Recently, in Chinese society, the middle class has grown and the social strata are diversifying as the Chinese economy grows. Research on social networks has attracted interest and attention has been paid to the diversification of Chinese society. In particular, attention has been paid to the switching from traditional networks to personal networks. Traditional networks were considered an important base and a main support for other networks in Chinese society. Currently, the importance of traditional networks is decreasing due to network diversification. On the other hand, it is believed that it has become very important to have friendships consisting of weak personal ties. Moreover, in Chinese society, demands for a higher standard of living are growing and network configurations have been evolving with their ranges expanding. Networks are, more and more, being formed by weak ties; with a focus on friendship. A common interest in music, sports, art and other hobbies is needed to form some networks. In fact, much data collected in CGSS surveys is in connection with social networks. In this paper, conclusions from the analysis of personal networks in Chinese society are based on the data collected during the 2003, 2005 and 2006 CGSS surveys. This analysis focuses on friendship and cultural network as the importance of leisure life has been increasing with economic growth. No doubt, hobby networks will also be an important issue in the future. We show that there is a clear possibility of change from traditional networks to hobby networks in mainland China.
The authors aim to verify relations between advertising and firm value based on recent Japanese data from a sectoral perspective. Numerous prior studies based on U.S. companies have shown that advertising positively influence firm value. Furthermore, some studies based on Japanese companies also empirically confirm this kind of positive relation. However, few prior studies have focused on sectoral perspectives. Especially, there is no sectoral comparison in Japanese company as far as the authors know. Therefore, this paper intends to compare sectoral difference about relations between advertising expenditure and firm value based on recent financial data. The analysis focuses on five manufacturing sectors; food, beverage and cigarette, cosmetics and toiletry, consumer electronics and audio visual, and automotive and related sector. The result shows positive relations with statistically significance in three sectors such as cosmetics and toiletry, consumer electronics and audio visual, and automotive and related sector. Although a prior study shows that advertising is not effective for firm value in manufacturing sector compared, the result of this research suggests that advertising of manufacturing sector could be effective by breaking down manufacturing sector.
Much of the literature on an optimal taxation problem has adopted an objective of maximizing the sum of individual utilities. For instance, studies on an optimal direct tax consider the maximization of the sum of individual utilities consisting of their incomes with labor supplies, while studies on an indirect one examine that consisting of their consumption demanded. However, the studies have never seemed to put together optimal direct and indirect taxation in one model and analyze them with the other side when a total tax revenue is determined exogenously. In this paper, we consider such an imposition problem of both direct and indirect taxes in one model as done in the real society. In achieving its problem with the exogenous total amount of tax revenue, we find in a closed-form solution that the optimal proportion of the direct and the indirect tax revenue basically depends upon the pre-tax aggregate income, say Y as well as the double of the tax-excluded consumption expenditure, say 2C, or Y/2C. In the process of finding the above optimal direct/indirect tax ratio through a new law of equal marginal sacrifice, our model does not adopt the utilitarian objective. Instead, we try to maximize the sum of the market surpluses, not only in m markets of labor but also in n markets of goods. By focusing upon those m + n market surpluses, we can now include demand functions of labor and supply ones of goods, which have not yet been considered in the previous studies. Therefore, our model maybe more realistic than some others in order to show another optimal taxation without assumptions of fixed wages and prices as parameters like utilitarian maximization problems.
After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995, national and local governments as well as private foundations set up several institutions to activate NPOs including intermediary organizations. Taking advantage of such a favorable condition, NPOs have introduced community empowerment initiatives. As observed, the NPO sector became an alternative main policy stream to the conventional community organization (jichikai) or government agency type of welfare organization (syakaifukushikyogikai) in promoting community empowerment. Compared with the traditional policy stream, NPOs tend to be characterized as more independent, professional, and formal delivery vehicles. This paper focuses on the factors that created the dynamism of NPO intermediary organizations in Hyogo Prefecture (the area mainly affected by the earthquake) and how these organizations have been contributing to institutional settings for community empowerment. Regarding the theoretical framework for analysis, we positively took the viewpoint of New Institutional Economics. This theory could have an concept to ajust the rational choice new institutionalism and historical new institutionalism or sociological new institutionalism. Former theory puts more weight on economic rationalism of each actor and latter theories take into consideration of informal aspect of institution. Assuming bounded rationality under uncertain information, we adopted a broader definition of "institution" to include not only formal but also informal aspects such as rule or norm. Through close observation of the intermediary organizations and surrounding contexts, we argued that actors have set up the organizations under rational choices and have successfully continued their activities by harnessing a wide variety of formal and informal institutional supports which include central and government policy, private foundation's support, and advice from experts. For instance, official institution like law or ordinance contributed to reducing the transaction costs pertaining to the setup and management of the organizations while experts helped fill in information gap between the organizations and policy makers. Meanwhile, we also found that the voluntary activities of the intermediary organizations and NPOs in the affected areas contributed to heightening the visibility of NPO sector, making its significance understood across the nation. This triggered the public to accept the most important institutional setting for promoting community empowerment, which was the enactment of the Law to Promote Specified Nonprofit Activities in 1998. The enactment of that Law was also affected by various factors such as wide acceptance of the civil associations in the conservative factions by the end of cold war and expectation of the business sector for the NPOs as a means for saving the government expenditure. Finally, we drew a conclusion that community empowerment policy should be further rearranged and modernized in order to ensure sustainable development of NPO intermediary organizations. Focusing on the future, we could argue that it is important to design more proper institutions in which actor's rationality could be embedded.
Some collaborative frameworks for coordinating and promoting rehabilitation and recovery activities can be observed at the community level during the post-disaster recovery process. Such a framework, which is formed as a local organization or institution, has the potential to function not only as a consensus building system or services delivery mechanism for better recovery but also as a foundation for community development in the post-recovery phase. The purpose of this paper is to review the collaborative framework in the context of governance theory based on Janet Newman's normative model. It also intends to examine the significance of collaborative framework in line with the recovery principles and concepts. Focusing on three cases: neighbourhood groups as a manifestation of mutual help spirit, "Gotong Royong" (Central Java Earthquake of 2006: Indonesia), "Setu" as an information hub (Gujarat Earthquake of 2001: India), and "CS Kobe" as a community-based intermediary (Hanshsin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995: Japan), the development process of each framework was examined from the recovery phase to the sustainable development phase. The findings indicated that while each case has unique and distinct characteristics in terms of social capital and governance system, a common aspect of frameworks can be observed. That is, in each framework, "self-governance model" that enhances community cohesion coexisted with "open systems model" that connects to the outside and responds flexibly to changes in society. Each framework was commonly regarded as an interface between internal and external networks so that it could strengthen social integration while simultaneously creating social innovation by promoting interactions with external actors. The collaborative framework is found to make a significant contribution to applying the recovery principles of sustainability and resilience. Sustainable mutual-help mechanism was embedded in the community as the framework extended its activities in reaction to community needs or evolved into an established partnership. The framework also built the capacity to resist and recover from the effects of hazard by harnessing the potential power that the community originally had and furthermore it facilitated flexible adaptation to changes by improvising and recombining resources through its redundant and diverse network.
The formation of collaborations between corporations, nonprofits and governments is becoming an increasingly adopted way for corporations to address social problems. In this paper, collaborations that attempt to solve social problems are defined social collaboration. While existing research on social collaboration has explored the antecedents of collaboration formation and the successful factors of collaboration management, there is little research on impact of social collaboration on change in participating organizations' cognition and behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore such impact of social collaboration on participating organizations. Especially, this paper focuses on changing process in participating organizations' cognition and behavior about social problems through social collaboration. This paper proposes the framework for above issues based on the previous studies on interorganizational learning theory and on social collaboration. Then, this paper conducted a case study on social collaboration. The case is that recycling business of textile products by TEIJIN FIBERS and FLANDRE. The results indicate that participating organization (FLANDRE) changed own cognition and behavior about waste disposal problems and recycling problems that have become a crucial social problems in the textile industry through learning these problems within collaboration and sharing the social mission of TEIJIN FIBERS. Finally, some key theoretical implications for research on social collaboration and limitations of this paper are discussed.
Various Changes in socio-economic systems such as globalization seem to be influencing strategic behavior of business organizations. This paper tries to examine the influences of changes in socioeconomic systems on alliance and collaboration strategies by business organizations. Many companies seem to be committed to collective strategy by which they try to affiliate themselves with some kind of collectives such as organic, agglomerate, conjugate and confederate ones. They expect that affiliation with such collectives would mitigate the harsh influences from the changes in socio-economic systems. Such approach can be viewed as a type of alliance and collaboration strategies based on "social ecology" viewpoint. This paper also looks at another type of alliance and collaboration strategies by business organizations which include a more extensive and long-range one for contributing to public interest in the future. Contemporary business organizations are committed to a variety of alliance and collaboration strategies for a variety of purposes. This paper also looks at a typology of values that can be associated with various types of alliance and collaboration strategies in such area. One of such strategies can be regarded as an effort geared toward achieving sustainability of social and economic systems.
The purpose of this paper is to indicate the process by which social enterprises create Social Innovation (hereunder "SI") through interactions with those that may benefit from the results. Numerous studies have been performed on SI and how businesses can solve social problems, but few focus on the process itself. The SI process consists of a creation stage and a diffusion stage. In the creation stage, new social products or services are developed. In the diffusion stage, a current system is innovated, e.g., a law, custom or social relationship. This paper aims to clarify the process of interaction between social enterprises and stakeholders, shedding light on the creation stage of the SI process. By examining the case of Space Fuu, NPO, a company in the business of reusable dishes, this paper analyzes the process of starting this reusable dishes business in terms of who creates SI and how. As a result of analysis of the case, this paper implies various reasons for both tangible and intangible support or collaboration for the process of creating SI and changes in the supporters' ideologies. This paper also indicates how SI is created through dynamic processes designed by entrepreneurial team members, each assuming different roles, and multi-stakeholders, all the while inspiring each other.
As the Internet has been developed in U.S.A., main persons who discuss cyber ethics consider that democracy is existence with supreme value. We have to reflect upon a problem whether it is a right way for all human beings to accept such value or not. In the modern society, if we want to probe that a certain moral judgment is legitimate or logical truth, we have to put some kind of suppositions. However, we can always deny such suppositions. Therefore, it leads to division than unity to insist that a certain moral judgment is universally true. In this article, we consider several cases to be related to a collision of the values in the Internet. The first case is a report about "enemies of the Internet." If the Internet is public property, the group that invented the Internet won't have a prior right, though the invention is worthy to praise. We cannot accept the insistence that everyone who uses the Internet should follow the sense of values of the group that invented the Internet. Therefore, the expression of "enemies of the Internet" is extremely improper. Other cases we consider here include the information leakage, the re-distribution of the information and so forth.
The information system for compiling JSNA (System of National Accounts, Japan) was designed in 1980s and is difficult to patch. This fact has caused the delay to install the revisions of International SNA standard, compensations by manual procedures using Spreadsheet software, revisions of published values caused by operational mistakes, decreased reliability on JSNA. In this research, we propose the grand design principles about AADL (Algebraic Accounting Description Language) Macro system for the renovation of the information system for JSNA, to solve the problems. Subsystems built according to the hierarchy of SNA, SNA specialists without programming skills are able to build up information system by themselves using AADL macros and micro modules. This enables the rapid and robust renovation of the information system for compiling JSNA.
In this paper we focus on the structure and function of service tasks and a chain of service tasks in late modern global economy. Service tasks and its chain provide basic elements of contemporary service oriented economy that include a traditional supply chain as a special case of fabrication service. We divide service chains into self-produced service chain and produced service chain. The former, for example, includes pedestrian movement at commercial accumulation, shopping area and tourist resort. The later includes ,for example, medical service, care service and tourist service. We focus on a flexible and inter-organizational connection of service tasks that induce co-creative and hyper variety of service oriented industrial structure. We propose three criteria of hyper variety industry as a cluster of flexible service chains that overcomes the demand shortage of developed and mature society. The one is downsizing of service tasks. The second is a flexible connection and re-connection of service tasks. The last one is co-creative evolution of service tasks and continuous creation and recreation of service chain.
In this paper, I discuss a way of variety management achieved by flexible assembly of service components. The contribution of service industry on GDP basis is increasing rapidly, and service innovation and productivity improvement become more important issues in many countries. In response to the issues, a new discipline called "service science" has been established. In the context of service systems science, service is defined as value co-creation emerged by interactions among providers and customers. This value co-creation process can be regarded as an input and output system and defined as "service component". According to the definition, we can analyze corporate activity and industry structure as a combination of service components. Information system is one of platforms which enable to assemble service component flexibly. If a company offers a service which is tailored to customer needs based on the platforms, then it becomes competitive advantage for the company. Finally, we discuss the doujinshi publishing business as an example of a platform which enables hyper-variety market. From an interview with a publishing company, we insist that suggesting appropriate service for customers is important as well as providing various services based on service component flexibility.
This paper aims to show that "Shibuya-kei" fashion business market is a hyper-variety market in which the creation and the reputation have mutual influence with participation by the users. This characteristic is unique to this market, and quite different from other Textile, Clothing and fashion market in Japan. Japan's Textile, Clothing and fashion industry have highly evaluated their technology and designing levels. On the other hand, it was a generally shared opinion that the globalization has accelerated sunset of this industry with increase in transplants in developing countries. Moreover, it has been difficult to retain world-level fashion designers within Japan. Japan has taken measures to attract these designers within Japan by taking part in the luxury market by developing new fashion designers and promoting presentations on Japan's technology and products. It is not clear, however, whether this market can be hopeful on future growth. However, "Shibuya-kei" Fashion have been created and reputation among consumers (include readuser). There creation and reputation cycles are very short. Then, many products are made in Japan. But Japanese fashion industry companies perspective for overseas presence are negative trends.
Independent productions of manga, game and music, etc. are the cultures with which it is widely familiar in Japan. These cultural practices are done by using services of shops selling independent production goods, print companies, etc. In a modern Doujin Field, the role of "Cultural mediators" (Bourdieu 1979=1990; Negus 1996=2004) or "Business components" (Deguchi, Tanaka, and Koyama 2009) that has a great knowledge of Contents are thought to be a very large. However, this agents' role has been hardly studied up to now in the doujin culture research of sociology and cultural studies. So, in this paper, using "the Field of Cultural Production Theory" of Pierre Bourdieu and participatory observation approach, paying attention to the "Doujin Shops", I analyze practices and strategies of "Cultural mediator" in Doujin Field and structures and norms by which they are conditioned.
We investigate a measuring method of industrial structures based on macro statistics such as SNA (Systems of National Accounts) and the Input-Output Tables. This paper defines and estimates the indexes such as inter-region dependences, marginal productivity based on accounts and turnover rates of industrial technologies. On the other hand we have hitherto developed the technology for crowdsourcing and managing the transaction data of individuals, firms and governments by exchange algebra and Algebraic Accounting Description Language (AADL). We found that it is difficult to identify the movement of estimates over time between structural factors such as industrial technologies and temporary demand-supply factors based on macro statistics data and that transaction-based measurement can solve this problem.
In this paper we discuss an optimum taxation system. The idea for this we use supply function and demand one for surplus analysis. By taxation each surplus is reduced some what, we maximize the total surplus for all markets, under the condition of the required tax amount. D_i(x_i)/D_i(x_i^*)-S_i(x_i)/S_i(x_i^*)=λ (∀i: Market) Demand function D_i(・), supply function S_i(・), equilibrium quantity x_i^*.
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