The “Labor Market Analysis Report”, published by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry in January 2015, concluded that the major reason for the recent increase in non-regular workers is that more self-employed workers are closing their businesses and choosing to be employed as non-regular workers. We cannot place full responsibility for the increase in bankruptcies of the self-employed on the MLBL impact alone. However, we also cannot deny the probability that the law revision accelerated the closing of businesses by SMEs due to financing difficulties.
December 2016 had marked 10 years since the revision of MLBL. The cap rate reduction is still intensifying the rigidity in financing of SMEs. The ratio of business commencements to withdrawals in Japan compare quite unfavorably to those of other advanced countries. One of the reasons must be that small lending, such as unsecured and conventional lending, is not functioning.
Meanwhile, FinTech has been gaining attention as a new financial instrument. It is now achieving rapid growth in the U.S. Also, Japan tries to move toward its implementation. There are various business models of FinTech services that have been taking the lead, including transaction lending service for SMEs in the U.S.. If these FinTech services are to be utilized as growth strategies in Japan, the urgent task would be to politically first set up the FinTech market as a provider of unsecured and conventional loans for SMEs.
However, Japan's FSA is not interested in relaxing interest rate regulation in financing services on FinTech, including transaction lending service. On the other hand, the Liberal Democratic Party and the New Komeito Party, which are the government parties, show a strong interest in transaction lending and suggest deregulation in its service area. Therefore, this paper views both the MLBL impact for SMEs and the current situation on transaction lending service's market in Japan and analyzes the significance that transaction lending service is attracting policy attention in the legislature, and its reason.
In this study, we intend to conduct surveys on the contents and cost-effectiveness of transport service by driving school. As the result, it become clear that we grasped of the data to review the operation from 6 cases. The main results are as follows: 1) There is no expansion of service. 2) There are positioned as complementary or major transport services by driving school. 3) Insurance premium accounts for the majority of expenses. 4) The transportation service can provide lower cost operation than community bus.
Also, we make clear the how to use now and future, potential demand, values recognition and accept fee through consciousness on the users and non-users of transport service by driving school in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture. Moreover, from the results of analysis there aren't association of values recognition and accept fee of transport service by driving school in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture. Hence, there doesn't want to pay for transport service by driving school in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture from which one benefits. In addition, it is assumed that transport service is not recognized as an economic activity. Based on these results it is desirable to provide transport services as part of CSR.
In the future, we should intermittent survey to actual situation by transport services, this should comparative analysis of and analysis of personal consumption.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the effect of the revised lending law in Japan on Japanese GDP and employment using input output analysis (an equilibrium model, ripple effect analysis of specific industry). Kato and Iida (2010, Survey of Annual Bulletin (JAPF) in Japanese) analyzed the effect using general input output analysis (an equilibrium model, ripple effect analysis of specific demand (expenditure))).Kato and Iida (2010) show that the consumption decreased by prohibiting loan (the regulation in the amount of loan) strengthened and the upper limit interest rate (the upper limit interest rate regulation) lowered. However, there is debate whether the effect size is reasonable or not. Therefore, we paid attention to the fact that loan suppliers decreased sharply and then we evaluate the size of the effect by using input output analysis (an equilibrium model, ripple effect analysis of specific industry).We show that during 2006 and 2011, the GDP decreased by 0.2452 and that employment also lowered by 112707 (mainly in the case of the upper limit interest rate regulation).
In this paper, I consider the balance of the beneficiary charge on the operation of community bus from the point of view of public and personal finance. In rural areas, it is difficult to maintain route bus, and the number of cases that local governments operate community bus instead of route bus is increasing to secure transportation. They also operate community bus in rural areas where there is no public transportation as one of citizens' transportation. Maintaining public transportation requires public and private investment, but the burden of people who use it (beneficiaries) is also necessary. I conduct a survey of community bus system in local governments of Fukui prefecture, compare it with examples in other areas, propose harmonization of fiscal burden and beneficiary charge and prospects for the future.
Some local governments adopt DRT (Demand Responsive Transport) to reduce the operation expenses of community bus. DRT is not cost-effective unconditionally. Citizensneed to have a consciousness to operate community buses themselves.In depopulated areas where a traffic system doesn't have, ridesharing of private cars can be the substitution means.In such areas, the exist of transportation means is an important issue.The related group including municipality should consider its possibility of collecting membership fee or using Crowdfunding, and it is necessary for all people of depopulated areas to perform the policy that retain community bus.
To improve the convenience of citizens better, I suggest that the beneficiary charge is necessary to maintain the transportation networkand that all departments (industry, academia, government, bank and citizen) need to cooperate to solve this problem.