Journal of the Human-Environment System
Online ISSN : 1349-7723
Print ISSN : 1345-1324
ISSN-L : 1345-1324
Volume 6 , Issue 1
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
Review Articles
  • Dieter Schwela
    2002 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: 2002
    Released: January 28, 2005
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Indoor air pollutant levels in urban and rural areas of developing countries are much higher than ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas of developed and even of developing countries. Health effects due to indoor air pollution are, however, much less studied than in developed countries. Therefore, this paper summarises the information available on indoor air pollutant levels in developing countries. The evidence on the health impacts is presented and discussed. Starting from ongoing work on the global disease burden from air pollution at the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of particle pollution induced mortality and morbidity are reported.
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Original Articles
  • R. R. Gonzalez, L. A. Blanchard, W. F. Allison, J. A. Gonzalez
    2002 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 9-18
    Published: 2002
    Released: January 28, 2005
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Thermoregulatory sweating during light exercise during cold air temperature transients was examined in women at two different phases of their menstrual cycle. Nine women with normal menstrual cycles participated (age=27.2±4.5 y; DuBois Surface Area=1.6±0.1 m2; % Body Fat=20.0±3.8%; heart rate maximum=195±6.1 beats·min−1, and VO2,max=46.2±4.4 mL·kg−1 min−1). Experiments were conducted in the late fall, winter, and early spring at the same time of day (0700–0900 h). The women were studied in their early follicular (F) and mid-luteal (L) phases clothed in fatigues+GoretexTM parka during treadmill exercise (∼34% VO2,max). Air temperature (Ta) was decreased from an initial level of 20°C/40% RH to −5.0°C (wind speed of 1 m·s−1) at a rate of −0.3°C·min−1 over 80 min. Esophageal (Tes), mean skin (Tsk) and upper arm (Tarm) temperatures, VO2, and arm sweating rate (msw) were recorded continuously. For the first 40 min of exercise, msw was correlated with Tes (r2=0.66 in F and 0.75 in L) but became inhibited by cold Tsk during the final 40 min. Throughout the exercise/cold transient, msw was higher (P<0.05) and Tes threshold temperature was increased by 0.35°C in the L vs F. Sudomotor control was adequately predicted using a maximum likelihood estimation model combining Tes, Tsk and Tarm. The model confirmed that the msw is a function of Tes, Tsk & Tarm, increases by 22% (P<0.05) as Tes threshold is displaced upwards in the L phase. In conclusion, sweating rates in the F and L during light exercise are influenced separately by changes in skin cooling and may be highly responsive to perturbations in hormonal balance.
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  • Itsuhei Kohri, Tohru Mochida
    2002 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 19-29
    Published: 2002
    Released: January 28, 2005
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This paper is a report of research concerning the development of an evaluation system of thermal comfort in a vehicle. A new calculation method developed in a dispersed two-node method is presented here to predict regional physiological responses of a human in the steady state.
    Since thermal comfort in various vehicle compartments has recently been shown to impact customer satisfaction, air conditioning performance is a critical quality that can improve this effect. In cooperation with this tendency, several complicated methods coupling a detailed thermoregulation model with CFD applied to vehicle development have been published. Although they are very useful in the planning phase of new car development, at the same time, structure designers require a simpler method in the improvement phase when the prototype vehicle has been already prepared. Then, aiming at the target precision of the skin temperature as less than 1°C for a limited environmental zone and limited persons, a simple method that takes the fundamental mechanism of physiological response of a human body into consideration is developed. The model constants are determined to give the target precision by experimental studies using 4 male subjects. Through this research, following standing features of this model are realized, 1) Simple algorithm, 2) Corresponding to the conventional two-node model, 3) Practical precision.
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  • H. A. M. Daanen, M. G. Brandsma, C. Cox, B. Knoll, C. Pernot
    2002 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 31-37
    Published: 2002
    Released: January 28, 2005
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Shortly before the Royal Marriage Party, on the occasion of the wedding of His Royal Highness Prince Willem Alexander and Maxima Zorreguita, took place in the Amsterdam Arena stadium, the organization realized that the audience might be exposed to cold for a considerable period and that hypothermia might occur. Therefore, the risk for hypothermia was assessed and the effect of counter-measures was calculated using thermal models. The models showed that it was not effective to place heaters in the stadium, but that reducing the ventilation rate was effective. Beer is known to enhance body cooling and was therefore prohibited during extreme cold. An entertainer tried to stimulate the audience to move in order to generate extra heat. Each visitor received a clothing recommendation, which was followed very well.
    During the party, the ambient temperature turned out to be exceptionally high, and no problems occurred. Temperature and humidity measurements in the stadium during the party showed that the model calculations were close to the real values.
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  • George P. Nassis, Nickos D. Geladas
    2002 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 39-45
    Published: 2002
    Released: January 28, 2005
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevailing environmental conditions during August in the past 10–30 years in the city of Athens where the 2004 Olympic Games are going to be held. A secondary aim was to relate these conditions to performance, based on the existing literature. Ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations, hourly and daily recorded, in August over the past 10 years were collected from the Greek Ministry of Environment. Ambient dry temperature and relative humidity, every three hours and daily recorded, in August over the past 30 years were collected from the National Meteorological Bureau. CO, NO2 and SO2 levels were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values and the national alarm levels. However, 8-hours O3 concentration was higher than the WHO guideline values at certain cases. Ambient temperature ranged between 19.7 and 34.8°C in the site close to the Olympic sports complex whereas relative humidity was 25 to 60%. In conclusion, a high O3 concentration could be a threat to endurance performance in the 2004 summer Olympic Games. The negative impact of O3 inhalation on health and performance could be exaggerated in the presence of a high ambient temperature. Proper acclimation strategies could minimize the adverse effects of heat on human body function. Acclimation could also alleviate the respiratory symptoms of O3 inhalation, at least in some individuals.
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