The symposium was held as one of the memorial events of the Okayama University's 60th anniversary. lts objective was that we would know the difficulties of regenerating communities in the depopulated regions, based on the case of Setouchi. Panelists were as follows: Furamu Kitagawa, who is the producer of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial and Setouchi lnternational Art Festival, Motonori Moriya, who supports the nonprofit organization regenerating the communities in Kasaoka islands, and Kenji Muroi, who is a researcher studying the environment problem in Teshima.
The results of the symposium were very fruitful. lt was suggested that the regional and community studies we had been accumulated could contribute toward regenerating communities locating in the periphery and facing many difficulties
This paper shows various experiences of regeneration practice in Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial and introduces Setouchi International Art Festival 2010. Echigo-Tsumari which is located on the periphery of Niigata Prefecture is covered by heavy snow in winter and depopulated. We have tried to regenerate these communities through Art Festival production. Modern art inspires residents through visualization of their memories and history of the places and spaces, and attracts visitors to the Festival. Although many conflicts between staff and residents are seen at first, a lot of residents gradually participated in the works of the artists and visitors became supporters of the community. Peripheral region and community can be regenerated through the Art based on the history and culture of the space.
The author belongs to the policy department of Kasaoka municipal office and as well as Kaientai group, and since 2006 has been a business manager in KASAOKA Shimazukuri Kaisha (KSK) which had established in 2001 as a corporate Non Profit Organization and has supported whole aspects of islands life. Kasaoka islands are located in central area of Setonai-kai sea and constituted of 31 various small islands relegated to Okayama prefecture. 7 islands have their own habitants and the total number of population is around 2300.
The origin of this supporting activity is the athletic festival in 1998 where 3000 habitants came from 6 islands and had a great successful effect. After then a women's networking group named IKI-IKI Kai started their activity for social welfare and small business through producing and selling original products. In 2000, A habitant required to place an operating institution where public officers deliberately coordinate and support various activities. Owing to this suggestion, KSK was seated.
KSK deals with some projects. One is a promoting project for visitors to live in vacant houses in islands, another is a serving project for habitants to have special lunch box named Shimaben. The author is making efforts to connect and coordinate Kasaoka municipal office and KSK, so that regeneration of work and life in islands have been certainly achieved.
Environmental problems are commonly understood as environmental pollution or the increased ecological footprint caused by industrial mass production, regional disparity and the like. However, there also exist somewhat different types of environmental problems such as environmental constraints on everyday life, caused by de-population, an aging society and poor traffic conditions among others. This latter type of environmental problem concerns the phenomenon of a “shrinking society", rather than industrial systems. In disadvantaged areas such as remote islands, both types of environmental problems tend to occur simultaneously and are inextricably interwoven. For this reason, the problems faced on these islands can be uniquely difficult to resolve. In this paper, I discuss these matters concretely, referring to research date on Teshima jiken-the illegal dumping of toxic industrial waste on Teshima, Kagawa Prefecture.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze systems of regional revitalization. Firstly, I discuss dynamism of revitalization in a shrinking society and argue that citizen sector, which has an interest in social problems, is more important as a community renovator than the govermment sector which is concerned with a wider area. Secondly, I suggest the ideal type of revitalization from area management point of view. I analyze comparative studies of dynamic revitalization including a rural area and urban cities (Echigo-Tsumari region in Niigata prefecture, Nagahama city in Shiga prefecture, Takamatsu city in Kagawa prefecture and Youngstown in Ohio U.S.A) as cases. Each of these cases encompasses a declining population. Finally I illustrate the sustainable system of revitalization where we separate the right of use from ownership and right of use is managed by a community renovator under this system.
The aim of this paper is to examine how social enterprises are different from traditional third sector organizations including NPOs. Some stressed making money in the market as an essential condition of independence of NPOs from governments and some saw social enterprises as a model for NPOs in such context. I think it is one aspect of social enterprises and I am apprehensive that local governments would retreat or abolish the policies on NPO by standing on the inadequate understanding. I try to find another aspect of them in the relationships with a local government under introducing the scheme of local strategic partnership in UK
I focused on Tower Hamlets area in London. The council started Tower Hamlets Community Plan in 2001 based on Local Government Act 2000 and set Tower Hamlets Partnership as LSP in this area to manage this plan. The procedures of commissioning with third sector organizations are improved in order to achieve the targets of this plan. The targets of this plan are strongly affected by both Local Area Agreement with central government and the reforming of National Health Service. I had interviews with some parts of the council, different types of third sector organizations, social enterprises and infrastructure organizations in this area.
The research shows that social enterprises have not appeared as a sector or a sub sector in third sector yet. But new aspects of third sector organizations are going to emerge such as providing public services efficiently, managing quality assurance of their services and having accountability for assessments. I think we can see the third sector organizations having such new aspect as social enterprises. We need to consider social enterprises not only in the relationship with the market but in the relationship with governments.
Since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, many sociologists work on disaster study in Japan. But, there is still a lack of studies on the long-term consequences of long-term disasters.
This paper focuses on the disaster culture in an eruption-prone area, and especially on the long-term consequences of long-term disasters. I researched the long-term effects and efforts that followed the 1977 and 2000 eruptions of Usu Volcano which erupted a total of four times in the 20th century, on the basis of fieldwork and data analysis through the case study of the area around Sobetsu Town. Special focus lies on the analysis and the discussion of the nature of the disaster culture towards the meaning of disaster experience, the conditions of its creation and inheritance.
Furthermore, I expanded the focus of the study to the possible creation and inheritance of a general and universal “disaster subculture" in the analyzed communities. This research reveals the following findings: (1) Sobetsu Town people tend to compare the latest eruption with past eruptions and tend to interpret the meanings of the eruption. (2) The core of the disaster culture of this area is the “Coexistence with Active Volcanoes" which has penetrated into the community through the educational programs about Usu Volcano after the 1977 eruption. This view means that people usually enjoy the blessings of Usu Volcano, and escape to safety during the eruptions. (3) The disaster culture in this area includes disaster-prevention facilities, town planning, the knowledge of the current activity of the volcano, and handing down the experience and the knowledge of past eruptions. (4) For creating and inheriting the disaster culture, it is necessary that repeated disasters occur in the area, which lead to continuing educational programs of disasters, in which diverse human resources educate about Usu volcano.
In this research, the disaster culture is discussed as the local culture in a disaster-prone area. But, the view of living together with nature that have the disaster potential as Usu Volcano can change from local culture to the universal culture, and thus penetrating into the whole society.
A range of social investigations was carried out in Kure City, which is a regional hub and an industrial center, by a group of Kure community researchers of Hiroshima University. The investigations revealed the presence of two distinct parts in the lives of women during the period of child-raising.
Women in the first part of the course of their lives have the choice of either resigning the job or continuing with it at the opportunity of marriage and/or at child birth. After that, women in the second part of their lives‘ have the option of resuming employment or to continue as housewives during child raising (not after child raising). The percentage of women engaged as housewives was the maximum at 59.3%, when their last child is preschool-age. However, groups of newly re-employed women began to appear at the entrance of the last child to nursery school or infant school.
Mothers have many difficulties such as the elimination in various fields due to the problems of all their activities related with children. In addition, groups of mothers who develop their activities positively and widely, using many support systems of child raising, began to appear. Many of these mothers have hopes of reemployment in part time jobs. However, it is expected that the established good relations with support systems can not continue as before. Once they start re-employment, effective support systems of child raising for housewives can not be received any more.
More than 70% of the mothers who have preschool-age children have jobs. Majority of them (40.2%) have part time jobs. Three categories of mothers, mothers with full time jobs, part time jobs and mothers engaged as housewives have different types of lives and consciousness, especially in dealing with the difficulties of life. In the domain of part time jobs, many mothers have financial difficulties. Many mothers who resigned their jobs after marriage and/or at child birth, however, seek re-employment due to financial problems. In addition, they can not receive support from the government and their employers and face difficulties in securing long term employment and jobs that are compatible with child raising. In the early stage of entering of the last child to nursery or infant school, differences become obvious.
It is evident that both continuation with job and engagement as housewife are difficult for women during the period of child raising, and they have to select a pattern of “retirement and re-employment" after having children during the course of their lives. The establishment of new support systems to focus on helping women to make better choices during the course of their lives is necessary, and this recommendation is based on the facts that many women seek employment and have to be gainfully employed.
There are still social movements against the commodification of urban space. This paper reconsiders such social movement’s grounds of justice. So far, this research task has been studied through the analytical framework of “publicness”. However, in recent years, this analytical framework has been criticized in that it tends to eliminate values of minorities by assuming single commensurable value. Therefore, “incommensurable publicness”, being composed of incommensurable values, is becoming important analytical framework.
But, this new analytical framework is followed by troublesome research task: namely, we have to discuss the reason why specific values should be defended, because incommensurability needs to be differentiated from relativism. This paper pays attention to the discussions in thesis of liberalism that try to defend specific values on the grounds of “common values”. These “common values” are presumed as minimum moral bases that apply to incommensurable values.
Focusing on “common values”, this paper examines the grounds of social movement in the case of landscape conflictin Shimokitazawa district. This conflicthas been caused by urban planning which newly founds road for “safety” and “accessibility” at the cost of lives of some merchants, visitors, and inhabitants. Facing “publicness” of the urban planning, movement has been evolving by respecting various values. In recent years, movement groups are constructing legal discourse of “common right” as norm. Furthermore they have tried to make alternative plans on land use and land management for years.
Behind the background of these activities, there is cognition that recognizes various stakeholders as “co-owners of space”. In this cognition, we can findout “the considerations for others”, which can be grasped as “common values”. Therefore, this cognition is social movement’s ground of justice. Furthermore, on the basis of this cognition, there is a possibility that “incommensurable publicness” is forming.
This paper reveals characters of residents’ subject in a slum area, through analyzing strategies of Christian. In this work, the first meaning is focusing on the fact that residents’ association operates in underclass society. The second is focusing on the fact that Christian is not third person but fundamental being for operation of residents’ association.
It is true that Christian is third parson for a community. But they gradually get into “localisation” to slum society through doing social service. In this process, on the one hand they refrain from religious activity, on the other become resident himself. This “localisation” is tactic practice to realize a immediate purpose. They make equal footing with local residents in a community, changing original aim and role. Nevertheless, they remain in Christian. Being understood by residents these things is intention of strategic “localisation”.
This paper takes up a case of Higashi-Kujo in Kyoto City. This area is a region that most of Korean (“Zainichi”) in the city live. And this have been going slum outstandingly during the years of steep economic growth. Therefore it intensifies character of underclass society. In this area, “Kibou no Ie” (hope house), catholic facility, has begun social service from 1959 and has became a base of the community building.
Concretely, the Christian of “Kibou no Ie” play a role of unionising diverse orientations, religious devotion, locality, and anti-discrimination. Each of residents’ subjects have respective orientations. Officersof residents’ association emphasis on locality and are conservative comparatively. But some of young generation in the region, who break away from the association, emphasis on anti-discrimination thoroughly and are radical. The Christian adjust and become the medium of these residents’ subjects. This is “localisation” and a strategy of the Christian. These are factors of which we have to take account in order to think about necessary conditions for making residents' subject.