This study aimed to examine if focusing on 2 types of cooking tasks, such as “cutting” and “kneading by hand,” affects a cookʼs mood and anxiety. We assessed 25 male and female university freshmen students using scores of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form JYZ and Profile of Mood States as indicators. To conduct the survey, 11 students were assigned the “cutting” task and 14 were assigned the “kneading by hand” task. The two target groups were compared based on whether they performed each task or not, and a pre-post comparison was conducted prior to and post the cooking process. It was observed that the state anxiety, trait anxiety, and total mood disturbance decreased for both the cooking tasks, for both conditions (with or without performing the task). On the POMS subscale, students who performed “kneading by hand” showed a significant reduction in “anger-hostility,” with a significant increase in “vigor.” “Fatigue,” “depression,” and “tension-anxiety” reduced significantly with or without performing the task, while “confusion” did not show any significant change in either of the groups. In the case of the “cutting” task, there was a significant decrease in “depression,” “tension-anxiety,” and “confusion” with task performance, while “fatigue” decreased significantly with or without performing the task, and “anger-hostility” as well as “vigor” did not show any significant change.
In each group, different effects were observed using the POMS subscale with and without performing the task. This difference may be attributable to the difference in the tactile sensation during the cooking task, depending on whether an individual directly touch the ingredients or not. By partially changing the details of the cooking tasks, it was possible to further clarify the effects of cooking on a cookʼs anxiety and mood. Therefore, it was possible to clarify the relationship of cooking tasks with mind and body.
With the aim of investigating the factors affecting face-to-face communication skills in university students, the basic communication scale by Hirose et al. was used to examine associations with a sense of physical and mental well-being, physical and mental status, expression reading, and baseline characteristics in 546 university students. Among students divided using the quartile method into a high group, medium group, and low group based on their sense of physical and mental well-being, the high group had higher face-to-face communication scores than the medium and low groups. Some baseline characteristics that boosted a sense of physical and mental well-being and face-to-face communication skills were having a part-time job, having many friends, having ways to relieve stress, and a well-regulated lifestyle. Multiple regression analysis on factors affecting face-to-face communication skills revealed an ability to read expressions of happiness that is related to empathy and a sense of fulfillment as factors improving skills and forgetfulness and lethargy as factors impairing skills.
These results show that having ways to relieve stress and good physical and mental health are important for face-to-face communication skills, and that living their daily life with a sense of fulfillment and understanding other people's feelings are related to such skills.
The aim of this research was to compare the preventive knowledge and psychological factors relevant to influenza prevention behavior in 150 college students of nursing and 197 college student members of boat clubs. These two students groups differ in their majors and life backgrounds, but they might be more eager than general college students to prevent influenza. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire showed that the rate of preventive behavior and the correct answer rate regarding knowledge of influenza prevention were similar in both groups.
Multiple regression analysis using the score of influenza prevention behavior as an objective variable and prevention knowledge, psychological factors, and attributes as explanatory variables showed that the factor most related to influenza prevention behavior was ʻinfection aversionʼ in both groups. This result indicated that an upsurge of ʻinfection aversionʼ would promote behavior favoring influenza prevention. Furthermore, the result showing that the prevention knowledge was also related to influenza prevention behavior in nursing students indicated that an acquisition of information and knowledge about influenza prevention would promote preventive behavior against influenza.