This study examines the public debate triggered by private folk fights in recent years and the failure of wushu to become an Olympic sport. The study highlights that the root causes of traditional wushu's crises of practicality and authenticity of are related to the essential nature of sport wushu. Since modern times, to become a so-called “living tradition,” wushu has continuously remade its value orientation. However, the modernized version of traditional wushu and sport wushu have the following problems: both are losing or have lost the original essence of Chinese martial arts. After analyzing the crisis faced by wushu from the perspective of the cultural philosophy of intimacy/integrity, this study proposes that the modernization of wushu and the invention of its universal value should be based on its particularity.
In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the ground reaction force (GRF) and both leg kinetics in kicking pullovers, with the aim of clarifying the mechanics and techniques for acquiring vertical GRF and moment in single-leg takeoffs for aerial rotation. GRF applied to the support leg foot and kinematics were recorded for the takeoff phase of successful kicking pullovers by 11 adult males. Using a 12-segment, sagittal-plane rigid body link model, the relationship between GRF and kinetics of both legs were analyzed. Although the GRF had its peak in the middle of the takeoff phase, it also contributed to the generation of the moment around the center of mass (CoM) by being tilted forward than to the CoM immediately after touchdown and before takeoff. The support leg was struck against the ground with angular velocities and torques of the hip extension and knee flexion at touchdown. The swing leg accelerated forward in the first half of the takeoff phase. These movements probably contributed to tilt the GRF forward immediately after the touchdown. The torque waveforms of the support leg joints were, on the whole, similar to those in the high jumps. It is suggested that in single-leg takeoffs for aerial rotation, controlling GRF direction with both leg movements while increasing the peak GRF with the takeoff techniques common to running jumps is an efficient strategy to acquire vertical GRF and moment with limited leg strengths.
Different cultures have different societal structures and different communication style. Additionally, how sports are organized varies from country to country in terms of structure. These factors make athletes across the world demonstrate different psychological characteristics. Despite these differences, these cultural impacts have been paid little attention to, and psychological universality has been explored in the field of sport psychology even though the importance of cultural differences is remained. This review article explores the consideration of cultural psychology within the domain of sport psychology. Specifically, this article compares East Asian culture and North American culture from an achievement motivation perspective. Self-construal, regulatory focus theory, self-determination theory, and achievement goal theory are investigated in order to compare the two cultures. It is recommended that future researchers in the domain of sport psychology refer to both cultural differences as well as psychological universality to deepen insight into the sport psychology field. Practitioners in sport psychology such as mental performance consultants and coaches, are also suggested to consider cultural differences in order to effectively communicate with players and implement more effective interventions.
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics Games referred to as “Recovery Olympics” are supposed to encourage in recovery of the Tohoku regions affected by the 3.11 Great East Japan Earthquake. Tsukuba International Academy for Sport Studies established in 2015 as part of SPORT FOR TOMORROW initiative under Japan Sports Agency has since been holding Olympic education program every year at Rikuzentakata City, one of the disaster-affected areas. However, few studies have examined the contents of Olympic (or Paralympic) education in these areas. Therefore, this study shares knowledge through practice of Olympic education in a high school with an aim to suggest better practice in the area for its continuation post-2020. In 2019, an Olympic education class for 120 high school students was conducted followed by an open-ended questionnaire survey to the students. Questions consisted of: i) impressions of the class, ii) image of Tokyo 2020 Games, iii) current self-challenges and regional issues, and iv) how to use the Olympics. Text mining the obtained data revealed that respondents had a positive image of the Tokyo 2020 Games. Self-challenges and regional issues associated with reconstruction were clarified in answers to the survey, where some respondents revealed their future designs to contribute towards the development of local community. Some respondents also connected the class learning contents to providing solutions for local issues. Overall, the findings as discussed in this study were considered as useful knowledge for future practical Olympic education.
The present study aimed to investigate kinematic changes in the straight skating motions of world-class speed skaters during a ladies' 3,000-m race. Sixteen elite skaters who participated in the World Cup were included in the study. Three-dimensional motion analyses using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras (300 Hz) were performed on the straight skating motions at the initial, middle, and final stages of the race. As the race progressed, skating velocity decreased and the body center of mass (CM) height and the thigh angle increased. Shank outward tilting time exhibited a significant negative relationship with the official time for both the left and right strokes in the initial stage. In the final stage, skating velocity was significantly, positively associated with hip and knee angular velocity at the end of strokes. These results demonstrated that, in the ladies' 3,000-m race, although the air resistance increases with higher CM position and the skating velocity decreases as the race progressed, the straight skating motion of the excellent skaters was characterized by longer outward tilting of the shank in the initial stage contributes to maintaining skating velocity until the middle and final stages of the race.
Mechanical energy is known to be transferred between a body segment and a joint. However, the transformation of this energy has not been classified. By focusing on the racket-holding arm during a tennis serve, the present study examined the transformation between translational and rotational energies due to the joint force, and investigated the kinetic chain from the viewpoint of energetics. Twenty-two tennis players were asked to perform flat services to the deuce side (i.e., the receiver’s right side), and the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers attached to each player and racket were collected with a motion capture system. The mechanical power acting on each segment and the mechanical energy generated/absorbed by each joint were divided into the following components: (1) STP = the time rate of change in the rotational energy of a segment due to the joint torque, (2) JTP = the generation/absorption of rotational energy due to the joint torque, (3) JFPt = the time rate of change in the translational energy of a segment due to the joint force, and (4) JFPr = the time rate of change in the rotational energy of a segment due to the moment of the joint force. The findings are summarized below.
1. The proposed method can divide the power acting on the segment due to joint force into the translational component (JFPt) and the rotational component (JFPr).
2. The racket-holding arm mainly acquires mechanical energy as translational energy with decreasing rotational energy of the upper trunk (around right-leftward rotation).
3. The main role of the shoulder joint is not to generate rotational energy but to change the energy form (from translational energy to rotational energy).
4. The main role of the phase before most of the shoulder external rotation is to store the translational energy in the racket-holding arm.
5. The main role of the phase after most of the shoulder external rotation is to transfer the translational and rotational energies to the racket.
6. The proposed method can quantify not only the generation/absorption and transmission of mechanical energy but also the transformation of the energy form. Therefore, this method may produce new findings that have not yet been clarified.
This study aimed to investigate how high school baseball pitchers throw different pitch types with attention to the ball kinematics, to reveal the kinematic characteristics of each pitch type, and to reveal whether the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs thrown by high school pitchers is different from that of fastballs thrown by collegiate, semiprofessional, and professional pitchers (mature pitchers). Eighteen high school baseball pitchers were asked to throw all the pitch types they would normally throw in a game. Among all pitches, this study specifically focused on fastballs, changeups, sliders, and curveballs. First, the kinematics of balls thrown by high school pitchers were compared between each pitch type. Second, the ball kinematics of each pitch type observed in this study were compared with those observed in previous studies investigating mature pitchers. Third, the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs observed in this study was compared with that observed in previous studies. As a result, it was revealed that high school pitchers could throw different pitch types by changing the speed, spin rate, and/or spin axis. In addition, it was indicated that high school pitchers threw different sliders and curveballs compared to mature pitchers. On the other hand, in this study, it could not be asserted that high school pitchers threw different fastballs compared to the mature pitchers. It was revealed that the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs for high school pitchers is similar to that for mature pitchers.
To compare elderly non-fallers and fallers for differences in the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance (CTSIB) and Limits of Stability (LOS). Six hundred forty-six older women volunteers (69.5±6.1 yr) participated in the study. Static and dynamic balance were assessed. The static balance (SB) indices in CTSIB were analyzed for four sway velocity conditions: a flat surface with eyes open (SV1); a flat surface with eyes closed (SV2); thick foam with eyes open (SV3); and thick foam with eyes closed (SV4), and composite scores (SVcomp) calculated based on all of conditions. The LOS components (endpoint excursion (EPE), maximum excursion (MXE), directional control (DCL), reaction time (RT), and movement mean velocity (MVL)) as a dynamic balance index were analyzed based on movements toward all eight targets, and composite scores. The fall incidence within the past 1 year was studied via questionnaire survey (faller=172, non-faller=474). There were significant differences in mean age and height between faller and non-faller groups. No significant differences were found in all balance indices between groups compared by age-adjusted ANCOVA. From the CTSIB and LOS measurement adopted in this study, no difference was observed between older fallers and non-fallers. However, in order to evaluate the presence or absence of falls based only on the balance ability, further measures such as examination by combining indicators are required. It is necessary to perform prospective studies to track the occurrence of falls after the balance ability assessment in the future.
A high risk of ankle injury is associated with rugby; however, current epidemiological data on rugby-related ankle injuries are limited to specific age and competition levels. This study aimed to clarify the epidemiological characteristics of ankle sprains by longitudinally investigating their incidence, severity, and burden in men’s collegiate rugby. Ankle sprains that occurred during rugby matches and training in 128 male collegiate rugby players were investigated across three seasons (2017-2019). The incidence of ankle sprain was 1.21 injuries/1000 player-hours (PHs). The risk of occurrence during matches (18.18 injuries/1000 PHs) was 25.6 times higher than that during training (0.71 injuries/1000 PHs). The mean severity of ankle sprain was 24.7 days. The injury burden tended to be higher in the match season than in the training season. The main injury mechanisms were thought to be related to contact play and stepping (non-contact play). In addition, a high rate of initial sprains was observed in this study. Ankle sprain prevention is important in collegiate rugby players.
This study aimed to investigate whether four weeks of jump and running drill training with a mini-trampoline affects sprint running, standing long jump, and drop jump performance. Fifteen healthy male students were assigned to either the trampoline training (T; n=8) or ground training (G; n=7) group. All participants performed jump and running drill training using either a mini-trampoline or over ground two times per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the training period, the participants performed a 50 m sprint run, a standing long jump, a drop-jump, and a ground reaction force evaluation test during a 20 m sprint. The pre- and post-training results were compared. The 50 m sprint record improved in both groups (P<0.01). The jump height of the drop-jump test decreased in the T group (P<0.05). The standing long jump distance did not change after the training period in either group. There was no significant change in impulse in either direction before and after the training period during the 20 m sprint run. Our results suggest that jump and running drill training using a mini-trampoline did not have any specific effect compared to jump and running drill training on the ground.
The aim of training Comprehensive Community Sport Club (CCSC) managers, which was specifically emphasized in the policy for fostering CCSCs, was to develop their abilities without examining their duties and behaviors. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify CCSC managers’ behaviors and their determinants in relation to the characteristics of community sports clubs in Japan. A questionnaire survey was completed by 328 club managers. The structure of management behaviors and relationship between them and basic attributes, sports and community life experiences, and community awareness were analyzed. Nine clusters of management behaviors emerged from the results. Furthermore, sport experience and community awareness had different effects on the nine behaviors. While sport-related experiences influenced general management behaviors, community awareness affected relationship building with the organization, which many clubs experience as challenging. These results indicate that CCSC management and club managers' behaviors reveal the characteristics of both sport and community organizations. Furthermore, the problem-solving that many clubs encounter may be not facilitated through manager training that is separated from the regional community. Club management should not ignore awareness that is fostered in daily life.
A common question on esports asked often, including in everyday conversations, is whether it is a sport. This paper attempts to clarify what the esports experience means to humans to begin with, which must be considered before discussing whether or not esports is a sport. To this end, the paper examines how to clarify the difference between esports and conventional sports phenomenologically. To examine the difference phenomenologically, we must first and foremost adopt the perspective of an esports player. When that happens, the first thing we see is a screen. We could find in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology the philosophical basis for believing that the presence or absence of the screen impacts the essential difference between esports mediated by the screen and conventional sports, which are not, in terms of depth perception. And the issue of depth perception is also deeply connected with that of modern technology—specifically, it is a matter of remoteness. The symbol of modern technology that shares this characteristic of remoteness with esports is drone weapons. The comparison between esports and drone weapon suggests that, as with the “humane” aspect of drones, remoteness might make esports more “humane” (moral) than conventional sports. However, the debate on drone weapons has also taught us about the problem of its remoteness, that is, the fact that remoteness reduces our bodily sense of resistance to violence toward others. Therefore, we should not to conclude that esports is ethically wrong, but look into how we must interact with esports based on such a characteristic.
In a previous questionnaire study with German professional athletes, we showed that the prevalence of lucid dreaming in athletes is 57% and that about 5% of athletes use their lucid dreams to practice sport skills while asleep. The present study applied a Japanese translation of the same questionnaire to a Japanese sample of college athletes to explore cultural differences. We found that about 41% of Japanese athletes stated that they experienced a lucid dream at least once in their lives, 18% experienced them once a month or more frequently, while 3.6% of athletes used lucid dreams for their sport practice. The frequency of lucid dreams in Japanese athletes was lower than in the German athletes, indicating potential cultural differences. Yet lucid dream practice does appear to have a cross-cultural applicability.
The Paralympic Games are currently in the public spotlight not only as a sporting spectacle but also as a vehicle for empowering individuals with disabilities in society. However, previous research indicates that the Paralympic Games currently cater for a limited variety of impairments, which perhaps reflects a limitation of the Games in this respect. The aim of this study was to determine whether this premise is valid by considering the empowerment of individuals in society via the Paralympic Games, focusing on groups including both mobility and hearing impairment. Quantitative data were recovered from a questionnaire survey disseminated to lower secondary departments of special needs education schools for the physically challenged (n=44, collection rate: 80.0%), lower secondary departments of special needs education schools for the deaf (n=119, collection rate: 85.6%) and a regular lower secondary school (n=145, collection rate: 83.8%) used as a control group in prefecture “A” via postal mail. Results were generated using an analysis of variance approach and χ2 test. The data indicated that the Paralympic Games as a vehicle of empowerment is only valid for those with mobility impairment, and not for those with hearing impairment. This suggests that empowerment through the Paralympic Games may only be effective for individuals with impairments that qualify them for entry into the Paralympic Games, while excluding those with impairments that do not. Ancillary findings of this study suggest that the majority of those with disabilities were uncertain about hearing impairment and the eligibility criteria of the Paralympic Games. It is also suggested that the Olympic Games have some positive effects in terms of empowering individuals with disabilities in society.