Conventional work motivation theories have focused on tasks that require a certain level of
performance and achievement. However, it is not clear what kind of psychological process would
improve work motivation for performing jobs in which such performances and achievements are not
presupposed. By focusing on social contribution, this study aimed to clarify the psychological process to
improve work motivation of jobs in which do not require objective or concrete
performances and achievements. A survey was conducted on 179 operators from 6 call centers. The
questionnaire comprised items on sense of social contribution, feedback from supervisor, work motivation,
and work behavior with consideration for the customer. The results showed that the sense of social
contribution to customers and to organization mediated the association between positive feedback from
supervisors and work motivation. However, negative feedback from supervisors did not have a significant
relationship with sense of social contribution and work motivation. These results suggest the importance of
enhancing the experience of a sense of contribution to others through the provision of positive feedback
while managing jobs in which do not require objective or concrete performances and achievements.
The purpose of this study was to examine the career choice to stay at the same company and
organizational re-adaptation process of ex-managers who stepped down their positions based on the
position retirement policy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 ex-managers. The data
collected from each participant were analyzed according to the modified grounded theory approach. A
hypothetical model was constructed. As a result, 9 category groups, 22 categories, 6 sub-categories, and
70 concepts were created based on the data. The major findings were as follows: Upon position
retirement, ex-managers make the career choices to stay at the same company. The career choice is
subject not only to the result of job search and self-analysis but also other ex-managers around them and
family issues. Ex-managers who take new roles after stepping down feel a sense of loss of managerial
roles, but move toward the practical and psychological re-adaptation to the new role with the influence of
co-workers, workplaces and their work orientations. Then they revise their career plans which affect their
career choices at the retirement age of 60.
A previous study showed that the effects of the Big Five Personality Domains on Organizational
Citizenship Behavior (OCB), which is informal voluntary behavior by employees, are indirect and that
there is a need for clarification of the mediating mechanism between Big Five Personality Domains and
OCB. This study focused on “political skill” which is the ability to exercise organizational politics, and
examined the mediating effect of political skill in the effects of the Big Five Personality Domains on
OCB. Participants were 309 full-time workers in a Japanese enterprise (231 men and 78 women; mean
age 44.20 years, SD=8.16). Our results showed that “apparent sincerity” and “interpersonal influence”,
subscales of political skill are the intervening variable which explaining the partly process of the Big
Five Personality on OCB.
The present study examined the effects of a conductor’s announcements on passengers’
psychological states through simulation experiments of monorail emergency stoppages. A comparison
between broadcast and face-to-face announcements was examined in the first experiment, and intervals
(six minutes and three minutes) of broadcast announcements were examined in the second experiment.
The results were as follows: (1) there was no significant difference between the announcement channels
on passenger anxiety, (2) the broadcast announcements were perceived more socially desirable than the
face-to-face announcements, (3) there was no significant effect of the announcement interval on
passengers’ psychological states. The results suggest that face-to-face announcements are perceived as
inappropriate in these non-crisis situations. Moreover, announcement frequency has not made a
difference on the psychological states of passengers if the contents of the announcements are almost the
same. It may be concluded that broadcast announcements at six minute intervals are preferable in terms
This article reviewed domestic and international studies on work engagement and considered the
prospects for future studies from a viewpoint of effective utilization of the concept of “work
engagement” in practice.
Unlike other similar concepts (workaholism, job satisfaction, etc.), academic definitions of work
engagement are characterized by high activity level and positive attitude/cognition regarding work. Using
such a concept enhances interests and active involvements of both individuals and organizations as
opposed to conventional mental health care in the workplace, which has focused mainly on prevention,
and leads to a more effective practice.
Previous studies have revealed antecedent and subsequent factors of work engagement, suggesting
positive effects for both individuals and organizations. Meanwhile, although interventions to improve
work engagement have shown some degree of effect through meta-analysis, contents and effect size are
diverse among studies. In addition, the number of intervention effect studies is not large in Japan.
From now on, process evaluation of introduction and implementation in real-life contexts is
required. To promote evidence-based practice, it is necessary to not only develop more effective
intervention programs but also study how to practice effective interventions.