resumption careers, respectively. (2) In relation to the occurrence of facilitative factors in sports participation in order to clarify the characteristics of the extracted facilitative categories, a significant difference was revealed in nine categories. Furthermore, the difference for each career was confirmed. (3) In relation to the facilitative factors and patterns of sports participation, the characteristic facilitative conditions for each participant were clarified. Based on these findings, the facilitative factors are different for each career, and each career has its own characteristics. Specifically, individual subject's attitude, and preparedness in the adherence career, information, and tools in the adoption career, and area and leader in the resumption career revealed their characteristics.
To jump higher or farther, it is important to control the direction of translational momentum without reducing the mechanical energy produced by lower limb muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare the translational momentum and mechanical energy produced by lower limb muscles between horizontal and vertical jumps. Horizontal and vertical squat jumps were simulated using a musculoskeletal system consisting of four rigid segments actuated by six muscles. The translational momenta and mechanical energies produced by the six muscles were calculated. The force development patterns of hamstrings and rectus femoris were different between the two jumps, although other muscles produced similar forces. The hamstrings produced more forward momentum in the horizontal jump, while the rectus femoris produced more backward momentum in the vertical jump. In addition, the work outputs of the six muscles were nearly equal between the two jumps. The hamstrings transferred mechanical energy from knee to hip, while the rectus femoris transferred it from hip to knee. These results suggest that the hamstrings and rectus femoris play an important role in controlling jumping direction without reducing the total amount of work outputs of lower limb muscles.
Aim: It has been reported that the relationships between blood glucose and lactate during incremental exercise has been affected by the training status. Nevertheless, the relationships between blood glucose, lactate, and hormones during incremental exercise in different training states have not been examined. Therefore, the purposes of this study were the examination of these relationships, and the evaluation whether these relationships were influenced by the training status. Methods: Eight male endurance runners (trained group) and eight active men (control group) participated in this study, and all participants participated in incremental running tests. Blood glucose, lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and glucagon were evaluated at each stage during the incremental running test, and Spearman correlation coefficients between blood glucose, lactate, and hormones were calculated for each participant. The group differences in these data were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: The relationships between blood glucose and catecholamines were significantly stronger in the trained compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, the relationships between blood lactate and catecholamines were not significantly different between groups. Furthermore, the relationships between glucagon and blood glucose or blood lactate did not differ significantly between groups, and these relationships were weak. Conclusions: We conclude that the increase in blood glucose may be influenced to a greater extent by catecholamines than by glucagon during incremental exercise. Furthermore, the relationships between blood glucose and catecholamines differed according to training status, and were different compared with the relationships between blood lactate and catecholamines.
Heart rate (HR) monitoring, which reflects exercise intensity and environmental factors, is often used as the basis for pacing strategies in a marathon race. However, it is difficult to obtain appropriate feedback for only the HR value since cardiovascular drift (CV drift) occurs during prolonged exercise. Recently, cardiac cost (CC, which is HR divided by running velocity) has been shown to be a potential index for evaluating CV drift during a marathon race. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between CV drift and performance in a marathon race. Fourteen male university student runners participated. Each took part in incremental tests on a treadmill and subsequently ran a marathon. CV drift was evaluated using differences between CC in the 0-5 km segment of the race and every 5 km segment (ΔCC) thereafter. Marathon performance was examined from two viewpoints: absolute performance (average running velocity during the race, Vmar), and relative performance (Vmar against velocity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold, vVT achv). Significant correlations were found between ΔCC and vVT achv in the 25-30 km, 30-35 km and 35-40 km race segments (r = −0.672, −0.671 and −0.661, respectively), suggesting that excessive CV drift had a negative impact on relative performance. Based on our results, we conclude that suppression of CV drift after 25 km is an important factor for improving relative performance in a marathon race.
This study examines the issues surrounding totalitarian sports instruction with reference to an unfortunate incident involving American football in Japan. Violence and corporal punishment are part of physical education and sports in Japan. Consequently, there have been calls for more democratic governance in sports, mainly from educational institutions and academic societies. However, the dictatorship reminiscent of totalitarianism still remains. In May 2018, it was suspected that a foul committed by a player during a university American football game could have been due to the coach's instructions. A video footage and an interview survey confirmed this suspicion. The final report of a committee lawyer revealed that the coach had subjected the player to a dictatorship. This incident falls into the phenomenon of totalitarianism, as it involves the denial of individual autonomy. Totalitarian sports instruction refers to instruction that disregards player autonomy and fair play, and dominates the player while prioritizing victory. The formative process of totalitarianism is based on the thought of philosopher Hannah Arendt, who presented totalitarianism as a movement that can occur anywhere. Arendt’s examination of the “thoughtlessness” caused by totalitarianism had a direct influence on the theories about the subject. In conclusion, totalitarian sports instruction by a thoughtless coach can lead to cruel consequences that deprive human ability and potential. Particularly when totalitarian dominance is widespread in sports, players are unable to make fair judgments. Therefore, in physical education and sports, it is necessary to deepen the discussion on totalitarian instruction.
The present study aimed to examine whether different exercise intensities, ranging from submaximal to supramaximal, modulate the relative contributions of aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during short-duration exercise. Eight competitive male track and field athletes (22.3 ± 1.0 years) performed a 30-s pedaling test at seven different intensities corresponding to O2 demands of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 ml/kg/min. The power outputs required at each O2 demand were determined from the extrapolated linear relationships between power and the steady-state O2 uptake obtained during submaximal-intensity exercise. The VO2max test and 30-s Wingate anaerobic test were also performed. Relative aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions were estimated by the ratio of O2 uptake and O2 deficit, the latter being calculated as the difference between O2 demand and O2 uptake. The exercise intensity of the 30-s pedaling test ranged from 73.4 ± 7.4 to 180.9 ± 18.2 % VO2max. As exercise intensity increased, O2 uptake (13.9 ± 2.1 to 26.8 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min) and O2 deficit (26.9 ± 2.1 to 73.7 ± 2.2 ml/kg/min) during the 30-s pedaling test increased (P < 0.05). However, the relative aerobic (34.1 ± 5.1 to 26.7 ± 2.0 %) and anaerobic (65.9 ± 5.1 to 73.3 ± 2.0 %) energy contributions during the 30-s pedaling test did not differ across all O2 demands (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the relative aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions during short-duration exercise remain nearly constant over a wide range of exercise intensity.
The purpose of this case study was to investigate, separately for Mainland Chinese tourists with and without ski experience, differences between four types of ideal and overall tourism affect (i.e., high-arousal positive [HAP], low-arousal positive [LAP], low-arousal negative [LAN], high-arousal negative [HAN]). A questionnaire survey was conducted in Japan for Mainland Chinese tourists, and 80 tourists participated in the survey. The results of dependent t-tests indicated that: (a) among tourists with ski experience, no significant differences were identified in HAP, LAP, and LAN, whereas ideal HAN was significantly greater than overall tourism HAN; and (b) among tourists without ski experience, ideal HAP and LAP were significantly lesser than overall tourism HAP and LAP, respectively, whereas ideal LAN and HAN were significantly greater than overall tourism LAN and HAN. Overall, outdoor sport activities appear to play a prominent role in understanding the discrepancy between Chinese tourists’ ideal and actual affect.
The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire to measure social support in the context of sport injury throughout two studies. In Study 1, 105 athletes who have an experience of sport injury completed an open-ended format of the questionnaire regarding social support in sport injury context and gathered data was categorised to identify social support for injured athletes. In Study 2, four hundred and thirty-six university student-athletes completed the preliminary version of the Social Support Questionnaire for Injured Athletes (The SSQIA) and other measures. The results indicated that social support for injured is recovery assistance support, understanding and respect support, empathy and acceptance support, and sense of belonging support. The SSQIA was identified to be a valid and reliable measurement with four-dimensions to examine social support for injured athletes in the current study.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pharmacists working in hospitals and community pharmacies in Japan to assess anti-doping activities, aiming to improve athletes' medication support. An internet survey was conducted anonymously using a structured questionnaire, with items regarding the respondent's basic information, their collaboration with other healthcare professionals, and their experiences with medication support for athletes. Of the 841 pharmacists who completed the survey, 21.4% had experienced anti-doping inquiries from athletes, and 18.7% of non-sports pharmacists had experienced medication consultations with athletes. Significantly more accredited sports pharmacists than non-sports pharmacists referred to the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (p = 0.009), the Global Drug Reference Online (Global DRO) (p < 0.001), and the Japan Pharmaceutical Association's anti-doping hotline (p = 0.001). A significantly greater proportion of male pharmacists (p < 0.001), accredited sports pharmacists (p < 0.001), and pharmacists who cooperated with other healthcare professionals, such as medical doctors and dietitians (p < 0.001), reported that they were confident handling anti-doping inquiries. Although pharmacists generally conduct consultations with athletes, further education is needed, as pharmacists have trouble effectively providing information on doping prevention. Ideally, athletes should consult with accredited sports pharmacists who have undergone continued anti-doping education. Moreover, multi-sectoral collaboration among healthcare professionals is vital for the effective health support of athletes.
The purpose of this study was to analyze problems related to the mechanism whereby students can accept corporal punishment during extracurricular sports activities with reference to the books Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself that were central to Erich Fromm’s authority theory. Specifically, the author focused on the concepts of “authoritarian character,” “authoritarian ethics,” and “authoritarian conscience.” Fromm pointed out that anxiety prompted Germany’s citizens to give up their freedom in order to obey authoritarian powers such as Hitler and the Nazis.
Students taking part in extracurricular sports activities were considered from the viewpoint of Fromm’s authority theory. It was revealed that students comply with a leader’s authority in order to relieve anxiety, and have positive thoughts about corporal punishment. Furthermore, it was found that such acceptance of corporal punishment succeeded in eliminating conspicuous suffering, but not in removing any underlying conflicts.
Fromm pointed that fear of anxiety was relieved by spontaneous activity. To achieve spontaneous activity by students, it was suggested that some form of measure that does not create the type of partnership that occurred between Germany’s citizens and Hitler would be desirable for any relationship between the leader of extracurricular sports activities and the students.
Dance in Bali, Indonesia, known as Balinese dance, has so far been taught by traditional instruction methods that involve repeated program imitation and correction. However, in recent years, an instruction method for beginners known as "Dasar," has been proposed by an instructor. The purpose of this paper is to consider the problems currently faced while teaching Balinese dance by analyzing the characteristics of the new method of instruction.
As a result of analyzing Dasar and comparing it with traditional instruction methods, we found that this method coincides with the changes in the environment for Bali dance and the children who study it. With these environmental changes, passing on Balinese dance to the younger generation, using traditional instruction methods has become difficult. Tailored to such an environment, Dasar, with its uniform instruction methods and presentation of basic movements was proposed with the intention of establishing new standards for teaching all types of Balinese dance.
Initially, it may seem as though Dasar adopted an instructional method that did not previously exist. A clear effort by an instructor has been made to recognize and protect diversity while categorizing elements into the old and the new of Bali island culture to further promote dance.