We discussed the present research trends of mathematical models of heat transfer phenomena within human body. In addition we introduced our mathematical model expressing local characteristics of each segment including a subroutine of calculation of physiological thermoregulatory responses. By using this computer program several simulations under various combinations of thermal environmental conditions and working levels were performed. The calculated results were agreed with the measured results and suggested the validity of the present mathematical model to evaluate human responses.
To understand temperature profiles and to identify factors affecting these profiles in the early neonatal stage, body temperature was monitored using a deep thermometer in 10 normal neonates placed in a room at 26–27°C from 2 h 31 min to 7 h after birth. Temperature data were used to investigate correlations between physical characteristics measurements, body-mass indices, gestational weeks and time of birth. No significant differences were observed in chest deep temperature values between any measurement time points. The degree of decrease in chest deep temperature was significantly larger in Group AL (mean value of individual subject is lower than total mean value) than in Group AH (mean value of individual subject is higher than total mean value) up to 5 h after birth. Degree of decrease in chest deep temperature tended to be larger in Group RH (rectal temperature immediately after birth of individual subject ≥37.0°C) than in Group RL (rectal temperature immediately after birth of individual subject <37.0°C) up to 4.5 h after birth. Regarding physical characteristics, head circumference was significantly larger in Groups AH and RL and body-mass indices of head circumference/body mass and chest circumference/body mass were generally larger in Groups AL and RH. Body surface area did not differ significantly between any groups, but body surface area/body mass ratio was significantly larger in Group AL than in Group AH. Body temperature changes were shown to fluctuate in the lower range in neonates with larger head circumference/body mass ratio and chest circumference/body mass ratio and body surface area/body mass ratio at an early neonatal stage after birth.
The presence of odorants and airborne bacterium within animal laboratories posed personal discomfort as well as health risks to researchers and their staff. This led to the development of photo-catalytic based filtration technology, capable of absorbing and decomposing odors in addition to sterilizing airborne bacterium, for an indoor air-circulation device. We performed several experiments to determine its characteristics. The result was a detection of tri-methylamine, which was found to contribute 94.6% of the odor in the laboratory animal room. Tri-methylamine is an important indicator in the odor environment for researchers and working staff. During field tests within animal laboratories, the experimental filtration system removed about 82% of the tri-methylamine and 51% of the ammonia immediately, and decreased odor concentration from 12 to 5 or less (by the triangle odor bag method), at which point no odor was perceived. The odor concentration at the outlet of the device was maintained at less than 5 during a trial period of two months. At the same time, the filtration device removed 64–95% of all airborne bacteria within the animal laboratories. In addition, the photo-catalytic filter that attained adsorptive saturation was successfully regenerated by using the photo-catalytic ability. The results of experiment demonstrated that the test device is more effective in absorbing and removing odor and bacteria in the animal laboratory rooms than similar devices. The photo-catalytic filtration system was effective for removing odor constantly being generated in the mouse animal room.
This paper reports the influence of passing through a buffer space on psychological and physiological responses of moving from outdoors to interior rooms. We conducted experiments with and without passage through the buffer space and compared the results. We controlled the indoor air temperature in experiments without the buffer space, and controlled both the atrium and indoor air temperature in experiments with the buffer space. Results show that without the buffer space, some subjects felt ‘uncomfortable’ immediately after entering the room when the outdoor temperature was moderate. Furthermore, after some time had passed, female subjects felt ‘uncomfortable’. In contrast, with the buffer space, the intermediate temperature of the buffer space reduced the physiological load. Results show that when occupants enter a room from outdoors, passage through a buffer space mitigates heat shock.