Interpreting and Translation Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Interpreting and Translation Studies
Online ISSN : 2436-1003
Print ISSN : 1883-7522
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Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
Articles
  • Rei MIYATA
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 1-24
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This article examines the current situation and issues of the multilingualisation of Japanese local government websites based on the results of a comprehensive survey. To devise ways to improve the multilingual services of local governments, it is first crucial to gain an accurate and broad understanding of how and to what extent multilingual information is currently provided. The following items in all municipal websites of 47 prefectures and 1,741 basic municipalities in Japan were manually investigated:(i)languages supported by human translation or authoring,(ii)languages supported by machine translation(MT), and(iii) types of adopted MT systems. The most significant findings include that(1)66.5% of basic municipalities rely only on MT and that(2)Southeast Asian languages such as Indonesian are particularly not supported from the viewpoint of the expected resident population of the speakers. A detailed examination of information types covered by English versions of 40 websites further revealed general tendencies regarding information provision.
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  • Zhongxi CAI, Koichiro RYU, Shigeki MATSUBARA
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 25-40
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Simultaneous interpretation has to be conducted to shorten delay and reduce working memory load. Interpreters adopt a strategy that involves the generation of a target language in the word order that is similar to that of the source language. To clarify how the interpreters decide the word order in practice, we conduct a statistical study on the word order of simultaneous interpretation, based on comparison with written translation. The word order comparisons indicate that the strategy of maintaining the original word order is more likely to be adopted in cases where the word order is not consistent in different translations. We analyze the features of source languages, including dependencies of chunk pairs, length of post modifier, and distance between two chunks, and confirm that such features affect the word-order decision in simultaneous interpretation.
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  • A case study analysis of in-house interpreters in Japanese companies in China
    Ailin ZHU
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 41-65
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The present study attempts to explain the behavior of interpreters when communication problems occur, focusing on cases involving Japanese companies in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven in-house interpreters, and twelve instances of communication problems were identified and analyzed. Following Baker(2006), the present draft argues that interpreters do not merely find themselves “caught up in” communication problems but rather actively participate in the process. Interpreters use various strategies to settle conflicts when they occur and do what they can to prevent communication problems from occurring. However, cases were identified where employees tried to shift the responsibility for the problem to the interpreters. Even in cases where the interpreter seemed to be managing the situation well, they were often actually emotionally confused or conflicted, and as a result tried to distance themselves from the situation. In this study, interpreters were found to serve as a “buffer” when communication problems occurred.
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Research Notes
  • Houquan ZHANG
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 67-79
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Nishi Amane wanted to learn Sorai Studies but his wish did not come true because he was ordered by the feudal lord to study Neo-Confucianism. However, he succeeded in embracing modern Western scholarly ideas with Sorai Studies. This research clarifies Nishi Amane's translation, which connects the modern West and Japan, from two angles: the Confucian element of the translated word and the translation thought. In terms of word translation, it’s just like translating "Intellectual science" and "Physical science" into "心理上ノ学" and "物理上ノ学" respectively. While criticizing the Confucian "Li(理)", Nishi Amane created new words to express abstract concepts on the basis of "Li(理)".Regarding translational thoughts, Nishi Amane inherited Sorai's criticism of Confucianism's "theory of correlation between heaven and man", cut off the continuity of "Li(理)" between heaven and man, and prepared systematic academic terms for the modernization of Japan.
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  • Experimental study focusing on retention of phonological and semantic information
    Jinzhi WANG, Daichi YANAMOTO
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 81-102
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study, examines the function of the memory mechanism in consecutive interpretation by advanced Chinese students learning Japanese as a second language with advanced proficiency, more specifically on the effect of the nature of retained information on the performance of interpretation. The independent variable was whether the interpolated task was performed or not, and the size of working memory capacity. Experiment 1 was on Chinese-to-Japanese, and experiment 2 was on Japanese-to-Chinese consecutive interpretation. The results indicated that the retention of phonological information has a higher cognitive load than semantic information, and the influence of the quality of retained information on the performance depends on the efficiency of processing of the target language and working memory capacity.
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Reports
  • “Overview of Interpreting” Lecture Class for Undergraduates Using Online Teaching
    Kaori NISHIHATA
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 103-123
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This study aims to report on attempts to use interactivity in large classes. Due to the impact of COVID-19, all of the classes at the university where the author teaches were offered online throughout Spring 2020. One of the classes, “Overview of Interpreting” was a lecture-style class with more than 100 undergraduate students. Challenges included managing a large size class, making it interactive, and adjusting to online teaching. There are many pedagogical reports on interpreting classes in a traditional classroom setting, but there is not much information on large, online, lecture-style interpreting classes. Thus, this research shares the challenges faced and the measures taken when managing large, online classes in comparison to conventional classroom teaching. Additionally, students’ perceptions of online teaching are described based on the results of an end-of-term questionnaire.
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Reports
  • Kayo MATSUSHITA
    2020 Volume 20 Pages 125-146
    Published: 2020
    Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The global proliferation of remote interpreting technologies may have been the most impactful byproduct of COVID-19 in the interpreting industry. The technologies themselves had existed for years, but demand quickly surged when lockdowns forced governments and businesses to bring all their meetings—and interpreters—online. Against this backdrop, an online survey on remote interpreting with a special focus on remote simultaneous interpreting(RSI)was conducted in Japan(Matsushita, 2020). The results revealed that while only 18.8% of the 229 respondents had RSI experience before the outbreak, the number jumped to 44.5% by the end of July 2020, with 91.7% of them envisioning that remote interpreting opportunities will continue to increase in the future.
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