After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the media for disseminating disaster information / evacuation information from local governments are becoming complex. As information dissemination system, PUSH based system can disseminate information regardless of the condition of the person who receive it. PULL based system require the person to conduct some action for receiving information. This study aims to investigate current situations and future issues with PUSH/PULL based information dissemination systems through a questionnaire survey to local governments. At first, a variety of information dissemination systems is identified. Then, focusing on the information dissemination using cellular phones, both PUSH and PULL based emergency text message services to cellular phones are compared and several issues such as current use and problems are analyzed.
One important step that we can take to reduce damage from earthquake and subsequent tsunamis is to simulate the situation immediately after an earthquake and analyze its impact for effective countermeasures construction. In this study, we predicted building damage based on response analysis for a realistic strong ground motion and simulated the situation of tsunami evacuation in order to access the effect of building collapse and subsequent road blockade to tsunami evacuation. We used one district in Tanabe City in Wakayama Prefecture where we expect to have strong ground shaking and subsequent tsunami with the expect height of 12 m. We found that 1) the prepared countermeasures are not enough to let everyone evacuate in the target region, 2) a number of survivors increase 3.7% at highest and the time necessary for 90% of the evacuees to evacuate decreases about 1 minute if the ratio of seismic reinforcement is increased to 100%. This shows reinforcement needs to be planned together with the locations, numbers, and capacities of the evacuation shelters.
In 2012, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan published a report “the counter measures of TUNAMI evacuation”. This report proposed self-active TUNAMI evacuation. But actually, there are various opinions about “self-active TUNAMI evacuation”. In this paper, firstly, this Japan cabinets' report was summarized and reviewed. Secondly, comparative analysis relating with self-active evacuation in the great east Japan earthquake were shown. And finally, differentiates for self-active evacuation between Yamada Town and Ishinomaki City was discussed mainly as interaction among people, nature and local-community.
A DEM based tsunami evacuation simulation model is developed. This model has new two functions as people requiring assistance activity and evacuation by car. The DEM based simulation model can evaluate the force between elements. This paper presents the detail of these models, their verification and case study of Nakanishi region, Minami-Awaji-shi, Hyogo-ken. According to the result of the case study, planning evacuation time in the existed evacuation plan is too short to evacuate.
Recently, urban regeneration and safety plans are being developed in the areas near some large-scale terminal stations. It becomes more important to understand various issues in disaster situation and take necessary structural and non-structural countermeasures near the terminal stations. Firstly, this paper overviewed the characteristics of expected hazards of earthquake and flood near the large-scale terminal stations. Then, focusing on Senju area, Adachi ward in Tokyo which has high risk of earthquake, flood and combination of these (complex disaster), it estimated the number of population of the crowd near the station such as residents, workers and evacuees according to the time in case of disasters. It then analyzed the necessary capacity of evacuation centers and compared it with the affected population. Finally, it pointed out current issues and suggested necessary countermeasures in this area.
The paper overviews overseas disaster evacuation related researches and practices by collecting and analyzing materials derived from various databases and websites. The paper also conducts text mining analysis on search results of engineering and social science perspectives to clarify the characteristics of the research contents, then, elaborates several papers from author's view points. Not only research findings but also emergency responses and evacuation manuals from several countries are collected and analyzed.
It was concerned that the victims might repeatedly suffer unsolicitous inquiries posed by the many researchers who wanted to know the defect of the people's response to the tsunami of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Therefore, volunteer researchers and engineers who intended field surveys set the Tsunami Evacuation Joint Survey Group for the Great East Japan Earthquake up and implemented their surveys, coordinating fields with each other to mitigate the load on the victims and raising survey moral. This paper introduces the setting up of the joint survey group first, and reports the outline of the survey by the core sub-group which worked with Yamada town and Ishinomaki city and the social and natural features of these areas from the view point of tsunami evacuation potential. This report is followed by the continued report, which introduces the analysis on the characteristic feature of the data set obtained by the core-group. It is expected that this report and the continued report will provide the basic information to the users of the data from the surveyed fields and also provide the experience to the researchers who may do the same kind of the field survey in future.
The preceding paper reported the survey structure of the Tsunami Evacuation Joint Survey Group for the Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunamis vulnerable features of Yamada of Iwate prefecture and Ishinomaki of Miyagi prefecture. As the continued report, this paper introduces the analysis on the characters of the evacuees' behavior data collected by the team for Yamada and Ishinomaki of the Tsunami Evacuation Joint Survey Group for the Great East Japan Earthquake, comparing it with the same kind of data sets collected by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism and the Cabinet Office. Through the analysis, it was concluded that the data collected by the team represented the general feature of the tsunami evacuation well and could be improved by the correction using age and sex distribution. It is expected that this report combined with the preceding report will provide the useful information to the users of the collected data and also provide the experience to the researchers who may do the same kind of the field survey in future.
Quality assurance of tsunami evacuation simulation models, which have been used as a tool for tsunami evacuation plan, has been increasingly important. In this study, we present the basic concept and propose the quality assurance method based on the concept. This method consists of two steps, Verification and Validation (V & V), which is the standard method in the numerical simulation field. V & V was applied to four kinds of evacuation models. As a result, we made sure that our proposed method, V & V, could be applicable and useful for quality assurance of tsunami evacuation simulation models.