This paper attempts to study the usage of the words ‘await’ and ‘wait (for)’ from the viewpoint of structure and meaning. The research has been conducted mostly from the descriptive angle rather than from the prescriptive. Information obtained through Internet forums and from native-speaker informants shows great differences in usage depending on the individuals who use such words in particular places and situations. Therefore, it is considered that those words should be used very carefully or not at all by non-native speakers of English.
Explanations regarding the relative pronoun Which used at the start of sentences can be found in Kahn (1985: 675), Burchfield (1996: 845), and Garner (1998: 690-91). Yet these explanations are far from comprehensive. This article argues first that the relative pronoun Which is used (1) for emphasis, (2) in connection with its antecedent, (3) to give liveliness to writings, (4) as an afterthought, (5) as a substitute for “That” in “That is (to say), ” and (6) to show vulgarity. This article argues next that three reasons can be given for the growing use of Which, that is, (1) the increasing use of informal English today, (2) the resemblance of the relative pronoun Which to the interrogative Which at the start of sentences, and (3) the versatility of the nonrestrictive relative pronoun which in terms of its antecedent.
This study investigates the negative influences of L1 (Japanese) polysemous words (i.e., words with two or more different meanings) on the learning and use of L2 (English) at the lexical level. In an attempt to find evidence of L1 interference arising from polysemy in the learners'native language, a translation test was administered in which a group of Japanese college students learning English as a foreign language were asked to write English equivalents of a Japanese polysemous word, “au” which was embedded in a variety of sentence-level contexts. The students' responses to the task were examined using an error analysis approach. The results suggest that polysemous words in the learners' mother tongue are probable as an error-inducing source in target language production at the level of lexis.
The role of the World Wide Web in English education is increasing significantly. As a result, a collaborative learning environment where students are cast in the role of both student and teacher has developed. This paper reports on a study that examined the cultural dimension of e-mail correspondence between Japanese junior college students and their fellow correspondents throughout the world. In this keypal project, students identified their own keypals who shared similar interests and were free to converse about any topic. The instructor's role was to answer student's questions, as opposed to correcting their errors. It should be noted that student's questions were asked and answered in English using a class email list provided by the instructor as part of the course environment. The students shared cultural information they learned from their keypals with their classmates using the list. At the end of the course, the students were required to write a report describing cultural information learned from their keypals and reflect on their overall experience. The instructor evaluated student performance based on a student's commitment to the project as expressed in their effort to communicate with their keypals in English. It can be concluded from the study that the keypal project served as a stimulus to better cross-cultural understanding. In addition, it is evident that the class e-mail list multiplied the effect of this experience by placing students in the role of educating others about their cross-cultural experiences.