In the increasingly complex world, it can be difficult to fully comprehend the nature and organization of society. This study presents an educational model for social studies based on Niklas Luhmann's theory of communication. The theory provides educators with a method to teach citizenship education more effectively in ways that better prepare students to participate in complex societies where diverse opinions and perspectives are represented. This method provides students with opportunities to participate in realistic simulations involving common societal issues, thereby promoting their flexible thinking and ability to assess situations from multiple points of view. The model positions students in real-life situations and requires them to work through challenges to resolve complex issues and problems, using social analysis and criticism. The study consisted of the following four steps. First, I classified social studies education research into four categories based on the relationship between knowledge and society and identified the characteristics associated with each category. Second, I established an educational model based on Luhmann's theory of communication. Third, I developed and implemented a social studies lesson at the elementary school level, based on the theory mentioned above, and analyzed the lesson's outcomes and effects on students.
This study focuses on elementary school social studies teaching practices by following the Quality Education Reform in modern China. The study aims to describe the characteristics and problems of these teaching practices through the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the teaching practices for 24 lesson plans and videos from the "excellent national model lessons" published by The Chinese Society of Education in 2013. Chinese teachers teach morality and social recognition in the same lesson. However, the quantitative analysis showed that the excellent national model lessons are largely teacher-centered and focused on "value knowledge." The qualitative analysis showed that three main types of teaching methods were used for the 24 "Morality and Society" lessons: understanding through experience, inquiry, and problem-solving. These three methods share the qualities of cogitative faculty, the learner's good judgment, voluntary learning, cooperative learning, investigation and discussion, protection of the environment, and engagement in community activities.
This study focuses on powerful and authentic social studies (PASS), a program proposed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). The following two questions are addressed: (1) By learning PASS, what qualifications and competencies can social studies teachers develop? (2) Why does PASS have the structure that it does? The analysis revealed the following two points. First, PASS successfully integrates different social studies ideas to create a common ground for a "powerful and authentic" view of social studies. Concretely, it embodies the learning of social issues at the unit level. In terms of this, PASS can be described as a highly versatile professional development program that purses the ideal, namely, teaching students about public issues, while simultaneously meeting teachers' needs by broadly capturing social studies. Second, PASS gives teachers opportunities to reflect on their social studies practices by analyzing lesson plans. In this way, it fosters social studies teachers' skills in lesson design, lesson practice, lesson evaluation, and lesson improvement/redesign. This research suggests the development approach of professional development program for academic conferences or local governments.
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