This paper deals with the energy consumption and the evaluation of the performance of air supply systems for a ventilated room involving high- and low-level supplies. The energy performance assessment is based on the airflow rate, which is related to the fan power consumption by achieving the same environmental quality performance for each case. Four different ventilation systems are considered: wall displacement ventilation, confluent jets ventilation, impinging jet ventilation and a high level mixing ventilation system. The ventilation performance of these systems will be examined by means of achieving the same Air Distribution Index (ADI) for different cases. The widely used high-level supplies require much more fan power than those for low-level supplies for achieving the same value of ADI. In addition, the supply velocity, hence the supply dynamic pressure, for a high-level supply is much larger than for low-level supplies. This further increases the power consumption for high-level supply systems. The paper considers these factors and attempts to provide some guidelines on the difference in the energy consumption associated with high and low level air supply systems. This will be useful information for designers and to the authors' knowledge there is a lack of information available in the literature on this area of room air distribution. The energy performance of the above-mentioned ventilation systems has been evaluated on the basis of the fan power consumed which is related to the airflow rate required to provide equivalent indoor environment. The Air Distribution Index (ADI) is used to evaluate the indoor environment produced in the room by the ventilation strategy being used. The results reveal that mixing ventilation requires the highest fan power and the confluent jets ventilation needs the lowest fan power in order to achieve nearly the same value of ADI.
Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30km2 to 52km2. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29–41% of the area, roofs 19–25%, and paved surfaces 29–39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20–37% of the area, roofs 20–25%, and paved surfaces 29–36%.
Global warming by way of CO2 emissions is a complex system of societal values, technological means and environmental requirements. Conventionally, the ordinary citizen responds to global warming with the indirect method of societal response to problems by authorizing others to take care of “our” problem and supporting experts, scientists and community advocates to address it. This paper proposes to use the direct method, which focuses on individual response and endeavors to show that in certain cases action by many individuals in addition to the few experts will promote environmental solutions pro-actively and efficiently. This study provides details of the method and applies it in an effort to reverse an undeniable energy wasting feature of daily home routine: energy consumed because home occupants do not turn out lights in unoccupied rooms. A three stage study was performed. The first stage of the study used information from a preliminary survey to determine the sample size required to assess the energy wasted and CO2 emitted when occupants leave lights on in unoccupied rooms. The second stage used a guide of issues to discuss with each resident; the intend of this stage is to collect pertinent data and introduce the potential use of a motion detector in homes to reduce energy waste. During the last stage and over a twelve month period two additional contacts were made with subjects who gave the investigators their telephone number and permission to discuss their follow up action. A random sample of 100 subjects established that 64 percent of urban residents leave rooms but do not turn the lights off. This home routine wastes energy and unnecessarily increases CO2 emissions. The direct method employed brief and interactive telephone conversations with a representative of each household to convince 44 percent of the families that waste energy by not turning out lights in unoccupied rooms install one or more motion sensors that stop lighting unoccupied rooms and conserve energy. The study also estimated the energy wasted and the decarbonization levels potentially accomplished under several scenarios of implementation of the proposed device in Chicago, USA. Cognizant of uncertainty increases, this study used the Chicago database to estimate energy savings and decarbonization in Illinois and the USA. All estimates of energy savings and CO2 reduction are small but measurable and are likely to increase in the near future because population growth will continue and fossil fuel use will remain the main source of energy. Subjects of this study were cognizant of the minor impact of their effort, yet 44 percent of them implemented the recommended strategy for protecting the environment. The method motivates individuals by granting them knowledge that motivates them to act and emotional satisfaction for becoming active players in reducing unnecessary energy consumption and positively affecting global conditions.
The purpose of this study is establishment of reducing contaminant concentrations upon the construction of new diagnosis and treatment facilities of Chemical Sensitivity. In this paper we describe the results of a full-scale model experiment, which was conducted in a model room constructed at the Shinryo Corporation Research & Development Center before the construction of diagnosis and treatment facilities. Firstly we proposed new construction materials selected and/or developed for the present facilities. Secondly we designed and proposed a new HVAC system adapted for them. These facilities are equipped with special activated carbon (SAC) filter, a special outgas-free air handling unit/blower, degreasing of metallic components, no-binder HEPA filter and inorganic joint sealant. In addition both new chemical concentration monitoring and control system were developed for the new facilities. Finally cleanliness assessment of the model room was conducted by using Non-Methane Hydro Carbons (NMHC), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM). It was indicated that concentration levels of all three subject materials were extremely low in a model room and the present proposals were usable for the construction of new diagnosis and treatment facilities of Chemical Sensitivity.
The objective of this study was to determine the water loss in soft tennis players due to prolonged training in a hot environment. Water turnover (WT) was measured from the elimination rates of deuterium oxide in 8 female collegiate soft tennis players (tennis group; TG) and 6 sedentary age-matched individuals (sedentary group; SG). The TG completed, on average, 4 h of training per day during 7 days of WT measurement. The mean ambient temperature during training averaged 31.3°C. The WT of the SG was measured during a 14-day-period when they did not exercise regularly. Mean (standard deviation) of WT in the TG was 5.1 (0.7)L per day, which was almost two times faster than that in the SG [2.5 (0.7)L/day]. Even when expressed relative to body mass or as a percentage of total body water (TBW), WT was still nearly two times faster in the TG [99.2 (15.2)mL/kg and 16.0 (2.0) %TBW] than in the SG [46.9 (14.9)mL/kg and 8.7 (3.0) %TBW]. WT values in the TG were among the highest reported ever. These results suggest that the water demand of soft tennis players during extensive summer training is tremendous, and optimal strategies to maintain hydration are required.